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Selection of Reference Equations for Lung Volumes and Diffusing Capacity in Korea (우리나라 성인 폐용적 및 폐확산능 정상예측식의 선정)

  • Song, Eun Hee;Oh, Yeon Mok;Hong, Sang Bum;Shim, Tae Sun;Lim, Chae Man;Lee, Sang Do;Koh, Youn Suck;Kim, Woo Sung;Kim, Dong Soon;Kim, Won Dong;Kim, Tae Hyung
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.61 no.3
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    • pp.218-226
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    • 2006
  • Background: The lung volume and diffusing capacity are influenced by ethnicity. However, there are no equations for predicting the normal lung volume in the adult Korean population, and there is only one equation for diffusing capacity. The aim of this study is to select the most suitable reference equation for the Korean population. Method: 30 men and 33 women at Hanyang University Guri Hospital, and 27 men and 34 women at Asan Medical Center in healthy nonsmoking adults were enrolled in this study. The subject's age, gender, height, weight, lung volume by plethysmography, and diffusing capacity by a single breathing method were obtained. The most suitable equation with the lowest sum of residuals between the observed and predicted values for lung volume and diffusing capacity was selected. Result: At Hanyang University Guri Hospital, the equations with the lowest sum of residuals in the total lung capacity were ECSC's equation in males (sum of residual: 0.04 L) and Crapo/Morris's equation (-1.04) in women. At the Asan Medical Center, the equations with the lowest sum of residuals in the total lung capacity were Goldman/Becklake's equation in males (sum of residual: -2.35) and the ECSC's equation -4.49) in women. The equations with the lowest sum of residuals in the Diffusing capacity were Roca's equation in males (sum of residual: -13.66 ml/min/mmHg) and Park's in women (25.08) in Hanyang University Guri hospital and Park's equation in all cases in the Asan Medical Center (male: -1.65, female: -6.46). Conclusions: Until a reference equstion can be made for healthy Koreans by sampling, ECSC's equation can be used for estimating the lung volume and Park's can be used for estimating the diffusing capacity.

Daily Setup Uncertainties and Organ Motion Based on the Tomoimages in Prostatic Radiotherapy (전립선암 치료 시 Tomoimage에 기초한 Setup 오차에 관한 고찰)

  • Cho, Jeong-Hee;Lee, Sang-Kyu;Kim, Sei-Joon;Na, Soo-Kyung
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.99-106
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: The patient's position and anatomy during the treatment course little bit varies to some extend due to setup uncertainties and organ motions. These factors could affected to not only the dose coverage of the gross tumor but over dosage of normal tissue. Setup uncertainties and organ motions can be minimized by precise patient positioning and rigid immobilization device but some anatomical site such as prostate, the internal organ motion due to physiological processes are challenge. In planning procedure, the clinical target volume is a little bit enlarged to create a planning target volume that accounts for setup uncertainties and organ motion as well. These uncertainties lead to differences between the calculated dose by treatment planning system and the actually delivered dose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences of interfractional displacement of organ and GTV based on the tomoimages. Materials and Methods: Over the course of 3 months, 3 patients, those who has applied rectal balloon, treated for prostatic cancer patient's tomoimage were studied. During the treatment sessions 26 tomoimages per patient, Total 76 tomoimages were collected. Tomoimage had been taken everyday after initial setup with lead marker attached on the patient's skin center to comparing with C-T simulation images. Tomoimage was taken after rectal balloon inflated with 60 cc of air for prostate gland immobilization for daily treatment just before treatment and it was used routinely in each case. The intrarectal balloon was inserted to a depth of 6 cm from the anal verge. MVCT image was taken with 5 mm slice thickness after the intrarectal balloon in place and inflated. For this study, lead balls are used to guide the registration between the MVCT and CT simulation images. There are three image fusion methods in the tomotherapy, bone technique, bone/tissue technique, and full image technique. We used all this 3 methods to analysis the setup errors. Initially, image fusions were based on the visual alignment of lead ball, CT anatomy and CT simulation contours and then the radiation therapist registered the MVCT images with the CT simulation images based on the bone based, rectal balloon based and GTV based respectively and registered image was compared with each others. The average and standard deviation of each X, Y, Z and rotation from the initial planning center was calculated for each patient. The image fusions were based on the visual alignment of lead ball, CT anatomy and CT simulation contours. Results: There was a significant difference in the mean variations of the rectal balloon among the methods. Statistical results based on the bone fusion shows that maximum x-direction shift was 8 mm and 4.2 mm to the y-direction. It was statistically significant (P=<0.0001) in balloon based fusion, maximum X and Y shift was 6 mm, 16mm respectively. One patient's result was more than 16 mm shift and that was derived from the rectal expansions due to the bowl gas and stool. GTV based fusion results ranging from 2.7 to 6.6 mm to the x-direction and 4.3$\sim$7.8 mm to the y-direction respectively. We have checked rotational error in this study but there are no significant differences among fusion methods and the result was 0.37$\pm$0.36 in bone based fusion and 0.34$\pm$0.38 in GTV based fusion.

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Dosimetric Effect on Selectable Optimization Parameters of Volumatric Modulated Arc Therapy (선택적 최적화 변수(Selectable Optimization Parameters)에 따른 부피적조절회전방사선치료(VMAT)의 선량학적 영향)

  • Jung, Jae-Yong;Shin, Yong-Joo;Sohn, Seung-Chang;Kim, Yeon-Rae;Min, Jung-Wan;Suh, Tae-Suk
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.15-25
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    • 2012
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate plan quality and dose accuracy for Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) on the TG-119 and is to investigate the effects on variation of the selectable optimization parameters of VMAT. VMAT treatment planning was implemented on a Varian iX linear accelerator with ARIA record and verify system (Varian Mecical System Palo Alto, CA) and Oncentra MasterPlan treatment planning system (Nucletron BV, Veenendaal, Netherlands). Plan quality and dosimetric accuracy were evaluated by effect of varying a number of arc, gantry spacing and delivery time for the test geometries provided in TG-119. Plan quality for the target and OAR was evaluated by the mean value and the standard deviation of the Dose Volume Histograms (DVHs). The ionization chamber and $Delta^{4PT}$ bi-planar diode array were used for the dose evaluation. For treatment planning evaluation, all structure sets closed to the goals in the case of single arc, except for the C-shape (hard), and all structure sets achieved the goals in the case of dual arc, except for C-shape (hard). For the variation of a number of arc, the simple structure such as a prostate did not have the difference between single arc and dual arc, whereas the complex structure such as a head and neck showed a superior result in the case of dual arc. The dose distribution with gantry spacing of $4^{\circ}$ was shown better plan quality than the gantry spacing of $6^{\circ}$, but was similar results compared with gantry spacing of $2^{\circ}$. For the verification of dose accuracy with single arc and dual arc, the mean value of a relative error between measured and calculated value were within 3% and 4% for point dose and confidence limit values, respectively. For the verification on dose accuracy with the gantry intervals of $2^{\circ}$, $4^{\circ}$ and $6^{\circ}$, the mean values of relative error were within 3% and 5% for point dose and confidence limit values, respectively. In the verification of dose distribution with $Delta^{4PT}$ bi-planar diode array, gamma passing rate was $98.72{\pm}1.52%$ and $98.3{\pm}1.5%$ for single arc and dual arc, respectively. The confidence limit values were within 4%. The smaller the gantry spacing, the more accuracy results were shown. In this study, we performed the VMAT QA based on TG-119 procedure, and demonstrated that all structure sets were satisfied with acceptance criteria. And also, the results for the selective optimization variables informed the importance of selection for the suitable variables according to the clinical cases.

Studies on the Physical Properties of Major Tree Barks Grown in Korea -Genus Pinus, Populus and Quercus- (한국산(韓國産) 주요(主要) 수종(樹種) 수피(樹皮)의 이학적(理學的) 성질(性質)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) -소나무속(屬), 사시나무속(屬), 참나무속(屬)을 중심(中心)으로-)

  • Lee, Hwa Hyoung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.33-58
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    • 1977
  • A bark comprises about 10 to 20 percents of a typical log by volume, and is generally considered as an unwanted residue rather than a potentially valuable resourses. As the world has been confronted with decreasing forest resources, natural resources pressure dictate that a bark should be a raw material instead of a waste. The utilization of the largely wasted bark of genus Pinus, Quercus, and Populus grown in Korea can be enhanced by learning its physical and mechanical properties. However, the study of tree bark grown in Korea have never been undertaken. In the present paper, an investigative study is carried out on the bark of three genus, eleven species representing not only the major bark trees but major species currently grown in Korea. For each species 20 trees were selected, at Suweon and Kwang-neung areas, on the same basis of the diameter class at the proper harvesting age. One $200cm^2$ segment of bark was obtained from each tree at brest height. Physical properties of bark studied are: bark density, moisture content of green bark (inner-, outer-, and total-bark), fiber saturation point, hysteresis loop, shrinkage, water absorption, specific heat, heat of wetting, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, heat of combustion, and differential thermal analysis. The mechanical properties are studied on bending and compression strength (radial, longitudinal, and tangential). The results may be summarized as follows: 1. The oven-dry specific gravities differ between wood and bark, further more even for a given bark sample, the difference is obersved between inner and outer bark. 2. The oven-dry specific gravity of bark is higher than that of wood. This fact is attributed to the anatomical structure whose characters are manifested by higher content of sieve fiber and sclereids. 3. Except Pinus koraiensis, the oven-dry specific gravity of inner bark is higher than that of outer bark, which results from higher shrinkage of inner bark. 4. The moisture content of bark increases with direct proportion to the composition ratio of sieve components and decreases with higher percent of sclerenchyma and periderm tissues. 5. The possibility of determining fiber saturation point is suggested by the measuring the heat of wetting. With the proposed method, the fiber saturation point of Pinus densiflora lies between 26 and 28%, that of Quercus accutissima ranges from 24 to 28%. These results need be further examined by other methods. 6. Contrary to the behavior of wood, the bark shrinkage is the highest in radial direction and the lowest in longitudinal direction. Quercus serrata and Q. variabilis do not fall in this category. 7. Bark shows the same specific heat as wood, but the heat of wetting of bark is higher than that of wood. In heat conductivity, bark is lower than wood. From the measures of oven-dry specific gravity (${\rho}d$) and moisture fraction specific gravity (${\rho}m$) is devised the following regression equation upon which heat conductivity can be calculated. The calculated heat conductivity of bark is between $0.8{\times}10^{-4}$ and $1.6{\times}10^{-4}cal/cm-sec-deg$. $$K=4.631+11.408{\rho}d+7.628{\rho}m$$ 8. The bark heat diffusivity varies from $8.03{\times}10^{-4}$ to $4.46{\times}10^{-4}cm^2/sec$. From differential thermal analysis, wood shows a higher thermogram than bark under ignition point, but the tendency is reversed above ignition point. 9. The modulus of rupture for static bending strength of bark is proportional to the density of bark which in turn gives the following regression equation. M=243.78X-12.02 The compressive strength of bark is the highest in radial direction, contrary to the behavior of wood, and the compressive strength of longitudinal direction follows the tangential one in decreasing order.

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