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Screening of Resistant Genetic Resources to Stink Bug in Soybean (톱다리개미허리노린재 저항성 콩 유전자원 탐색)

  • Oh, Sea-Kwan;Baek, In-Yeol;Hwang, Pil-Seong;Kang, Sung-Tag;Suh, Deug-Yong;Park, Geum-Yong
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.140-145
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    • 2007
  • This study was carried out to develop effective test method by soybean stink bug and to screen resistant genetic resources against soybean stink bug. The damage pod rate by stink bug showed 40% of most soybean varieties and was selected about 10% low of 10 varieties by 298 variety and degree in soybean at first year Stink bug damage rate research for 102 varieties that stink bug damage rate lowed at first year showed 10% low of 12 varieties and from 20% to 30% of the other varieties. So testing material is "Ilpumgeumjeongkong" to develop for effective test method soybean stink bug and result for stink bug damage rate research of according to growth stage showed rapidly high more full seed than full pod. Full seed stage (R6) was highest to 35.5% for stink bug damage rate. Result of resistant genetic resources selection according to stink bug damage pod rate was lowed of best to 10.3% for "Peking, Sorogkong, Hwangsaegjunjeari and Sobaeknamulkong" in the order. Also, stink bug damage seed rate was similar too. So "Peking, Sorogkong, Hwangsaegjunjeari and Sobaeknamulkong" were thought resistant variety against stink bug. Additional study carried out with "Peking and Sorogkong" so that concretely investigate about stink bug's refuse reaction. This result showed 10.0% for Peking and 14.2% for Sorogkong at R6 stage. But, damage pod rate was rapidly lowed.

Life Table Analysis of the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) on Rice of Resistant Cultivars (벼멸구 저항성 품종벼에서 벼멸구의 생명표 분석)

  • Choi, Nak Jung;Jeong, In-Hong;Kwon, Deok Ho;Choi, Man-Young;Baik, Chai-Hun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.526-532
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    • 2017
  • Development, survival, and reproduction of brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens $St{\aa}l$ (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), were studied in laboratory at $25{\pm}2^{\circ}C$, $65{\pm}5%$ RH and a 16L : 8D hours photoperiodism on five rice cultivars of: Dongjin 1ho, Chungchungbyeo, Jangseongbyeo, Chinnongbyeo and Jungmo 1045. BPH nymphs successfully survived on all rice cultivars, although survival rate was lowest on Jangseongbyeo (36.0%). Developmental time of immature stages ranged from $11.7{\pm}0.59d$ on Jungmo 1045 to $12.8{\pm}0.59d$ on Chinnongbyeo. Reproductive period and female longevity were longest on Dongjin 1ho, Chinnongbyeo and Jungmo 1045 while highest fecundity of N. lugens being observed on these three rice cultivars. Highest and lowest net reproductive rates were calculated on rice cultivars, Jungmo 1045 and Jangseongbyeo, respectively. Mean generation time was the longest on rice cultivar Dongjin 1ho. Respective descending order of intrinsic rates of population increase were on Jungmo 1045, Chinnongbyeo, Dongjin 1ho, Chungchungbyeo and Jangseongbyeo. These population parameters showed that N. lugens can successfully survive and reproduce on Chinnongbyeo and Jungmo 1045.

A comparison study of the characteristics of private and public security service of Koryo dynasty and modern security service (고려시대 공적·사적경호의 특성과 현대경호와의 비교연구)

  • Lee, Sung-Jin
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.36
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    • pp.417-442
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    • 2013
  • This study considers the characteristics of the separation of public and private security service during Koryo dynasty, and compares it with the modern security service. Modern day security service's definition of private and public security service was used to distinguish them. Given the different historical settings, it's difficult to argue that the distinction between public and private service during Koryo dynasty was clear, but it can be said that public security service was centered around palace guard and concerns the activities of protest, and military made for the relationship, and private security service was centered around power of DoBang and includes the activities of malingering, and Byolchogun. During the early days of Koryo, protest, district military and soldiers who stay in the palace were all parts of a palace revolt and this institutional improvement of soldiers who stay in the palace was accomplished during King Seongjong's rule. The tradition of a palace revolt can find its roots in the middle military, and after the unification, a palace revolt was reformed into the king's palace revolt of second and the 6th along the course of establishing the nation's system. All of the changes stem from the reformation for consolidating the royal authority. Gyung Dae Seoung wanted to protect himself and he slept with his army night and days and because of that, group of soldiers was created and it was called DOBANG. Some members were from dobang gyeonryong, The forced were powerful because it was gathered with a warriors with extraordinaire martial arts and competent management. Most of the soldiers followed gyeong dae seung because they believed that he has a strong leadership and loves his people, and had a strong faith in him. However, the general gyeong jang had a belief that politics must be reverted to the previous so the relationships between jungbang wasn't smooth. Because of the economic operational problems, due to fraud committed by the mens under his command failed to maintain integrity and was criticised.The misconception also fed up with the emperor and the deepening relationships between the soldiers, his dobang was dismantled. After he took over the dobang, for his personal safety and to strengthen his position he compensated gyeon dae seong's dobang and developed the organization. In the process of extending the dobang Choi chung heon recruited many talented people to strengthen the military base, and also accepted the advice and expanded the power of Dobang. Choi Chung Heon thus consolidated his political gains by weakening the power of the king's army and adjusting the myth, which could've threatened his regime, and this was called Dobang number 6th. Dobang number six got even more powerful by his son named Choi woo, and after ruling, he expanded into a room, and a substantial reorganization of Dobang was developed. And then the creation of yabyeolcho also showed the effect to prevent the crisis. Although the palace guards who were public security service of Koryo Dynasty was still maintained during the military rule era when the royal authority was incapacitated, it was only maintained to have a symbolic meaning as the actual authority including military power was with Choi, the master of Dobang, private security service group. Likewise, during the rule of Choi, private securty service could reign over public security service, and the noteworthy characteristic of Dobang is that it assisted the private soldier groups to seize the military power by reorganizing and modifying military system. Although both differences and similarities can be found when comparing the guards of Koryo Dynasty with those of contemporary society, they have a similarity in terms of the essence of guards that they guarantee the safety of their clients. As for differences, the royalty of Koryo Dynasty and the pursuit of profit of contemporary society are in contrast, and contemporary guards can be seen as the fulfillment of responsibility and duty by free will, whereas guards of Koryo Dynasty were ruled with military coercion.

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Interpretation of Landscape Elements in Borimsa Temple after 17th Century (17세기 이후 장흥 보림사(長興 寶林寺)의 경관요소 해석)

  • Kim, Kyu-Won;Sim, Woo-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.110-118
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    • 2015
  • Borimsa Temple in Jangheung, one of the Goosanseonmoon of Shilla Dynasty, calls for a study in the field of landscape architecture because it has very significant elements in cultural and ecological landscaping aspects. This study examined the changes in landscaping elements of Borimsa Temple since the 17th century in order to newly recognize cultural landscaping value of space composition elements for traditional temple and to verify landscape architectural position. For research method, literatures such as Sajeonggi (事蹟記), Joongchanggi, a surveyed map by Fujishima Gaijiro in 1928 and Joseon Gojeogdobo (朝鮮古蹟圖譜) and modern documents including Borimsa Temple Precision Ground Survey Report and photographic records of National Archives of Korea and provincial governments were examined together with a field survey in order to trace changes in landscape elements such as buildings within the temple site, pond and temple forest. The results are as the following: First, for geographical locations of Borimsa Temple, it is located in an auspicious location and Shipyuknahansang and Cheonbul were placed in a supplementary purpose according to the contents of Bojoseonsatapbi. Compared to Namhwaseonsa Temple in China, it has a similar environmental composition but the fact that buildings were placed on platforms is a distinctive difference. Second, architectural landscape of Borimsa Temple went through the Japanese colonial era and Korean War and still going through changes today. Thus, there shall be some appropriate measures such as to establish an archive of past landscape data. Third, the contents of Borimsa Temple Sajeonggi suggests that the pond of Borimsa Temple had been in a indeterminate form with stones on the outer edge. Its name could have been Yongcheon (湧泉) according to the contents of Joongchanggi. Also, the current landscape, in comparison with past photographs, is a result of changes from surface raise occurred by ground reinforcement within the temple site. Fourth, Jangsaengpyoju (長生標柱) mentioned in Bojoseonsatapbi and Borimsa Temple Sajeonggi was thought to be the dried juniper tree in front of Daewoongbojeon, which can be found in past photographic documents but, it is now assumed to be Seokbihyeong (石碑形) considering the Gukjangsaeng and Hwangjangsaeng of Dogapsa Temple of the similar time period. Moreover, Hongsalmoon mentioned in Joongchanggi was established by King's order after the Manchu war of 1636 in praising of Buddhist monks those who had volunteered to fight for the country. Fifth, it is apparent in Borimsa Temple Joongchanggi that geomancy was a consideration in landscaping process of Borimsa Temple, and the record indicates that pine trees, bo trees and persimmon trees were planted. Sixth, tea tree forest was verified of its historical root that is Seongchailyeo from Unified Shilla through passing down of Jeong Yak-yong's Goojeunggoopo method and relevant documents of Seon Master Choui and Yi Yu-won. Seventh, nutmeg tree forest suggests that nutmegs were used in national ceremonies and for medical uses. The nutmeg tree forest was also verified of its role as Naehwasoorimdae (a forest built to prevent fire from spreading) through aerial photographs and placement of a forest reserve.

A study on transferring the effects of brand reputation and level of service satisfaction of an offline channel company when it is expanding to an online distribution channel (온라인 유통채널 확장시 오프라인 채널의 브랜드 명성, 서비스 만족도의 이전 효과에 관한 연구)

  • Hwang, Hee-Joong;Lee, Sun-Mi
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.31-36
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    • 2011
  • I conducted empirical analyses of what happens when an offline channel expands to an online channel and whether the pre-existing offline channel's competitive assets (e.g. brand reputation and level of service satisfaction) can be linked to online channel preference. I found that an offline channel's brand reputation and level of service satisfaction can have a direct influence on offline channel preference and a second-hand influence on online channel preference. Thus, if the competitiveness of the online channel is strong enough and its customers have a higher preference for the offline channel, they will be committed and loyal to the company. The resultant enhanced competitiveness of the offline channel will present opportunities for both present and future success. The main results are the following. First, the management of the distribution channel service quality is more important than that of the brand reputation. Customers' experiences of service and subjective evaluations are not important only as the leading factors in the long-term brand reputation management but also as influential factors in channel preference. SoThus, given that the service quality of the pre-existing channel is not the customers' main concern, a strategy of improving the level of service satisfaction aimed at present customers is more valuable than a wide brand positioning strategy aimed at general and new customers. Second, when an offline channel company establishes an internet shopping mall on an online channel, it is highly likely that the preference and subjective evaluation of the present customers will influence the online channel. This applies not only to the special case of an expansion from an offline intermediary channel to an online one, but also to an online channel acting as an expansion of the business model of a conventional manufacturing or service company: both cases are vertical integrations of marketing channels in an expansion of the distribution channel. My theory applies to a wide range of contexts. Third and finally, any business strategy can grasp the meaning of 'channel expansion. Fundamentally, it is an expansion of the sales activity channel and marketing activity. However, it is also a way of enhancing marketing and sales competitiveness through an expansion to an online or offline channel. The expansion of an offline company to an online channel could be seen not as improvement but as an innovation of the business process by which two goals are achieved with one technique. The former is expected to increase the sales of the offline company, and the latter is also expected to increase sales while also contributing to cost reduction.

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King Jeongjo's recognition on Neo-Confucian literati and it's historical meaning (정조(正祖)의 사대부(士大夫) 인식(認識)과 그 특징(特徵))

  • Park, Sung-soon
    • (The)Study of the Eastern Classic
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    • no.32
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    • pp.103-128
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    • 2008
  • King Jeongjo had lost his father, Sado-Seja(Prince Sado) by Noron(Older Faction). Especially those who tried to kill Sado-Seja and king Jeongjo consisted of king's family-in-law of king Youngjo and Sado-Seja. Therefore king Jeongjo's first goal was to strengthen his kingship than other things because he could gain the throne overcoming the strong hinderance of Noron and king's family-in-law. King Jeongjo requested his subjects to be "Kukbyon-In"(國邊人: a person for king) pointing out the harm of the king's family-in-law and "Tangpyong-Dang"(蕩平黨: the strongest faction consisted under the rule of king Youngjo). For the purpose, king Jeongjo built up "Gyujang-Gak". Gyujang-Gak was spoken to contain and protect the writings of earlier kings superficially, but in reality, it was an apparatus to gain and train the friendly subjects for king Jeongjo. Like that, it was the most important for king Jeongjo to suppress the king's family-in-low and to win Neo-Confucian lterati over to himself's side. Until now, the politics of Joseon Dynasty had been mainly explained on the point of view of "Seonghak-Non"(聖學論). "Seonghak-Non" means that Neo-Confucian lterati were treated as real hero, not kings in the political space of Joseon Dynasty and the role of factions were recognized important. But king Jeongjo denied these ideological stream and tried to change that political system. King Jeongjo wanted to strengthen the throne through the method which insisted the king as a hero in politics. For the purpose, king Jeongjo criticized the Neo-Confucian literati's viewpoint about politics and learning at that time and anticipated to be sole leader of politics and learning on that critique. King Jeongjo aimed to destroy the dignity of "Salim"(山林: Neo-Confucian Sages) with attacking their wrong behaviors. King Jeongjo also criticized the period of king Injo when the regime of "Sarim"(士林: pure Neo-Confucian lterati) faction fully appeared as the starting period when the factional harms were getting worse. King Jeongjo wanted to previously block the oppositions to win subjects over to himself's side with criticizing the period of king Injo and to take away the initiative from his opponents with insisting "Salim-Muyongnon"(山林無用論: a theory ignoring Neo-Confucian Sages). King Jeongjo's critique was not limited just on the system of factional politics. "Seonghak-Non" eventually took root in Neo-Confucianism. Therefore king Jeongjo criticized Neo-Confucianism. He insisted that the essence of Chinese Classics was pragmatical learning, not Neo-Confucianism. Through that critique, king Jeongjo aimed to destroy the ideological base of his opponents. However, king Jeongjo failed to be a sole leader of his subjects in the both boundaries of politics and learning even though he criticized the Neo-Confucian lterati's viewpoint about politics and learning. Because he abruptly died leaving his reformational scheme behind as well as his loyal subjects guarding himself against Noron Byeok-Pa(老論 ?派: the opposing party in Older Faction) were gone behind himself. The politics of Joseon Dynasty returned to more powerful politics for king's family-in-law after king Jeongjo's death.

Study on Tragic Characteristic in Lope's Drama La estrella de Sevilla (로뻬의 연극 『세비야의 별』에 나타난 비극성 연구)

  • YOON, Yong-wook
    • Cross-Cultural Studies
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    • v.50
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    • pp.371-394
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    • 2018
  • La estrella de Sevilla, is a representative masterpiece of the Golden Age of Spain, and is a tragic work of Lope de Vega, who was a representative drama writer living in the 17th century. However, regardless of its great literary value, there are insufficient researches on this drama even in Spain, due to several controversies surrounding the truth about Lope's creation. Here, this research concretely investigated the tragic characteristic of this drama, by largely dividing it into the viewpoint of Aristotle and Shakespeare. Thanks to the noble social status of the characters and proper dialogue of the hero Sancho Ortiz in trouble, there seems to be no problem in performing the cathartic function that Aristotle mentioned regarding the work in his review. However, there are a few problems in the aspect of the 'hero's free will to resist the absolute fate,' which is fundamentally the essence of the associated Aristotelian tragedy. Because, there's no Hamartia in this drama, the core mechanism that forms the absolute fate, makes the statement that accordingly, no absolute fate or irresistible force of destiny is established. Rather, the tragic characteristic of this drama can be more properly investigated from the viewpoint of Shakespeare. As noted differently from Aristotle, Shakespeare considered that the tragic characteristic came from the hero's characteristic. According to him, tragedy starts from the hero's value view and personality, instead of the external factors such as an absolute fate. Actually, Busto's death and separation between Sancho Ortiz and Estrella, two tragic affairs of La estrella de Sevilla, were caused by the crooked selfishness of King Sancho IV, who abused his authority, and Sancho Ortiz' excessively blind loyalty to the King, rather than the irresistible event. In conclusion, in light of a lethargic and hopeless situation, with no eventual choice of options before the injustice of absolute power, is must have been a significant tragedy for the audience, witnessing the play's tragic ending.

A New Tongil-type Glutinous Rice Variety 'Hangangchal 1' of Multi-Diseases and Insect Resistance (중생 복합내병성 통일형 찰벼 품종 '한강찰 1호')

  • Song, You-Chun;Cho, Jun-Hyeon;Jung, Kuk-Hyun;Ha, Woon-Goo;Kim, Se-Ri;Kwak, Do-Yeon;Park, No-Bong;Kim, Young-Doo;Kim, Sang-Yeol;Oh, Seong-Hwan;Lim, Sang-Jong;Shin, Mun-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.201-205
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    • 2011
  • 'Hangangchal 1' is a new glutinous rice cultivar of second generation Tongil-type with a mid-maturing ecotype that developed by the rice breeding team of Yeongnam Agricultural Research Institute (YARI), RDA. in 2006. This cultivar was derived from a cross between 'Hangangchal', a Tongil-type glutinous cultivar and 'YR8208-20', a high yield potential in 1986/1987 winter season. 'Hangangchal 1' was selected by pedigree and bulk breeding methods from $F_3$ to $F_6$ populations. A promising line, YR10498-8-1-3, was selected and designated as 'Milyang 167' in 1997. The local adaptability test of 'Milyang 167' was carried out at seven locations during 3 years in 1998, 2005, and 2006. It has tolerance to lodging with good canopy architecture as 87cm of culm length. This cultivar is resistant to bacterial blight $K_1$, $K_2$, and $K_3$ race, rice stripe virus, rice dwarf virus, and leaf blast disease. The milled rice endosperm of 'Hangangchal 1' is glutinous and its whiteness was almost similar compared to 'Shinseonchalbyeo'. The yield of milled rice of 'Hangangchal 1' was average 5.97 MT/ha at ordinary cultivation of 9 kg/10a N fertilizer level in local adaptability test. This cultivar would be adaptable to the mid and southern plain of Korea.

A New High Yielding Rice Variety with Multi-Disease Resistance, 'Keunseom' (중생 복합내병충성 초다수성 벼 '큰섬')

  • Ha, Un-Goo;Song, You-Chun;Yeo, Un-Sang;Cho, Jun-Hyeon;Lee, Jong-Hee;Lee, Ji-Yoon;Kwak, Do-Yeon;Chang, Jae-Ki;Hwang, Hung-Goo;Kim, Young-Doo;Cho, Young-Ho;Yang, Sae-Jun;Oh, Byeong-Gen;Shin, Mun-Sik;Ku, Yeon-Chung;Kim, Ho-Yeong
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.576-580
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    • 2011
  • 'Keunseom', a new second generation Tongil-type rice variety (Oryza sativa L.), is a mid-maturing ecotype developed by the rice breeding team of Department of Functional Crop, NICS, RDA in 2006. This variety was originated from a cross between 'Dasanbyeo' and 'Namyeongbyeo' in 1996's summer season, which developed by pedigree breeding method. The pedigree of 'Keunseom' was YR18234-B-B-98-3-5-1, and it was designated 'Milyang202' in 2002. 'Keunseom' has tolerance to lodging, because it has short culm length as 77 cm. This variety is resistance to bacterial blight K1 race, rice stripe virus, rice dwarf virus, and leaf blast disease. Milled rice kernel of 'Keunseom' is a clean translucent with non-glutinous endosperm, and has good quality as it was clear in chalkness. The milled rice yield potential of 'Keunseom' was about 719 kg/10a at ordinary fertilizer level of local adaptability test. This cultivar would be adaptable to the mid and southern plain of Republic of Korea.

A New Early Maturing Rice Cultivar with High Quality and Good Taste, 'Geumyeong' (중산간지 적응 조숙 고식미 벼 신품종 '금영(金穎)')

  • Choung, Jin-Il;Park, Hyun-Su;Kang, Jong-Rae;Nam, Min-Hee;Kwak, Do-Yeon;Kim, Jeong-Il;Song, You-Chun;Yeo, Un-Sang;Shin, Mun-Sik;Lee, Jong-Hee;Kim, Dae-Sik;Park, No-Bong;Park, Dong-Soo;Yi, Gi-Hwan;Cho, Jun-Hyeon;Kim, Chun-Song;Kang, Hang-Won;Ko, Jae-Kwon;Ahn, Jin-Gon;Kim, Jung-Gon;Hwang, Heung-Gu
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.272-275
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    • 2010
  • 'Geumyoung' is a new early maturing rice cultivar developed from the cross between Sambaegbyeo and Iksan423/Sangju22 at Sangju Substation, NICS, RDA, Korea in 2009. It needs about 116 days from seedling to harvest in mid-mountainous areas. This cultivar has about 72 cm long culm and 19 cm long panicle, which are similar to Odaebyeo. It has higher panicle number per plant, medium to small grains and sometimes has a few awned spikelets. It shows tolerance to cold and resistance to blast but is susceptible to bacterial blight, virus diseases, and insects and pests. Milled rice of 'Geumyoeng' is translucent with non-glutinous endosperm and medium short grain. It has about 18.0% amylose and 6.6% protein content with good palatability of cooked rice. The milled rice yield of this cultivar was 5.53 MT/ha under standard fertilizer level of ordinary transplanting cultivation. 'Geumyong' would be adaptable for ordinary transplanting cultivation in the northern plains, and northern and southern mid-mountainous areas of South Korea.