• Title/Summary/Keyword: 축력

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Study on the Strength of Limit Axial Force and Accumulated Limit Axial Force of Concrete Filled Square Tube Columns (콘크리트 충전 각형강관 기둥부재의 한계축력 및 누적한계축력에 관한 연구)

  • Seo, Seong Yeon;Jung, Jin Ahn;Kim, Sung Yong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.605-615
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    • 2005
  • Experimental and analytical work was conducted to investigate the relations of axial force and deformational capacity of concrete-filled square steel tube columns. The test series consisting of 36 columns were tested under the constant axial load and horizontal cyclic load. The axial force of the columns that resisted under the cyclic lateral load was defined as a certified strength of limit axial force. The analytical model was defined as a cantilever beam-column. The axial force of the beam-column that resisted under the cyclic lateral load was defined as an accumulated certified strength of limit axial force. The purpose of this study is to investigate the certified strength of limit axial force of concrete-filled steel tube beam-columns, which were subjected to both axial and lateral load condition corresponding to a given constant rotation angle. Another purpose of this study is to discuss the comparison of the certified strength of limit axial force of concrete and the accumulated certified strength of limit axial force of concrete-filled steel tube columns.

A Study on the Application of the Beam-Column Theory to Presume the Axial Force of the Continuous Welded Rail (장대 레일의 축력을 추정하기 위한 보-기둥 이론 적용에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Woo-Chul;Ryu, Hyo-Jin;Lim, Nam-Hyoung;Lee, Chin-Ok
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.159-168
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    • 2007
  • The problem of determination of axial force in continuous welded rail(CWR) has attracted a number of railroad engineers due to its practical importance in prevention of accidents related to buckling and pull apart. In this paper, we investigated the application of the beam-column theory to presume the axial force in CWR and proposed the development process of the prediction equation and model to presume the axial force in CWR.

Countermeasure against the Increse of Axial Force in Strut due to Thermal Load-A Case Study (온도하중에 의한 버팀보 축력증가 대책사례)

  • Kwon, Oh-Sung;Lee, Jong-Sung
    • 기술발표회
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    • pp.193-198
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    • 2006
  • 서울지하철 0호선 000 공구 000 정거장 구간은 버팀보 7단, 어스앵커 2단, 그리고 록볼트 3단의 개착식 가시설로 설계되어 있다. 버팀보 및 앵커 축력 계측을 위해 변형률계 및 하중계를 설치하고 연속계측 중, 4~6단 버팀보 수 개소에서 5월부터 하중이 급격히 증가하엿다. 따라서 굴착작업을 즉시 중단하고 관리기준치를 초과하는 하중이 계측된 STA.9k+750~800 구간의 5, 6단 버팀보 위치에 격간으로 총 20본(10본${\times}$2단), 그리고 STA.9k+900~920 구간의 7단 버팀보 위치에 격간으로 총 9본(9본${\times}$1단)의 버팀보를 추가적으로 설치 완료하였다. 이 때, 추가 버팀보는 선행하중잭을 이용하여 10ton의 선행하중을 재하하였으며, 향후 추가 보강 필요시 재하하중 증가가 가능하도록 조치하였다. 또한, 추가 설치된 버팀보, 그리고 이상하중이 발생된 버팀보에 계측기를 추가 설치하여 지속적으로 계측중이며, 띠장의 변위발생 구간은 스티프너 및 앵글 등을 응급조치하였다. 본 사례 연구에서는 보강 전.후의 계측결과 및 수치해석적 분석을 이용하여 가시설 굴착시 버팀보의 하중증가 원인 및 보강 효과를 규명하고, 향후 추가 굴착시의 안정성 여부를 검토해 보고자 하였다. 계측값 분석 결과, 추가버팀보 보강 후의 기존버팀보 축력 계측 결과 보강 직후 기존버팀보의 축력이 어느정도 감소하였으며, 이후 시간이 지남에 따라 축력이 더 이상 증가하지 않고 일정한 값에 수렴하는 경향을 보였다. 또한 수치해석 결과 온도 증가가 버팀보 축력증가에 미치는 영향은 버팀보 위치의 지반강성이 클수록 크며, 축력증가는 온도증가에 대체적으로 비례하였고, 추가버팀보의 보강 효과는 선행하중의 크기에 비례하는 것으로 나타났으며, 잔여굴착은 전반적으로 기존 버팀보의 축력 증가에 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 추가굴착시 지속적인 계측을 수행하며, 급격한 축력증가가 관찰될 경우 현재 보강된 버팀보의 선행하중 추가 재하, 굴착에 가장 큰 영향을 받는 최하단 버팀보의 추가보강 등의 대책방안을 제시하였다.

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Effects of Axial Force on Deformation Capacity of Steel Encased Reinforced Concrete Beam-Columns (매립형 SRC 기둥재의 변형성능에 대한 축력의 영향)

  • Chung, Jin-An;Yang, Il-Seung;Choi, Sung-Mo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.251-259
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    • 2003
  • In this paper, an analytical approach hwas been conductsed to clarify the relationships between the axial force and the deformation capacity of steel- encased reinforced- concrete beam-columns. The analytical model was defined as a cantilever. Several parameters influencing the inelastic performance of the beam-columns were selected, as follows: including encased steel area ratios, and sectional shapes of the encased steel, material strengths, and shear-span- to-depth ratios. The Analytical results of the analysis showed that the axial force had to have a maximum limit to ensure the stable behavior of a steel- encased reinforced- concrete beam-column when it was subjected to both axial and repeated lateral loading under a constant rotation angle amplitude. The maximum axial force of the beam-column to be resisted under cyclic lateral loading was defined as the stable-limit axial force to ensure the required rotation angle amplitude. The Analytical results of the analysis indicate that the stable-limit axial load ratio increases as the steel strength increases or as the compressive strength of the concrete decreases. The stable-limit axial load ratio decreases as the encased steel ' s sectional area increases in the case of a 1-shaped sections and it is almost not influenced by the steel sectional area in the case of a cross-shaped section.

Evaluation on Clamping force of High Strength Bolts By Temperature Parameter (온도변수에 따른 고력볼트 체결력 평가)

  • Nah, Hwan Seon;Lee, Hyeon Ju;Kim, Kang Seok;Kim, Jin Ho;Kim, Woo Bum
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.399-407
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    • 2008
  • The clamping of torque shear bolt is based on KS B 2819. It was misunderstood that the tension force of the TS bolt was induced generally at the break of pin-tail specified. However, the clamping forces on slip critical connections do not often meet the intended tension, as it considerably varies due to torque coefficient dependent on temperature variables despite the break of the pin tail. In this study, the tension of torque shear bolts were compared with two types of high-strength hexagon bolts by temperature parameters from ${-10^{\circ}C}$ to ${50^{\circ}C}$. Torque shear bolts showed that the average clamping force increased to 20kN as the temperature increased. In case of galvanized high-strength hexagon bolts, the average clamping forces at $0^{\circ}C$, $20^{\circ}C$, $50^{\circ}C$ were recorded over standard bolt tension, 178kN, and the worst standard deviation was 50kN. In case of high-strength hexagon bolts, ave rage clamping forces increased as the temperature went up, and the worst standard deviation was 33kN lower than that of galvanized high-strength hexagon bolts. As for the turn-of-the-nut method, at nut rotation of ${90^{\circ}}$, two types of high-strength hexagon bolts did not met the intended design bolt in tension, 162kN.it is neccessary to re-evaluate the range of turn of nut, ${120^{\circ}{\pm}30^{\circ}}$.

The behavior of excavation wall reinforced by Soil Nailing (쏘일 네일링을 이용한 굴착토류벽의 거동 분석)

  • Kim, Jong-Soo;Choi, Hyuck;Jeon, Jin-Gyu;Lee, Song
    • Journal of the Korean GEO-environmental Society
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.23-32
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    • 2001
  • A soil wall reinforced by soil nailing is excavated in the typical soil conditions which are consisted of weathered soil, weathered rock and soft rock. The resulting nail loads computed are compared to loads measured by utilizing strain gauges during construction. The wall deflection at two locations are related to construction events and specific soil conditions, providing an understanding of the behavior of soil nailed walls. The load distribution along the nail indicated relatively high loads close to the wall. The mobilized load on the nail is proportional to the wall deflection showing the maximum value at the surface of the wall. The construction monitoring for this project provided valuable information in understanding the behavior of soil nailed walls.

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An Analytical Study on Encased Steel Composite Columns Fire Resistance According to Axial Force Ratio (화재시 축력비에 따른 매입형 합성기둥의 내화성능에 대한 해석적 연구)

  • Kim, Ye-Som;Choi, Byong-Jeong
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.97-107
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    • 2020
  • In this study, finite element analysis was carried out through the finite element analysis program (ANSYS) to investigate the fire resistance of composite columns in fire. Transient heat transfer analysis and static structural analysis were performed according to ASTM E 119 heating curve and axial force ratio 0.7, 0.6, 0.5 by applying stress-strain curves according to temperature, and loading heating experiments were carried out under the same conditions. In addition, the nominal compressive strength of the composite column according to the heating time according to the standard(Eurocode 4) was calculated and expressed as the axial force ratio and compared with the analytical and experimental values. Through the analysis, As a result of finite element analysis, the fire resistance time was 180 minutes and similar value to the experimental value was obtained, whereas the fire resistance time 150 minutes and 60 minutes were derived from the axial force ratios 0.6 and 0.7. In addition, it was confirmed that the fire resistance time according to the axial force ratio calculated according to the reference equation (Eurocode 4) was lower than the actual experimental value. However, it was confirmed that the standard(Eurocode 4) was higher than the experimental value at the axial force ratio of 0.7. Accordingly, it is possible to confirm the fire resistance characteristics(time-axial force ratio relationship) of the SRC column at high axial force, and to use the experimental and anaylsis data of the SRC column as the data for verification based on Eurocode.

Shear Strength Prediction of Reinforced Concrete Members Subjected In Axial force using Transformation Angle Truss Model (변환각 트러스 모델에 의한 축력을 받는 철근콘크리트 부재의 전단강도 예측)

  • Kim Sang-Woo;Lee Jung-Yoon
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.813-822
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    • 2004
  • For the prediction of the shear strength of reinforced concrete members subjected to axial force, this paper presents a truss model, Transformation Angle Truss Model (TATM), that can predict the shear behavior of reinforced concrete members subjected to combined actions of shear, axial force, and bending moment. In TATM, as axial compressive stress increases, crack angle decreases and concrete contribution due to the shear resistance of concrete along the crack direction increases in order to consider the effect of the axial force. To verify if the prediction results of TATM have an accuracy and reliability for the shear strength of reinforced concrete members subjected to axial forces, the shear test results of a total of 67 RC members subjected to axial force reported in the technical literatures were collected and compared with TATM and existing analytical models(MCFT RA-STM and FA-STM). As a result of comparing with experimental and theoretical results, the test results was better predicted by TATM with 0.94 in average value of $\tau_{test}/\tau_{ana}$. and $11.2\%$ in coefficient of variation than other truss models. And theoretical results obtained from TATM were not effect by steel capacity ratio, axial force, shear span-to-depth ratio, and compressive steel ratio.

Development of the Method for Inspecting the Clamping Force of Torque Shear Bolts Using the Electricity energy of Electric torque wrench (전동렌치 전기에너지를 이용한 토크쉬어볼트의 체결축력 검사기법 개발)

  • Lee, Hyeon-Ju;Nah, Hwan-Seon;Kim, Kang-Sik;Kim, Kang-Seok
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.162-170
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    • 2010
  • The torque-coefficient of torque-shear type high-strength bolts is affected by the environmental factors, such as 'wet', 'rust', 'exposure to air' and workability during tightening high strength bolts. It is difficult to assume the direct tension induced into the bolt due to variation of torque-coefficient for torque-shear type high-strength bolts. Therefore, it is essential to measure tension loads of bolts and to verify the clamping force under construction. In this study, the manufacture of trial product was planned to identify the induced force into the bolts. The algorithm for a trial product was composed of the relation between electricity energy taken from torque shear wrench and tension force from hydraulic tension meter. The regression analysis equation to measure the direct tension was derived by statistical analysis using Minitab program. It is considered that the trial product is reliable tool to evaluate the tension force comparable to a commercial torque wrench.

A Case Study on Axial Forces of Cable-band Bolts in Domestic Suspension Bridge (국내 현수교량의 케이블 밴드볼트 축력관리 및 검토사례)

  • Park, Si-Hyun;Jung, Woo-Young;Kim, Hyun-Woo;You, Dong-Woo
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2018
  • Suspension bridge cables made of high strength steel wires require periodical maintenance in accordance with the axial force of cable-band bolts, since the bolts in suspension bridges can undergo tension decrease due to creep of cable wires, bolt relaxation, load fluctuation, and cable re-arrangement, etc. Consequently, this study is aimed at investigating and subsequently evaluating the critical factors with respect to the bolt tension-decrease phenomenon in SR suspension bridge in Korea, based on field monitoring, theoretical studies, and field record management works. From the observation, it is interesting to note that the decrease in the bolt tension force is typically accompanied by plastic deformation of the zinc plating layers in the cable wires. In addition, a framework corresponding to generic methodologies to characterize the deformation in terms of the bolt tension-decrease and long-term history management has been developed in this exploratory study.