• Title/Summary/Keyword: 천연안료

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Experimental study on Light and Gas Pollution Resistance of Commercial Natural Pigments for Dancheong - Focucing on Korea, Japan and China Products - (시판 단청용 천연안료의 내광성·내공해성 실험 연구 -한국, 일본, 중국 생산 안료를 중심으로-)

  • Lee, Kyeong Min;Kim, Soon Kwan;Bae, Su Bin;Kim, Mi Jeong
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.443-455
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    • 2015
  • To verifying the stability of Natural pigments for Dancheong which is available on the market was carried out as light resistance and gas corrosion test. In this particular case, we will confirm the characteristics of the only pigments except of Dancheong technique and influence of substance. Medium using for coloring are animal glue and synthetic resin that widely used for Dancheong in currently. Selected to artificial light source is a xenon arc lamp, contaminated gas is nitrogen dioxide gas in experiment. Degree of degradation of pigment were compared by measuring the degree of color change. The result of light resistance test, mineral pigments were good; color is green and blue type, soil pigments also good; color is yellow ocher, white clay, red clay etc. Gamboge, unghwang, cinnabar, red lead were confirmed not good. The result of gas corrosion test, most of the natural pigments were good condition except the red lead. Generally, animal glue samples had better than a synthetic resin samples.

Effect of Physiochemical Properties of Seokganju on Functionality and Light Fastness (석간주의 이화학적 특성이 기능성 및 내광성에 미치는 영향 연구)

  • Park, Ju Hyun;Jeong, Hye Yeong;Mun, Seong Woo;Woo, In Suk
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.485-495
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the functionality and lightfastness of the natural pigments according to the type of Seokganju used as Dancheong. The commercially available red iron-oxide-based natural pigments that are called Seokganju and Daija manufactured by traditional methods in Korea and Japan were selected. The analysis of the constituent minerals and constituents of 8 kinds of collected Seokganju showed that most of them contained hematite. There are two types of Seokganju according to the $Fe_2O_3$ contents. The type of Seokganju can be characterized not only using the main component but also from the burn-out processing. The chromaticity results for Seokganju with a high $Fe_2O_3$ concentration indicate dark red or grayish brown, while those for Seokganju with a low $Fe_2O_3$ concentration indicate yellowish red or yellowish brown. Samples were prepared by mixing with a glue solution and functional properties were evaluated based on the opacity and spreadability. Coated samples were used in the lightfastness test. The spreadability and opacity of the pigments were measured differently depending on the main component. Most Seokganju samples a showed slight color change until $9,000kJ/m^2$ but rapid color changes were detected after $18,000kJ/m^2$. In particular, burnt Seokganju showed superior lightfastness.

Properties of Hanji with natural pigment dyeing for use as a fashion material (천연 황색안료 염색한지의 패션소재 적용 가능성 평가에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Kihoon;Lim, Hyuna
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.339-345
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    • 2014
  • This study analyzes and compares Hanji made with loess to Hanji made with kaolin, two yellow-based inorganic pigments, in terms of its physical properties, optical properties, and color fastness to light with the aim of using it as a fashion material. Hanji made by adding inorganic pigments showed an approximately 20% retention ratio on average. This figure was similar to those of loess and kaolin. Physical properties were analyzed, with the following results. A higher amount of additives lowered the apparent density and increased thickness and bulk. In general, inorganic pigment-added Hanji had lower tensile strength, bursting strength, and folding endurance compared to non-additive Hanji. The analysis of optical properties showed a lower brightness index for Hanji made with inorganic pigments compared to non-additive Hanji. When comparing the two inorganic pigments, the brightness of Hanji made with kaolin was higher. Regarding color fastness to light, loess showed level 4 and kaolin showed level 5 when 25% inorganic pigments on pulp were added to Hanji. Thus, Hanji made by adding inorganic pigments during the manufacturing process may perform well as materials for fashion because the additives enhanced both the color fastness to light and the bulk while maintaining the strength. In addition, Hanji dyed with inorganic pigments may have the potential to serve as materials for the fashion industry while still retaining the characteristics of Hanji.

Mineral Compositions of Korean Dancheong Pigment Products using Quantitative XRD (정량 X-선 회절분석을 이용한 국내시판 단청안료의 광물조성 연구)

  • Moon, Dong Hyeok;Han, Min Su;Jeong, Hye Young;Go, In Hee;Cho, Hyen Goo
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.403-416
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    • 2016
  • Mineral composition and content of 22 Korean Dancheong pigment products were obtained by Rietveld quantitative analysis. Jubosa, Hwang, Seokrok, Seokcheong and Hobun consist of pure cinnabar, orpiment, malachite, azurite and calcite (or aragonite), respectively. Whereas Seokganju, Hwangto, Noerok, Lapis lazuli, Baekto and Cockie hobun mainly consist of hematite, goethite, celadonite, lazurite, kaolin mineral and portlandite, respectively. And they all consist of soil minerals (quartz, feldspar, sericite and vermiculite) and filler minerals in the industry field (calcite, gypsum and anhydrite) at a different content. Quantitative XRD proved more useful method to determined exact mineral composition and content than chemical or microscopical data. If this method utilize for specification of natural pigment product, it is considered to be applicable in restoration technology and conservation science field.

The Characteristics of Particle Size in Natural Mineral Pigment for Azurite Raw Material (남동광석(Azurite) 원료 천연 광물 안료의 입도분포 특징)

  • Go, In Hee;Jeong, Hye Young;Park, Ju Hyeon;Jeong, Sir Lin;Jo, A Hyeon
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.331-339
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    • 2015
  • This study were conducted the particle-size analysis on 57 blue pigments to understand the step distribution characteristics of blue pigments made out of Azurite by using Malvern's Mastersizer 2000. As the result, most of the conventional blue pigments in Korea, Japan, and Chinese showed good granularity step separation except for few, and the smaller the particle, the more the Span value increased and the wider the granularity distribution range. On the basis of Friedman and Sanders's Grain size, most of the pigments were sand size to silt size. 72.2% of B-100 was clay size and 2.5% of A-14 was gravel size. Even the same components can differ by the grain size directly affecting the important property such as color formation, oil absorption, specific gravity, usability, etc. so the information about the granularity distribution would be used for basic data to deal with natural pigments.

A Study on the Physical Properties of Seokrok and Noerok Used as Green Pigment (녹색안료로 사용되는 석록과 뇌록의 물리적 특성 연구)

  • Park, Ju Hyun;Jeong, Hye Young;Go, In Hee;Jeong, Sir Lin;Jo, A Hyeon
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.429-441
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study is to analyse the properties of Seokrok and Noerok that are used for restoration of heritage and arts. Malachite is main constituent mineral for Seokrok and Celadonite is Main component of Noerok. To evaluate the physical properties of pigment, A,B-class Seokrok and heated Seokrok that are sold in market were selected. To compare this results, Noerok sold in Japan were studied. In addition, we studied the pigments of Noerok. The heat treatment had no significant effect on the physical properties, except for the color-difference. The color-difference of Seokrok is larger than that of the Noerok sold in Japan. The $a^*$ values of Seokrok specimens are horizontal distribution, so it will expand the coloring ranges. The properties that are chromaticity, specific gravity and oil-absorption of Noerok are different from Seokrok. Noerok is suggested that achromatic color because the values of $a^*$ located near zero. Specific gravity of Noerok is smaller than Seokrok, but oil-absorption is larger twice. Noerok and Amnok, although ingredients are different, it is possible to use alternative because of similar physical characteristics. The result from this study expects to be used as useful referencing data for conservation and restoration of cultural heritage and understanding phenomena of the properties.

The Effect of PMMA in the Color Tone of Color Cosmetics (색조 화장품의 색상에 있어서 Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)의 효과)

  • Lee, Young-A;Kim, Ju-Seub
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.141-148
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    • 2006
  • This study is intended to analyze the impact of PMMA on color changes comparatively by making 2 types of cheek color items with red-color pigments: one containing PMMA, which is one of the recently developed circular polymers and used when producing color make-up items that have aero powder as the chief ingredient, and the other without it. To accomplish the purpose, we have reviewed literature on raw materials that have aero powder as the chief ingredient. Also, after making compounds of PMMA and pigments lot aero powder, such as Talc, Mica, OMC Talc As, Mica As, we examined them compared to those without PMMA using spectrophotometer, a questionnaire survey, and Digital camera. Besides, the particles were analyzed using SEM. As a result of the analysis, cosmetics containing PMMA represent more vivid and rich colors, putting on one's face softly. Since the entire specific surface area of PMMA is large enough to absorb oil evenly, it yields vivid and rich colors. But, Mica, one of natural pigments, shows a result as opposed to that of Mica As, one of silicon-compounded pigments, suggesting that pearl effect may possibly causes defused reflection. Based on these findings, it is expected that cosmetics will have more vivid colors, or improved color presentation, as well as the softer sense of touch when a circular polymer of PMMa is added to the manufacturing process of color make-up items.

A Study on Mineralogical Characteristic and Accelerated Weather Test of Red and Yellow Color Natural Inorganic Pigments (적색 및 황색 계열의 천연 무기안료의 광물학적 특성 및 촉진내후성 평가 연구)

  • Park, Ju Hyun;Jeong, Hye Yeong
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.259-271
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    • 2019
  • We evaluated mineralogical, physical property and accelerated weather resistance of cinnabar, realgar and orpiment used as cultural heritages and traditional paintings. JB and JS are sample names of cinnabar and JH and UH are sample names of orpiment and Realgar, respectively. As a result of mineralogical property evaluation, Jinsa was identified cinnabar (HgS) and there was no difference in chemical composition according to the grade. UH and JH were confirmed realgar (AsS) and orpiment (As2S3), respectively. The polarization characteristics such as shape and color indicate that pigments using our test were natural mineral pigment observed by polarization microscope. Especially, in the case of cinnabar, it is not easy to distinguish between natural mineral pigment and synthetic pigment. But the results of polarization microscope said that cinnabar is natural occurring mineral which have authentic mineral particle and unevenly fracture. As a result of thermal analysis, JH has a higher glass transition temperature and heat stability than UH. After accelerated weather test, cinnabar, realgar and orpiment were striking result in color change because of light degradation. Red color of cinnabar turn into black and the color of realgar and orpiment became brighter than before. JB (meta-cinnabar) is more photosensitivity and faster becoming dark than JB (cinnabar). Finally light transforms realgar (red, As4S4) in arsenolite (As2O3).

Review of Copper Trihydroxychloride, a Green Pigment Composed of Copper and Chlorine (구리와 염소 주성분 녹색 안료 코퍼 트리하이드록시클로라이드(Copper Trihydroxychloride)에 대한 고찰)

  • Oh, Joonsuk;Lee, Saerom;Hwang, Minyoung
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.64-87
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    • 2020
  • Copper trihydroxychloride (atacamite, botallackite, paratacamite, etc.), the first green pigment used in Mogao Grotto's mural paintings of China, has been known as "copper green", "green salt", and "salt green", etc. and has been used as an important green pigment with malachite. At first, the natural mineral atacamite was employed, but after the Five Dynasties (907~960 CE), synthetic copper trihydroxychloride was primarily used. In Chinese literature, copper green, green salt, and salt green are recorded as being made via reaction with copper powder, Gwangmyeongyeom (natural sodium chloride), and Yosa (natural ammonium chloride), and the prepared material was analyzed to be copper trihydroxychloride. Copper trihydroxychloride pigment was not found in paintings prior to the Joseon Dynasty (1392~1910 CE) in Korea. In analysis of the green pigments used in paintings and the architectural paintworks in the Joseon Dynasty, copper trihydroxychloride was also shown to have been used as an important green pigment with malachite (Seokrok). In particular, the proportion of copper trihydroxychloride use was high in Buddhist paintings, shamanic paintings, and dancheongs (decorative coloring on wooden buildings). Some of these turned out to be synthetic copper trihydroxychloride, but it is unclear whether the rest of them are synthetic or natural pigments due to a lack of analyzed data. From literature and painting analyses, the pigment name of copper trihydroxychloride in the Joseon Dynasty turns out to be Hayeob, a dark green pigment. It is believed to have first been prepared by learning from China in the early Joseon period (early 15th century) and its use continued until the late 19th century with imported Chinese pigment. Round or oval particles with a dark core of copper trihydroxychloride which were used in Chinese literature were similar to the synthetic copper trihydroxychloride pigments used in the Joseon Dynasty and Chinese paintings. Therefore, the synthetic copper trihydroxychloride pigments of Korea and China are believed to have been prepared in a similar way.