• Title, Summary, Keyword: 틸라코이드 막

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Photosynthetic Characteristics of Intact Cells and Thylakoid Membranes of Synechococcus PCC7002 with Polyvinyalcohol-Immobilization (Synechococcus PCC7002의 세포 및 틸라코이드 막의 Polyvinylalcohol 고정화에 의한 광합성 특성)

  • 윤지은;전현식
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.185-191
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    • 1993
  • Highly stable $O_2$-evolving cells and thylakoid membranes have been obtained from the cyanobacterium, Synechococcus PCC7002, by immobilization with polyvinylalcohol(PVA). The absorption peak showed the blue-shift of about 3 nm after immobilization of intact cells and thylakoid membranes as well as isolation of thylakoid membranes. Photosynthetic electron transport activities, especially PS II activity showed greater stability in the PVA-immobilized cells and thylakoid membranes when stored at $4^{\circ}C$ than in those at $25^{\circ}C$. When the cells were threated at higher temperature, the level of Fo and Fv increased. After imobilization, however, Fo showed no change. This suggests that the immobilization can protect against the damages of PS II complex, especially a water-spiliting system, by heat treatment.

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Effects of iso-Butanol on Photosynthetic Electron Transport Activity in Isolated Spinach Chloroplasts (시금치(Spinacia oleracea L.) 엽록체의 광합성 전자전달 활성에 미치는 iso-Butanol의 영향)

  • 박강은
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.247-252
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    • 1992
  • The effect of iso-butanol on the electron transport rate of PS I and PS II was investigated in isolated spinach chloroplasts. In photosystem I, the rate of electron transport increased in the presence of 1 to 4% of isobutanol but decreased in 5 to 9% of iso-butanol. But in photosystem II, the rate of electron transport decreased when treated with 0.2 to 1% of iso-butanol. The inhibitory effect of isomers of butanol on PS II electron transport rate increased in the order of 2-butanol, tert-butanol, iso-butanol and I-butanol. This means that PS II activity was affected according to the arrangement of carbon atoms in butanol. The inhibitory effect of iso-butanol reduced when DPC was added in the solution. This means that iso-butanol affects PS II reduction side of thylakoid membrane primarily. The inhibitory effect of iso-butanol was reduced when $Mn^{2+},\;C^{2+}$ or BSA were added in the solution. PS II activity was restored when 1% iso-butanol treated chloroplast solution was diluted to twentyfold or when $Mn^{2+},\;C^{2+}$ or BSA was added to the diluted solution. However, the SDS-PAGE banding pattern of thylakoid membrane proteins was similar even in 2% iso-butanol treated chloroplasts and the control ones. Only in 5% iso-butanol treated chloroplasts these bands were very weak. These observations suggest that low concentrations of iso-butanol releases manganese and calcium ions from chloroplasts and inhibits the electron transport system. This inhibitory effect can be reversible in low concenterations but in high concentrations the inhibitory effect of iso-butanol become irreversible.rsible.

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Effects of Spermine on Changes in Chlorophyll-Protein Complexes and Plastic Membrane Proteins of Mung Bean Cotyledons during Greening (녹화중인 녹두 자엽의 엽록소-단백질 복합체 및 색소체막 단백질의 변화에 미치는 Spermine의 효과)

  • 홍정희;박흥덕
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.335-344
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    • 1995
  • Developmental changes of chlorophyll-protein complexes (CPs) and plastid membrane proteins in greening mung bean cotyledons and the effect of spermine therein were examined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The changes in the amounts of CPs became larger with the progress of greening and light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein (LHCP) was the main CP in the early greening stage up to f h. As the greening proceeded, chlorophyll-protein of the photosystem I (CPI) accumulated. Application of spermine were effective in accumulating CPs of the thylakoid membrane in the early phase of greening. In the profiles of the plastid membrane proteins, quantitative and qualitative changes were observed with the onset of greening up to 72 h. 56 kD protein of major intensity was observed in all greened chloroplasts and 24 kD protein increased remarkablly in both control and spermine-treated cotyledons. The thylakoids from spermine-treated cotyledons showed hither amounts of thylakoid proteins as compared to the controls. The results suggest that spermine may play a role in the regulation of plastid development and stabilizes the membrane function during greening.

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The Effect of Growth Regulators and Light Quality on the Changes in Protein Pattern of Callus from Intergeneric Protoplast Fusion between Nicotiana tabacum and Solanum nigrum (Nicotiana tabacum과 Solanum nigrum의 속간 원형질체 융합에서 유도된 캘러스의 단백질 양태변화에 미치는 생장조절제 및 광선의 효과)

  • 김영상;이동희
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.141-155
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    • 1994
  • The effect of growth regulators (NAA, BA and $ extrm{GA}_3$) and light (blue, red and far-red) on the changes in total protein and thylakoid membrane protein pattern of callus from intergeneric protoplast fusion between Nicotiana tabacum and Solanum nigrw were investigated. When the callus were irradiated with different wavelengths of light, blue and red light accelerated the synthesis of total proteins and thylakoid membrane proteins. Particularly, red light led to an increase in the protein synthesis compared to blue light. When the callus were subjected to various combinations of growth regulators, NAA+$ extrm{GA}_3$ and NAA+BA treatments induced remarkable increase of total proteins and thylakoid membrane proteins accumulation, particularly in the combination of NAA+$ extrm{GA}_3$. NAA.$ extrm{GA}_3$ treatment with irradiation of red ligh showed highest value in the accumulation of total proteins and thylakoid membrane proteins. We conclude that simultaneous application of red light and NAA+$ extrm{GA}_3$ treatment may induce synergistic effect in the synthesis of total proteins and thylakoid membrane Proteins.

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Stabilization of Membrane Proteins by Benzyladenine during Wheat Leaf Senescence (노쇠중인 밀잎에서 Benzyladenine에 의한 막단백질의 안정화)

  • 진창덕
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.117-123
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    • 1992
  • The effect of benzyladenine (BA) on lipid peroxidation and compositions of total insoluble proteins and chloroplast thylakoid protein from wheat primary leaves during senescence in the dark was studied. BA ($10^{-5}\;M$) treatment prevented conspicuously the loss of chlorophyll content and soluble and insoluble leaf protein contents in senescing wheat leaf segments during 4-day dark incubation. Under the BA treatment, especially, the level of insoluble protein was highly maintained than that of soluble protein. Also, the increase of malondialdehyde (MDA: the peroxidation product of membrane lipids) content was inhibited in the BA treated leaves. Three major polypeptide bands in quantity corresponding to 57, 26 and 12 KD molecular weight were clearly resolved with other minor bands by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in the insoluble protein fraction. The insoluble protein profiles of the control leaves showed a remarkable decrease in the intensity of the 57 and 12 KD band except for 26 KD band in the 72 h dark incubation. This loss during dark incubation was reduced by BA treatment. More than 20 polypeptides were resolved in the chloroplast thylakoid membrane fraction with the most prominent bands which are 59 and 57 KD ($\alpha\;and\;\beta$ subunit of coupling factor: CF) and 26 KD (apoprotein of LHCP). The changes in thylakoid protein profile during 72 h dark incubation showed the rapid degradation in control, but this degradation was prevented in quantity by BA treatment. The above results suggested that BA would inhibit the peroxidation of membrane lipids, thereby preventing the loss of membrane proteins which led to the maintenance of the membrane integrity including chloroplast thylakoid.

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Features of Plastids within Reduced Spirodela polyrhiza (축소된 개구리밥 식물체 내 색소체 특성)

  • Kim, In-Sun
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.55-60
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    • 2011
  • Reduced plants of Spirodela polyrhiza consisting only of fronds, stalks and roots form turions during dormancy. In development, mature fronds produce offspring fronds by vegetative reproduction, and turions arise laterally from the mother frond before dormancy. The turion primordium is derived from the frond, while the frond primordium forms within the turion tissue. In the present study, cellular features, especially those of the plastids, of the above four tissue types have been examined and compared using electron microscopy. Proplastids, found to be numerous in the frond and turion primordia, differentiated into chloroplasts rapidly upon growth. The proplastids were small and the thylakoidal membrane system was rudimentary, howerver the chloroplasts exhibited variation by cell type. Chloroplasts were found within cells of the frond, stalk and root tissue. The thylakoidal membrane system, which formed grana stacks, was moderately developed within frond chloroplasts, while only a few were present in those of the stalk and root cortical cells. One to two starch grains were accumulated within frond chloroplasts, but little to none were found in stalk and root cortical chloroplasts. Contrary to other types of root chloroplasts, those found in the root cap cells developed chloroplasts similar to the frond type. Unlike proplastids of the turion primordia, numerous large amyloplasts occupied most of the turion cell volume. Moreover, the turion cell produced quite large starch grain (s) within the amyloplasts. Accumulation of the starch grains continued until they occupied the most of the stroma and in some cases, individual starch grains reached up to $9.0{\mu}m$ in length. None to little, if any, thylakoidal or internal membranous systems were seldom detected in these amyloplasts. Although the degree of cellular and tissue differentiation was rather minimal within their reduced body, the functional differentiation of Spirodela polyrhiza was very efficient, as is the case in other advanced species.

The Ultrastructure of the Chlorococcalean Picoplankton Isolated from the Western Channel of the Korea Strait (대한해협에서 분리한 초미세 녹조플랑크톤의 미세구조)

  • Chung, Ik-Kyo;Kang, Yoon-Hyang
    • 한국해양학회지
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.529-536
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    • 1995
  • A picophytoplankton has been isolated from the western channel of the Korea Strait. The cell was isolated by dilution method. It is about 2 ${\mu}m$ in diameter and has smooth surface. Organelles of nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondrion, Golgi body, pyrenoids, vacuoles and lipid bodies are identified. Pigments are composed of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, ${\beta}$-carotene and other xanthophylls. Based on the ultrastructural features and pigment composition, it may belong to chlorococcalean picoplankton.

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Lipid Peroxidation of Ginseng Thylakoid Membrane (인삼 틸라코이드 막의 지질과 산화)

  • 양덕조
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.135-141
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    • 1990
  • In order to elucidate the mechanism of the leaf-burning disease of ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer), the relationships between thylakoid membrane peroxidation and chlorophyll bleaching were investigated in comparison with the ones of soybean (Glycine max L). When I measured the rate of lipid peroxidation in the thylakoids of ginseng and soybean by irradiation of light(60 w.m-2), it was identified that, the remarkably lower rate of lipid peroxidation was found in the ginseng thylakoid than the case of soybean. When lipid peroxidation of ginseng thylakoid was induced in the dark, chlorophyll contents of thylakoid was not changed. The results suggest that lipid peroxidation does not affect the chlorophyll bleaching in ginseng thylakoid. Thylakoid membrane peroxidation as well as chlorophyll bleaching was closely related with photosynthetic electron transport. But, according to the quenching experiment active oxygen species induced lipid peroxidation may be different species in the case of chlorophyll bleaching.

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The effect of Antiseptics on the Galactolipid Metabolism of Chlorella ellipsoidea Chloroplast and Thylakoid Envelope (Chlorella ellipsoidea 엽록체막과 틸라코이드막의당지질 대사에 미치는 식품보존제의 효과)

  • 최은아;장재선;이종삼
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.221-231
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    • 1998
  • The biosynthesis of galactolipid and the composition of fatty acid in chloroplast and thylakoid envelope isolated from C. ellipsoidea treated with antiseptics (potassium sorbate: PS, sodium benzoate:SB, calcium propionate:CP) were analyzed. The contents of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) and total lipid in treatment with antiseptics were lower to compared with the control. The major fatty acid utilized for biosynthesis of MGDG in chloroplast envelope were palmitoleic acid (ave. 15.55%), oleic acid (ave. 15.09%) in control. Otherwise, the major fatty acids in P.S treatment were utilized for oleic acid (ave. 13.71%), linolenic acid (ave. 14.36%), palmitoleic acid (ave. 18.26%), oleic acid (ave. 17.26%) in S.B treatment, and oleic acid (ave. 16.88%), palmitoleic acid (ave. 16.31%) in CP treatment. It was showed that the major fatty acids in chloroplast envelope DGDG were oleic acid (ave. 15.75%), linolenic acid (ave. 17.74%) in control, oleic acid (ave. 14.90%), palmitoleic acid (ave. 15.97%) in P.S treatment, palmitoleic acid (ave. 13.29%), oleic acid (ave. 15.74%) in S.B treatment, and oleic acid (ave. 14.52%), palmitoleic acid (ave. 14.03%) in C.P treatment. The major fatty acid utilized for biosynthesis of MGDG in thylakoid envelope were linolenic acid (ave. 14.78%), oleic acid (ave. 12.90%) in control. Otherwise, the major fatty acids were utilized for palmitoleic acid (ave. 13.00%), palmitic acid (ave. 13.00%) in P.S treatment, palmitoleic acid (ave. 12.94%), oleic acid (ave. 12.43%) in S.B treatment, and oleic acid (ave. 12.43%), palmitoleic acid (ave. 12.43%) in C.P treatment. It was showed that the major fatty acids in thylakoid envelope DGDG were linolenic acid (ave. 18.01 %), oleic acid (ave. 15.53%) in control, linolenic acid (ave. 19.20%), linoleic acid (ave. 14.14%) in P.S treatment, palmitoleic acid (ave. 9.03%), oleic acid (ave. 14.85%) in S.B treatment, oleic acid (ave. 13.90%), linolneic acid(ave. 12.66%) in C.P treatment.

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Changes of Chloroplast Ultrastructure and Thylakoid Membrane Proteins during Growth of Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) Leaf (인삼(Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) 잎의 생장과정에 따른 엽록체 미세구조 및 틸라코이드막 단백질의 변화)

  • Ahn, Joung-Sook;Park, Hoon;Kim, Woo-Kap
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.275-280
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    • 1995
  • The formation of thylakoid membrane proteins and changes in the chloroplast ultrastructure of ginseng leaf were investigated as a function of time following the leaf emergence. The leaf chloroplast obtained just after the leaf emergence showed short rod-like thylakoids which were connected and arranged in 3~4 layers along the longitudinal axis of the chloroplast. The 10 DAE (days after emergence) chloroplast started to form grana structure. The typical grana structure was observed 17 DAE, and the grana was fully developed 28 DAE. The membrane proteins obtained from just after emerging leaf were separated into many minor bands indicating no CP-complex formation yet. LHC II was detected after 10 days. CP 47 and CP 43 were detected after 17 days. After 28 days, the PS I and PS II proteins were distinctly separated into CP 1, LHC II, CP 47, CP 43, CP 29, CP 27+24. Thus, the appearance of the light harvesting protein, LHC II, which was concentrated in grana stacks, was consis tent in time with the formation of grana stacks 17 DAE. Key words Chloroplast ultrastructure, grana, CP-complex, LHC II.

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