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Perinatal Factors Affecting Thyroid Stimulating Hormone(TSH) and Thyroid Hormone Levels in Cord Blood (제대혈 갑상선 자극호르몬과 갑상선 호르몬 농도에 영향을 주는 주산기 인자들)

  • Kim, Eun Young;Park, Sang Kee;Song, Chang Hun;LIm, Sung-Chul
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.143-147
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : The aim of the this study was to evaluate the effect of various perinatal conditions on TSH and thyroid hormone levels in cord blood. Methods : Cord blood samples were collected from 130 neonates immediately after birth. TSH, $T_3$, and free $T_4$ levels were measured by the radioimmunoassay(RIA) method. The effects of gestational age, sex, birth weight, delivery method, perinatal asphyxia, maternal diabetes mellitus(DM), and preeclampsia on TSH and thyroid hormone levels were assessed by ANOVA test, Student t-test, and multiple regression analysis. Results : Birth weight and sex did not affect TSH and thyroid hormone levels. TSH level increased according to gestational age(P<0.05). TSH level was $4.42{\pm}0.66{\mu}IU/mL$ in infants born vaginally, which was higher than that of cesarian section delivery($3.31{\pm}0.33{\mu}IU/mL$)(P<0.05). TSH level was $5.18{\pm}0.93{\mu}IU/mL$ in asphyxiated newborns and $2.97{\pm}0.84{\mu}IU/mL$ in non-asphyxiated newborns(P<0.05). TSH level in infants with maternal DM($8.911{\pm}1.25{\mu}IU/mL$) was higher than that of infants without maternal DM($4.32{\pm}0.42{\mu}IU/mL$)(P<0.05). TSH level was $5.28{\pm}0.42{\mu}IU/mL$ in infants with maternal preeclampsia and $3.65{\pm}0.46{\mu}IU/mL$ in infants without maternal preeclampsia(P<0.05). Thyroid hormones were lower in infants with perinatal asphyxia(P<0.05). In asphyxiated infants, $T_3$ level was $75.33{\pm}55.65ng/mL$ and free $T_4$ was $0.54{\pm}0.21ng/mL$. $T_3$ and free $T_4$ level was $109.85{\pm}41.77ng/mL$ and $0.76{\pm}0.22ng/mL$ each in infants without perinatal asphyxia. Among the perinatal factors, gestational age, 1 min Apgar score and maternal DM influenced TSH level independently. Conclusion : In our study, cord blood TSH and thyroid hormone levels were affected by perinatal stress events.

Clinical and Epidemiologic Study of Kawasaki Disease in Children 8 Years of Age and Older (8세 이상 소아에서의 가와사끼병의 임상 역학적 연구)

  • Park, Yong Won;Han, Ji Whan;Park, In Sook;Kim, Chang Hwi;Cha, Sung Ho;Ma, Jae Sook;Kwon, Tae Chan;Lee, Sang Bum;Kim, Chul Ho;Lee, Heung Jae;Yun, Yong Soo
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.10
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    • pp.1139-1142
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic and clinical profiles of Kawasaki disease(KD) in children 8 years of age and older. Methods : For the epidemiologic study of KD in Korea, data of total 15,692 KD patients were collected from 1994 to 2002 on a 3 year basis, by the retrospective survey. Among them, data of 211 KD patients 8 years of age and older were analyzed and compared with those of the KD patients less than 8 years of age. Results : 211 patients 8 years of age and older(1.3% of total KD patients) with the mean age of 9.8 years, included 142 cases aged 8-10 years, 42 cases aged 10-12 years, and 27 cases aged 12 years and older. The male-to-female ratio was 1.9 : 1, the recurrence rate was 3.8%, and the prevalence of cases in sibling was zero. Coronary arterial(CA) abnormalities were detected by echocardiography in 25.4% of the cases, including 7.6% of CA aneurysm cases. There was 1 case complicated by myocardial infarction. Conclusion : Comparing with the data of the KD patients less than 8 years of age, data of 211 patients 8 years of age and older showed significantly higher incidences of CA abnormalities(25.4% : 19.8%) and CA aneurysms(7.6% : 4.0%).

Statistical Analysis of 1,000 Cases of Kawasaki Disease Patients Diagnosed at a Single Institute (단일 기관에서 진단받은 가와사끼병 환아 1,000례의 통계학적 분석)

  • Hwang, Dae Hwan;Sin, Kyoung Mi;Choi, Kyong Min;Choi, Jae Young;Sul, Jun Hee;Kim, Dong Soo
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.416-424
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : To find the risk factors associated with coronory artery lesions, non-responsiveness to intravenous immunoglobulin(IVIG) treatment, and recurrences in Kawasaki disease patients. Methods : We retrospectively analyzed 1,000 Kawasaki disease patients who were admitted to Yonsei University Medical Center from September 1990 to December 2003. We compared between responder and non-responder groups to IVIG treatment as well as between relapsed and non-relapsed groups, and as to the relapsed group, we also compared variables between patients in their first and second attack states. Finally, factors associated with longer-fever duration from disease onset were evaluated. Results : Longer fever durations before and after IVIG treatment, male sex, lower Hgb and Hct level, higher WBC count and segmented WBC proportion, and higher CRP and Harada's score were related with coronary artery lesions. Non-responsiveness was related to higher WBC count, segmented WBC proportion, CRP, SGPT, Harada's score, and pyuria. Moderate-to-severe coronary artery dilatations and recurrences were more commonly seen among the non-responder group. No significant predictive factors for recurrence were found. In the relapsed group, lower WBC count, CRP, and shorter fever duration from disease onset were observed in their second attack state. Fever duration from disease onset showed positive correlation with WBC count, CRP, and Harada's score and negative correlation with Hgb levels. Conclusion : Higher WBC count, CRP, and higher Harada's score were related to both higher incidences of coronary artery lesions and non-responsiveness to IVIG treatment, and these factors were also related with longer fever duration. Non-responders to IVIG treatment showed higher recurrence rate and more moderate-to-severe coronary artery dilatations than responders.

Factors Affecting Final Adult Height in Patients with Turner Syndrome (터너증후군 환자에서 최종 성인키에 영향을 미치는 인자들에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Jae Hyun;Lee, Sung Soo;Hong, Su Young;Chung, Hye Rim;Shin, Choong Ho;Yang, Sei Won
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.191-196
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : Short stature is one of the characteristic features of Turner syndrome. We investigated the factors affecting final adult height(FAH) in patients with Turner syndrome. Methods : The study group was comprised of 60 patients who were diagnosed with Turner syndrome by chromosomal study and clinical phenotypes and attained FAH. Data were obtained from retrospective review of the medical records. We analyzed the factors influencing FAH in growth hormone(GH) treated and GH untreated groups. Results : Sixty patients were enrolled; 48 patients received GH treatment, and 12 patients did not. Mean duration of GH treatment was 35.8 months(range 4 to 120 months), and mean dosage of GH was $0.8{\pm}0.2IU/kg/wk$ in GH treated group. Mean growth velocity was $5.6{\pm}2.0cm/yr$, which was significantly higher than that during pretreatment period. In the GH treated group, mean chronological age, bone age, mean height, and height standard deviation(SD) score at GH treatment were $12.2{\pm}2.7yr$ $10.3{\pm}2.5yr$ $127.5{\pm}10.1cm$ and $-3.1{\pm}1.1$, respectively. In the GH treated group, the mean FAH and SD score of FAH were $146.9{\pm}5.8cm$ and $-2.7{\pm}1.2$, respectively, which showed significant differences compared with those of the GH untreated group. Analyzing the factors affecting FAH in GH-treated patients, only the SD score of height at the time of treatment was significantly related to FAH. Conclusion : GH treatment leads to an increment in FAH in patients with Turner syndrome. Average FAH gain was as much as 5.8 cm. SD score of height at the time of GH treatment was the only factor influencing FAH.

The Effectiveness of Intravenous Immunoglobulin for Clinically Suspected Neonatal Sepsis (임상적으로 의심되는 신생아 패혈증에서 정맥용 면역 글로불린의 치료 효과)

  • Na, Hyun Jung;Kim, Ji Young;Lee, Gyeong Hoon;Lee, Jun Hwa;Choi, Eun Jin;Kim, Jin Kyung;Chung, Hai Lee;Kim, Woo Taek
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.11
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    • pp.1187-1192
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of intravenous immunoglobuin (IVIG) administration in fullterm neonates having clinically suspected neonatal sepsis. Methods : Forty full-term neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit with clinically suspected neonatal sepsis, who had at least two positive diagnostic criteria were enrolled. Twenty neonates were enrolled into the IVIG arm and 20 in the placebo arm. Neonates with a gestational age of less than 36 weeks and those with any major congenital malformation were excluded. The neonates were randomized to receive 1 g/kg of IVIG or equivalent amount of normal saline. The treatments including antibiotics and supportive care were administered. Results : The neonates in the therapy and placebo groups were comparable in terms of birth weight, gestational age, sex distribution, duration of antibiotics therapy and admission, elevation of serum IgG level, mortality rate, change of CBC, and serum level of acute phase reactants etc. Conclusion : Serum IgG values increased significantly 5 days after administration of IVIG in the IVIG-treated group and decreased significantly 5 days after administration of normal saline in the placebo group. However, there was no significant difference in the duration of antibiotics therapy and admission, or of mortality between the IVIG-treated and placebo groups. No adverse reactions to the IVIG infusions were noted during the study. Our preliminary observations suggest that the administration of 1 g/kg IVIG to neonates had some effect on augmentation of humural immune status in neonates with clinically suspected sepsis. But further study is needed to verify the benefit of IVIG infusion to neonatal sepsis.

Comparison of Epileptic Seizures between Preterm and Term-born Epileptic Children with Periventricular Leukomalacia (뇌실 주위 백질연화증이 있는 간질 환아에서 조산 및 만삭 출산군 간의 간질 발작 유형의 비교)

  • Jeong, Hee Jeong;Lee, Eun Sil;Moon, Han Ku
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.11
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    • pp.1225-1231
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : This study compares the first epileptic seizures between preterm and term-born children with periventricular leukomalacia and epilepsy. Methods : From 108 cases having lesions of high signal intensity around the ventricles in T2 weighted imaging of a brain magnetic resonance study, we selected 37 cases that showed epileptic seizures two times or more and divided them into the group of preterm-born(27 cases) and term-born children(10 cases). A retrospective study was made by comparing the two groups with regard to age, type of the first epileptic seizures, EEG findings and responsiveness to anticonvulsants. Results : The age of the first epileptic seizure was $22.2{\pm}18.3$ months in the preterm-born group and $26.9{\pm}21.1$ months in the term-born group(P=0.505). As for the first epileptic seizure, 11 out of the 27 cases in the preterm-born group had infantile spasms. Out of the 10 cases in the term-born group, 7 had complex partial seizures. In the preterm group, hypsarrhythmias were found in 11 cases, focal epileptiform discharges in 6 cases. In term-born group, focal epileptiform discharges were found in 5 cases but no epileptiform discharge was found in 3 cases. Intractable epilepsies were diagnosed in 6 cases and all of them belonged to the preterm-born group. Conclusion : More severe epilepsies such as infantile spasm and intractable epilepsies seem to be more common in preterm-born epileptic children with PVL as well as more severely abnormal EEG finding compared to term-born epileptic children.

A Study of Antibody Conversion Rate During a Mycoplasma pneumoniae Epidemic Period(the Second Half of 2003) (Mycoplasma pneumoniae 유행 시기(2003년 하반기)의 항체 양전율에 대한 조사)

  • Kim, Do Kyun;Yu, Jinho;Yoo, Young;Koh, Young Yull
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.500-505
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection during an epidemic period by means of examining the antibody conversion rate and to investigate the association of the antibody conversion with age, initial antibody titer, and atopy. Methods : We chose 191 children whose antibody titer to M. pneumoniae was negative, 1 : 40, or 1 : 80 during the first half of 2003. After the second half of 2003 when the M. pneumoniae epidemic occurred, follow-up collection of sera was performed during the first half of 2004. M. pneumoniae antibody titer was measured by Serodia-Myco II particle agglutination test. Results : Of 191 children, antibody conversion was detected in 83 children(43.5 percent). No significant difference was found between the conversion and non-conversion group with respect to age, sex and atopy. Dividing the subjects into four groups by age, results on the antibody conversion rate revealed no significant differences between the groups. Assessed by initial antibody titer, a diminished trend of conversion rate was observed in children with 1 : 80 titer but the difference was not significant. There was no significant difference in the antibody conversion rate between atopic and non-atopic children. Conclusion : Based on the antibody conversion rate in this study, the prevalence of M. pneumoniae infection during an epidemic period was estimated to be 43.5 percent. This high infection rate suggests that during an epidemic, we should bear in mind M. pneumoniae as an important etiologic agent for respiratory infection in children.

The Efficacy of Nebulized 3 Percent Hypertonic Saline Solution and Fenoterol in Infants with Bronchiolitis (영아 세기관지염에서 3% 고장성 식염액과 Fenoterol 병용흡입 치료의 효과)

  • Park, Joon Young;Jeong, Young Mi;Jeong, Soo Jin;Seo, Son Sang
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.518-522
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : To evaluate the effect of inhaled hypertonic saline solution in hospitalized infants with bronchiolitis. Methods : A randomized double blind trial was performed from October 2003 to May 2004. A total of eighty patients <1 year of age with a clinical diagnosis of acute viral bronchiolitis were enrolled and assigned to receive either of the following : inhalation of 2 mL(0.5 mg) fenoterol added to 2 mL of 0.9 percent saline solution(group 1; n=40) or 2 mL(0.5 mg) fenoterol added to 2 mL of 3 percent saline solution(group 2; n=40). This therapy was repeated at six hours interval after admission. They were evaluated daily just before and 20 minutes after nebulization. The outcome measures included changes in clinical severity score(based on respiratory rate, presence of wheezing, retraction, and general condition) after nebulization and duration of hospitalization. Results : In the clinical severity score, a significant improvement was observed during the 72 hours of hospitalization in both groups(P<0.05). The basic clinical severity scores before inhalation were decreased significantly faster in group 2 as compared to group 1 on each day of treatment(P<0.05). The mean duration of hospital stay was significantly reduced in group 2 than group 1($5.9{\pm}1.9days$ versus $7.4{\pm}2.0days$, P<0.05). No adverse effects were associated with inhaled therapy. Conclusion : These results suggest that a nebulized 3 percent saline solution plus 0.5 mg fenoterol may be more effective than a 0.9 percent saline solution plus 0.5 mg fenoterol in accelerating the clinical recovery of infants with viral bronchiolitis.

Clinical Outcome and Prognostic Factors of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Children (소아 급성 호흡곤란 증후군의 치료 성적 및 예후 인자)

  • Ko, Jung-Min;Ha, Eun-Ju;Lee, Eun-Hee;Lee, So-Youn;Kim, Hyo-Bin;Hong, Soo-Jong;Park, Seong-Jong
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.599-605
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study was to examine the causes, clinical courses and outcomes in children with acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS), and evaluate the physiologic variables as prognostic factors in the patients. Methods : Retrograde medical chart review was carried out in 24 patients who were diagnosed with ARDS at the pediatric intensive care unit(PICU) during 20-month period. Results : The incidence of ARDS among all PICU admission was 3.7 percent and the mortality rate was 37.5 percent, which was 14.8 percent of overall deaths in PICU. The most common causes of ARDS were pneumonia and sepsis. We found significant differences between survivors and nonsurvivors in $PaO_2/FiO_2$ ratio(P/F ratio), alveolar arterial oxygen gradient and oxygenation index(OI) on the second day from the onset of ARDS. Therapies for ARDS such as high frequency oscillator ventilation(HFOV), recruitment maneuver and low dose corticosteroid improved the P/F ratio and OI, especially in survivors. Conclusion : The mortality rate of children with ARDS was 37.5 percent; an important cause of death in PICU. HFOV, recruitment maneuver and low dose corticosteroid seemed to be effective in pediatric ARDS. The P/F ratio, alveolar arterial oxygen gradient and OI on the second day from the onset of ARDS may be useful as prognostic factors.

Medicolegal Problems in Pediatric Area (소아과 영역에서 의료분쟁)

  • Kwon, Soo Jeong;Jang, Ji Young;Kim, Nam Su;Yum, Myung Kul;Seol, In Joon;Jung, Ku Won
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.8
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    • pp.813-819
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : Medicolegal problems start when the patient asserts the mistake of doctor and doctor does not accept it. The purpose of this study is to assess the actual condition of medicolegal problems and to provide solutions of medicolegal problems in the pediatric field. Methods : There is not official statistical data about medicolegal problems in our country. We gathered data of legal insurance program of Korean Medical Association(KMA) and court cases and other fragmentary data. Results : Between 1981 and 1995, of total 2,338 cases reported to legal problem insurance program of KMA, most common ones were 748 cases of obstetrics and gynecology. Pediatric case was ranked at the 5th, 74 cases(3.1%). According to analysis of 41 medicolegal cases' after 1990, maltreatment of patient had the highest incidence of 14 cases, injection and medication were related to 12 cases, misdiagnosis was 9 cases, patient management were related to 4 cases, and others were 2 cases. The trial result of the medicolegal cases was that 31 cases were compensated, and 8 cases were defeated, and 2 cases were still in the process. Conclusion : The aspect of medical legal problem has the tendency of radicalism and systematization. This brings an economic destitution in the patient and gives damage to a doctor. In order to reduce medicolegal problem, doctor should offer a duty of explanation and efforts to his best to satisfy patient and endeavor to make an intimate doctor-patient relationship.