• Title, Summary, Keyword: 팽창파

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Estimation of the Terminal Velocity of the Worst-Case Fragment in an Underwater Torpedo Explosion Using an MM-ALE Finite Element Simulation (MM-ALE 유한요소 시뮬레이션을 이용한 수중 어뢰폭발에서의 최악파편의 종단속도 추정)

  • Choi, Byung-Hee;Ryu, Chang-Ha
    • Explosives and Blasting
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.13-24
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    • 2019
  • This paper was prepared to investigate the behavior of fragments in underwater torpedo explosion beneath a frigate or surface ship by using an explicit finite element analysis. In this study, a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) methodology, called the multi-material arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (MM-ALE) approach in LS-DYNA, was employed to obtain the responses of the torpedo fragments and frigate hull to the explosion. The Euler models for the analysis were comprised of air, water, and explosive, while the Lagrange models consisted of the fragment and the hull. The focus of this modeling was to examine whether a worst-case fragment could penetrate the frigate hull located close (4.5 m) to the exploding torpedo. The simulation was performed in two separate steps. At first, with the assumption that the expanding skin of the torpedo had been torn apart by consuming 30% of the explosive energy, the initial velocity of the worst-case fragment was sought based on a well-known experimental result concerning the fragment velocity in underwater bomb explosion. Then, the terminal velocity of the worst-case fragment that is expected to occur before the fragment hit the frigate hull was sought in the second step. Under the given conditions, the possible initial velocities of the worst-case fragment were found to be very fast (400 and 1000 m/s). But, the velocity difference between the fragment and the hull was merely 4 m/s at the instant of collision. This result was likely to be due to both the tremendous drag force exerted by the water and the non-failure condition given to the frigate hull. Anyway, at least under the given conditions, it is thought that the worst-case fragment seldom penetrate the frigate hull because there is no significant velocity difference between them.

Differences of central and autonomic responses between olfactory stimuli with Lavenar and Jasmin in human (Lavendar와 Jasmin으로 유발된 후각 강성에 대한 중추 및 자율신경계 반응)

  • 백은주;이윤영;하태환;임재중;이배환
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Emotion and Sensibility Conference
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    • pp.158-162
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    • 1998
  • 향에 의해 유발되는 감성에 대한 중추신경계 및 자율신경계의 반응의 변화를 측정하기 위해 안정시키는 향과 각성시키는 향을 사용하여 주관적 평가와 동시에 시행하였다. 안정시키는 향으로 1% Lavendar 향을 사용하였고, 각성시키는 향으로 0.8% Jasmin 향을 사용하였으며, 안정상태를 향자극 전후에 측정하여 대조군으로 사용하였다. 중추신경계의 지표로 뇌파측정을 하였고 뇌파의 전극은 international 10-20 system에서 4 채널을 사용하였으며, 자율신경계의 지표로는 심전도, heart rate, 피부저항, 피부온도를 기록하였다. 뇌파의 분석은 Fast Fourier Transform analysis의 power spectra로 하였고, 그 frequency bands는 theta(4-8Hz), alpha(8-l3Hz), beta(14-30Hz)로 하였다 또한 심전도를 이용하여 심전도 상의 연속적인 R-R peak간 시간간격을 시계열 데이터로 재구성한 Heart rate variability 분석도 하였다. HRV 분석을 보다 정확히 할 수 있도록 호흡이 심전도에 미치는 영향을 제거하기 위하여 호흡을 분당 20회로 일정하게 하였다 생체신호 측정과 동시에 실시한 주관적 검사에서 lavendar 향은 친숙하게, jasmin 향은 활기차고 상쾌하고 유쾌하게 평가되었다. 뇌파 분석에서 lavendar 향을 주었을 때 theta의 증가 양상을 보였으며, Jasmin 향을 주었을 때는 모든 채널에서 beta 파의 증가 양상을 보였다. 또한 HRV 분석 결과 부교삼신경의 활동성이 부각되는 HF/LF의 값이 lavendar에서는 대조 자극보다 높게 나타났으며, jasmin에서는 대조자극보다 낮은 값이 나타나는 경향을 보였다. 결론적으로 안정과 각성의 후각 자극으로 인한 감성의 변화를 뇌파와 자율신경계 등의 생체지표로 관찰할 수 있었다.정하는 감성요인의 차이를 알 수 있었으며 또한 essential oil에서는 성별 차이가 없는데 반해 페르몬 향의 경우 성별의 차이를 나타내었다.. 방법을 타액과 혈청내 testosterone 농도 측정에 응용하여 RIA의 결과와 비교하여 본 바 상관관계가 타액에서 r=0.969, 혈청에서 r=0.990으로 두 결과가 잘 일치하였다. 본 실험에서 측정된 한국인 여성의 타액내 testosterone농도는 107.7$\pm$12.0 pmol/l이었고, 남성의 타액내 농도는 274.2$\pm$22.1 pmol/l이었다. 이상의 결과로 보아 본 연구에서 정립된 EIA 방법은 RIA를 대신하여 소규모의 실험실에서도 활용할 수 있을 것으로 사려된다.또한 상실기 이후 배아에서 합성되며, 발생시기에 따라 그 영향이 다르고 팽창과 부화에 관여하는 것으로 사료된다. 더욱이, 조선의 ${\ulcorner}$구성교육${\lrcorner}$이 조선총독부의 관리하에서 실행되었다는 것을, 당시의 사범학교를 중심으로 한 교육조직을 기술한 문헌에 의해 규명시켰다.nd of letter design which represents -natural objects and was popular at the time of Yukjo Dynasty, and there are some documents of that period left both in Japan and Korea. "Hyojedo" in Korea is supposed to have been influenced by the letter design. Asite- is also considered to have been "Japanese Letter Jobcheso." Therefore, the purpose of this study is to loo

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Effects of High Voltage Pulsed Electric Fields on the Extraction of Carotenoid from Phaffia rhodozyma (Phaffia rhodozyma로부터 Carotenoid 추출에 미치는 고전압 펄스 전기장의 영향)

  • Kim, Nam-Hoon;Shin, Jung-Kue;Cho, Hyung-Yong;Pyun, Yu-Ryang
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.720-726
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    • 1999
  • High voltage pulsed electric fields (PEF) technology is a non-thermal technique which is applicable to extract useful components froms biological materials. This research suggested the possibility for extracting carotenoid pigments from Phaffia rhodozyma by PEF treatments. The yeast cell suspensions were treated with high voltage pulses in a recycled PEF treatment chamber which consists a pair of thin plates of stainless steel adhering to a small chamber with approximately $1{\sim}4\;mm$ gap. A 2.5 log reduction in survivability and more than 98% of electropermeabilization of the yeast cells could be achieved by PEF treatment for $300\;{\mu}s$ with an electric field of 30 kV/cm and pulse duration of $1\;{\mu}s$. When the yeast cell suspended in 0.01% NaCl solution were treated with PEF under various conditions, carotenoid pigments were not extracted. However, the PEF treatment of the yeast cell suspensions in 0.01% $CaCl_2$ solution, have positive effects on the extraction of carotenoid pigments ($27.3\;{\mu}g/g$ of dried yeast).

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Feasibility Study for the Cleaning of Well Screens using High-voltage Pulsed Discharge (고전압 펄스 방전을 이용한 지하수 관정 스크린 공막힘 재생법 연구)

  • Chung, Kyoung-Jae;Lee, Seok-Geun;Dang, Jeong-Jeung;Choi, Gil-Hwan;Hwang, Y.S.;Kim, Chul-Young;Park, Young-Jun
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.29-36
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    • 2013
  • The application of appropriate rehabilitation methods can improve the efficiency of clogged wells and extend their life. In this paper, we study the feasibility of well cleaning using high-voltage pulsed discharge, in which electrical energy is used to produce impulsive pressure in water, in contrast to conventional methods that employ chemical or pneumatic energy sources. This technique utilizes the compressive shock wave generated by the expansive force of hot, dense plasma that is produced during a pulsed discharge in the gap between electrodes immersed in water. Compared with conventional techniques, this method is simple, and easy to handle and control. Using a capacitive pulsed power system with an electrical energy of 200 J, an impulsive pressure of 10.7 MPa is achieved at the position 6 cm away from the discharge gap. The amplitude of the impulsive pressure was easily controlled by adjusting the charging voltage of the capacitor and was almost linearly proportional to peak discharge current. The technique achieved good results in cleaning feasibility tests with mock-up specimens similar to clogged well screens.

Experimental Analysis of a Supersonic Plasma Wind Tunnel Using a Segmented Arc Heater with the Power Level of 0.4 MW (0.4 MW 급 분절형 아크 히터를 이용한 초음속 플라즈마 풍동 특성 실험)

  • Kim, Min-Ho;Lee, Mi-Yeon;Kim, Jeong-Soo;Choi, Chea-Hong;Seo, Jun-Ho;Moon, Se-Yeon;Hong, Bong-Guen
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences
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    • v.41 no.9
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    • pp.700-707
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    • 2013
  • Experimental analyses on a supersonic plasma wind tunnel of CBNU (Chonbuk National University) were carried out. In these experiments, a segmented arc heater was employed as a plasma source and operated at the gas flow rates of 16.3 g/s and the total currents of 300 A. The input power reached ~350 kW with the torch efficiency of 51.4 %, which is defined as the ratio of total exit enthalpy to the input power. The pressure of plasma gas in the arc heater was measured up to 4 bar while it was down to ~45 mbar in a vacuum chamber through a Laval nozzle. During this conversion process, the generated supersonic plasma was expected to have a total enthalpy of ~11 MJ/kg from the measured input power and torch efficiency. In addition to the measurement of total enthalpy, a cone type probe was inserted into the supersonic plasma flow in order to estimate the angle between shock layer and surface of the probe. From these measurements, the temperature and the Mach number of the supersonic plasma were predicted as ~2,950 K and ~3.7, respectively.

Study on the Physico-chemical Properties of Rice Grains Harvested from Different Regions (재배환경이 다른 쌀의 이화적적 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Kwang-Ho Kim
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.234-242
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    • 1987
  • Rough rice samples of four rice varieties were collected from twenty five locations through the country just after 1986 rice growing season. Various characteristics related to rice grain quality were observed to clarify the degree of locational variation of physico-chemical properties, and cooking and eating quality of rice grains. Grain weight, grain shape, degree of translucency and chalkiness of rice grain, amylogram properties of rice flour, water uptake during cooking, and cooked rice appearance were different between varieties tested. High degree of locational variation were found in following characteristics, degree of translucency and chalkiness of rice grain, water uptake during cooking, cooked rice appearance and amylogram properties. Eating quality of cooked rice indicated by sensory score showed different tendency of locational variation between rice varie-ties tested, and locations produced rice grains showing better eating quality were not coinside with among varieties tested. Grain weight, degree of translucency and chalkiness of rice grain, and cooked rice appearance of rice samples showing better eating quality were quite different to rice grains showing poor eating quality. Rice having better eating quality of a japonica variety, Chucheong, showed higher value of peak and final viscosity, viscosity after cooling, consistency and set back on amylograph compared with those of poor eating quality rices, and break down value of better rice was lower than that of poor rice. However, a Tongil type variety, Taebaek, did not show any consistent difference between better and poor rices. Rice samples from six locations in Chucheong and four locations in Taebaek showed special properties on amylogram compared with other rices collected in this study.

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