• Title, Summary, Keyword: 케이블 강성

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Establishment and Application Plan of Validation System for APR1400 Digital Control System (APR1400 디지털제어계통 검증시스템 구축 및 활용방안)

  • Kang, Sung-Kon;Ko, Do-Young;Ye, Song-Hae
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.429-430
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    • 2008
  • 본 논문은 전기출력이 1400 MWe급으로 개발된 첨단 원자력 발전소인 APR1400(신형겨수로 1400) 제어계통에 적용되는 디지털시스템의 설계 및 성능 검증을 위해 개발 중인 디지털제어계통 검증시스템에 관한 것이다. APR1400 디지털제어계통은 발전소 출력 제어 및 안전운전과 관련 된 중요 기능들을 수행하며, 기존 원자력발전소와 달리 단일 디지털 Platform을 적용하고, Multi-Loop 개념과 네트워크을 적용하여 Controller와 케이블 수량을 줄인 특징을 가지고 있다. 이와 같을 설계는 지금가지 원자력발전소에는 적용된 적이 없기 때문에 사용자 측면에서는 디지털 제어 계통 설계 및 성능 관점에서의 검증을 위한 시스템이 요구되었다. 현재는 APR1400 시뮬레이터(발전소 모델링을 통한 모의시스템)를 이용한 검증시스템을 1차적으로 구축한 상태에 있으며, 시스템 전체 시험을 진행 중에 있다. 특히, 이번에 개발 중인 검증시스템은 구성이 간단하고 사용이 편리한 장점을 지니고 있을 뿐만 아니라 다양한 고장상황을 재현해 봄으로써 디지털제어계통의 성능을 확인해 볼 수 있는 특징을 보유하고 있다. 본 검증시스템의 활용방안으로는 첫째, 계통설계의 구현 가능성 관점에서의 확인시험을 수행하는 방안, 둘째, 발전소 시운전 착수 전 시운전요원 교육에 활용하는 방안, 셋째, 발전소 설계 변경 필요 시 설계 변경에 따른 영향 파악, 넷째, 디지털제어계통 유지보수 기술 습득 등에 효과적으로 활용 할 수 있을 것으로 본다. AFR1400 디지털제어계통은 현재 건설 중인 신고리 3,4호기 원자력발전소에 적용될 예정이며, 향후에는 해외 원자력 수출을 위한 기반기술로 활용될 수 있을 것으로 확신한다.

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The Sensitivity Analysis and Safety Evaluations of Cable Stayed Bridges Based on Probabilistic Finite Element Method (확률유한요소해석에 의한 사장교의 민감도 분석 및 안전성 평가)

  • Han, Sung-Ho;Cho, Tae-Jun;Bang, Myung-Seok
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.141-152
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    • 2007
  • Considering uncertainties of random input data, it is more reasonable to use probabilistic method than the conventional deterministic method for the design of structures or for the assessment of the responses of structures, which are designed as safe even under extreme loads. Therefore, to assess the quantitative effects of the constructed cable stayed bridge by the input random variables, a sensitivity analysis is studied. Using perturbation method, an analysis program is developed for the iterative probabilistic finite element analyses and sensitivity analyses of the cable stayed bridge, except the initial shape analysis. Monte-Carlo Simulations were used for the verification of the developed program. The results of sensitivity analysis shows the governing effects of external loads. Because the results also provide the sensitive effects of the stiffness of members and the magnitudes of prestressing force of cables, the developed

Analysis of PD Distribution Characteristics and Comparison of Classification Methods according to Electrical Tree Source in Power Cable (전력용 케이블 시편에서 전기트리 발생원에 따른 부분방전 분포 특성 및 발생원 분류기법 비교)

  • Park, Seong-Hee;Jeong, Hae-Eun;Lim, Kee-Joe;Kang, Seong-Hwa
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.57-64
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    • 2007
  • One of the cause of insulation failure in power cable is well known by electrical treeing discharge. This is occurred for imposed continuous stress at cable. And this event is related to safety, reliability and maintenance. In this paper, throughout analysis of partial discharge(PD) distribution when occurring the electrical tree, is studied for the purpose of knowing of electrical treeing discharge characteristics according to defects. Own characteristic of tree will be differently processed in each defect and this reason is the first purpose of this paper. To acquire PD data, three defective tree models were made. And their own data is shown by the phase-resolved partial discharge method (PRPD). As a result of PRPD, tree discharge sources have their own characteristics. And if other defects (void, metal particle) exist internal power cable then their characteristics are shown very different. This result Is related to the time of breakdown and this is importance of cable diagnosis. And classification method of PD sources was studied in this paper. It needs select the most useful method to apply PD data classification one of the proposed method. To meet the requirement, we select methods of different type. That is, neural network(NN-BP), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system and PCA-LDA were applied to result. As a result of, ANFIS shows the highest rate which value is 98 %. Generally, PCA-LDA and ANFIS are better than BP. Finally, we performed classification of tree progress using ANFIS and that result is 92 %.

A Preliminary Design for Hybrid Building System with Progressive Collapse Prevention Means (연속붕괴가 방지된 초고층 복합빌딩시스템의 예비설계)

  • Choi, Ki-Bong;Cho, Tae-Jun;Kim, Seong-Soo;Lee, Jin-Yong
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.48-54
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    • 2015
  • In this study, we propose an innovative lateral force distribution building system between tall buildings by utilizing the difference of moment of inertia, resulting the reduction of lateral displacement and the lateral forces in terms of an alternative for the dense human and increased cost of lands in highly integrated city area. A successive collapse prevention means by providing additional bearing plate between connections is proposed. In addition to that, a more economical vibration reduction is expected due to the suggested tuned mass damper on the surface of spacial structure. In the considered verification examples, reduced drifts at the top location of the building systems are validated against static wind pressure loads and static earthquake loads. The suggested hybrid building system will improve the safety and reliability of the new or existing building system in terms of more than 30% reduced drift and vibration through the development of convergence of tall buildings and spatial structures.

Proposition of Improved Semi-Analytical Relationship considering Response Characteristics of Buried Pipeline (지중매설관로의 거동특성을 반영한 개선된 해석적 관계식의 제안)

  • 김태욱;임윤묵;김문겸
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.7 no.5
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    • pp.37-46
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    • 2003
  • Response analysis of buried pipeline subjected to permanent ground deformation(PGD) due to liquefaction is mainly executed by use of numerical analysis or semi-analytical relationship, Especially for the semi-analytical relationship considering transverse PGD, it has somewhat limited applicability : since it has different formula according to the width of PGD and does not reflect various patterns of PGD which is caused by the decrease of soil stiffness, Therefore, in this study, the applicability of existing analytical relationship is closely investigated through the comparison of FEM results at first. And then, based on meaningful contemplation, improved analytical relationship is proposed. The proposed one models the system behavior of buried pipeline as the combination of cable and beam, and thus it is applicable to arbitrary width of PGD, Moreover, it does reflect various patterns of PGD by introducing interaction pattern coefficient. Through the comparison of numerical results using the FEM and the proposed analytical relationship, rational applicability is objectively verified and noticeable considerations are discussed, Moreover, analyses considering the change of PGD magnitude and patterns are performed.

Application of Tuned Mass Damper to Suppress Man-Induced Vibrations of Cable Stayed Foot-bridge (사장교형식 보도교의 보행진동제어를 위한 TMD 적용)

  • Kim, Yun-Seok;Lee, Seung-Woo;Kim, Jae-Min;Chang, Seong-Kyu
    • 한국방재학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.74-74
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    • 2011
  • 본 연구에서는 중앙경간 54m, 교폭 4m의 사장교형식의 보도교로 측경간은 계단으로 이루어진 1경간 케이블교량을 대상으로 보행하중에 의한 수직진동을 제어하기 위해 제진장치(TMD)를 적용하기로 하고 실물 TMD의 설계 및 제작 그리고 설치 및 제어성능실험을 수행하였다. 우선 사장교형식의 교량. 그리고 1경간 교량이라는 점에서 상대적으로 감쇠율이 낮을 것으로 예측되었고 또한 54m의 경간장이 보행자가 가진 주파수에 근접한 고유진동수를 나타낼 것으로 사료되어 Eurocode 2 part 2(EC5-2)의 규준에 따라 1인 및 다수 보행하중에 의한 보도교의 발생가속도를 산출하였다. 이 경우 최대가속도는 다수의 보행자가 연속적으로 진행할 때 발생하였으며, 수직방향의 가속도가 사용성기준을 초과하는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 구조해석프로그램에 의한 고유치 해석결과, 보행하중의 주파수대역내에 진동모드가 존재하는 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 본 교량의 설계단계에 있어서 보행진동을 제어하기 위하여 유지관리가 용이한 수동형의 동조질량감쇠장치(Tuned Mass Damper)를 적용하기로 하였으며 TMD의 설계에서는 TMD의 제어목표를 만족시킬 수 있는 TMD의 가동질량(moving mass)을 우선적으로 결정하였고, 이로부터 Den Hartog의 제안식에 따라 TMD의 고유진동수비, 유효감쇠비를 산정하였다. 산정된 변수들을 이용하여 설계된 TMD는 현장설치 및 튜닝의 편의성을 고려하여 수평 외팔보형식으로 설계, 제작되었으며 제작된 TMD의 경우 회전축에 대해 질량, 스프링, 댐퍼의 중심거리를 조정함으로써 TMD의 진동수, 강성, 감쇠력을 상대적으로 매우 용이하게 조절할 수 있으며, 조정범위 또한 광범위하여 일반 TMD에 비해 현장설치시 대상구조물에 동조시키기가 용이하며, 작동시 마찰감쇠가 거의 없다는 장점이 있다. 현장설치전에 제작된 TMD를 대상으로 자유진동 시험을 통하여 질량의 중심거리, 스프링 크기 그리고 댐퍼의 설치유무를 각각 변화시키며 TMD의 자유진동 데이터를 취득하였다. 각각의 시험에서 얻어진 데이터로부터 스펙트럼해석을 통하여 고유진동수를 구하였고, 자유진동 파형으로 부터 감쇠비를 구하였다. TMD는 일반적으로 제어모드의 변형형상이 가장 큰 곳에 설치되었을 때 최대의 제진효과를 발휘할 수 있다. 그러나 현장여건상 설치가 불가능하거나 미관을 해치는 경우에는 가능한 범위 내에서 TMD 제어효율이 가장 크게 발휘할 수 있는 곳을 선택하여야 한다. 본 보도교의 경우, 중앙경간 중심부에서 가장 큰 모드변형형상을 나타내지만, 보도교의 상판 연결부 등에 따른 TMD 시공문제로 인하여 TMD 설치위치는 교량 중앙에서 양 방향으로 1.25m 떨어진 곳에 대칭으로 총 2기를 설치하기로 하였다. 일반적으로 TMD의 모든 설계변수는 구조물의 설계단계에서 수행된 구조해석결과에 근거하여 설정하므로 완공된 구조물, 즉 실제보도교의 동적특성을 계측하여 정확하게 진동수를 튜닝하여야 한다. 구조해석에 의한 보도교의 수직방향(TMD 작동방향) 고유진동수는 1.5225 Hz이며, 감쇠비는 규준에 의하여 0.6 %로 가정하였다. 그러나 이 값들은 구조해석모델 및 재료적 특성과 시공상의 오차에 의하여 실제와 다를 수 있으므로 현장계측에 의한 확인이 요구된다. 또한 TMD의 제진효율이 설계시의 목표대로 확보되었는지도 확인해야 하므로 현장튜닝 및 성능시험을 실시하였다. 보도교의 가진은 사전에 실시한 상시 미진동계측결과를 토대로 2Hz를 목표로 하여 인력가진실험을 수행하였고, 탁월진동 주파수는 1.9896Hz로 나타나 구조해석결과와 오차가 있음을 알 수 있다. 가진실험결과를 토대로 TMD의 진동수를 최적진동수비로 튜닝하고 인력가진 실험을 다시 실시하여 TMD의 진동제어성능을 검토하였다. TMD 튜닝 전, 후의 보도교 감쇠비를 비교한 결과, TMD를 설치함으로써 약 4.218%의 감쇠비 증가가 있음을 알 수 있다.

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Verification of Multi-point Displacement Response Measurement Algorithm Using Image Processing Technique (영상처리기법을 이용한 다중 변위응답 측정 알고리즘의 검증)

  • Kim, Sung-Wan;Kim, Nam-Sik
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.30 no.3A
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    • pp.297-307
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    • 2010
  • Recently, maintenance engineering and technology for civil and building structures have begun to draw big attention and actually the number of structures that need to be evaluate on structural safety due to deterioration and performance degradation of structures are rapidly increasing. When stiffness is decreased because of deterioration of structures and member cracks, dynamic characteristics of structures would be changed. And it is important that the damaged areas and extent of the damage are correctly evaluated by analyzing dynamic characteristics from the actual behavior of a structure. In general, typical measurement instruments used for structure monitoring are dynamic instruments. Existing dynamic instruments are not easy to obtain reliable data when the cable connecting measurement sensors and device is long, and have uneconomical for 1 to 1 connection process between each sensor and instrument. Therefore, a method without attaching sensors to measure vibration at a long range is required. The representative applicable non-contact methods to measure the vibration of structures are laser doppler effect, a method using GPS, and image processing technique. The method using laser doppler effect shows relatively high accuracy but uneconomical while the method using GPS requires expensive equipment, and has its signal's own error and limited speed of sampling rate. But the method using image signal is simple and economical, and is proper to get vibration of inaccessible structures and dynamic characteristics. Image signals of camera instead of sensors had been recently used by many researchers. But the existing method, which records a point of a target attached on a structure and then measures vibration using image processing technique, could have relatively the limited objects of measurement. Therefore, this study conducted shaking table test and field load test to verify the validity of the method that can measure multi-point displacement responses of structures using image processing technique.

Multi-point Dynamic Displacement Measurements of Structures Using Digital Image Correlation Technique (Digital Image Correlation기법을 이용한 구조물의 다중 동적변위응답 측정)

  • Kim, Sung-Wan;Kim, Nam-Sik
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.11-19
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    • 2009
  • Recently, concerns relating to the maintenance of large structures have been increased. In addition, the number of large structures that need to be evaluated for their structural safety due to natural disasters and structural deterioration has been rapidly increasing. It is common for the structural characteristics of an older large structure to differ from the characteristics in the initial design stage, and changes in dynamic characteristics may result from a reduction in stiffness due to cracks on the materials. The process of deterioration of such structures enables the detection of damaged locations, as well as a quantitative evaluation. One of the typical measuring instruments used for the monitoring of bridges and buildings is the dynamic measurement system. Conventional dynamic measurement systems require considerable cabling to facilitate a direct connection between sensor and DAQ logger. For this reason, a method of measuring structural responses from a remote distance without the mounted sensors is needed. In terms of non-contact methods that are applicable to dynamic response measurement, the methods using the doppler effect of a laser or a GPS are commonly used. However, such methods could not be generally applied to bridge structures because of their costs and inaccuracies. Alternatively, a method using a visual image can be economical as well as feasible for measuring vibration signals of inaccessible bridge structures and extracting their dynamic characteristics. Many studies have been conducted using camera visual signals instead of conventional mounted sensors. However, these studies have been focused on measuring displacement response by an image processing technique after recording a position of the target mounted on the structure, in which the number of measurement targets may be limited. Therefore, in this study, a model experiment was carried out to verify the measurement algorithm for measuring multi-point displacement responses by using a DIC (Digital Image Correlation) technique.

Dynamic Response of Tension Leg Platform (Tension Leg Platform의 동적응답에 관한 연구)

  • Yeo, Woon Kwang;Pyun, Chong Kun
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.21-30
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    • 1985
  • The tension leg platform (TLP) is a kind of compliant structures, and is also a type of moored stable platform with a buoyancy exceeding the weight because of having tensioned vertical anchor cables. In this paper, among the various kinds of tension leg structures, Deep Oil Technology (DOT) TLP was analyzed because it has large-displacement portions of the immersed surface such as vertical corner pontoons and small-diameter elongated members such as cross-bracing. It also has results of hydraulic model tests, comparable with theorectical analysis. Because of the vertical axes of symmetry in the three vertical buoyant legs and because there are no larger horizontal buoyant members between these three vertical members, it was decided to develop a numerical algorithm which would predict the dynamic response of the DOT TLP using the previously developed numerical algorithm Floating Vessel Response Simulation (FVRS) for vertically axisymmetric bodies of revolution. In addition, a linearized hydroelastic Morison equation subroutine would be developed to account for the hydrodynamic pressure forces on the small member cross bracing. Interaction between the large buoyant members or small member cross bracings is considered to be negligible and is not included in the analysis. The dynamic response of the DOT TLP in the surge mode is compared with the results of the TLP algorithm for various combinations of diffraction and Morison forces and moments. The results which include the Morison equation are better than the results for diffraction only. This is because the vertically axisymmetric buoyant members are only marginally large enough to consider diffractions effects. The prototype TLP results are expected to be more inertially dominated.

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