• Title, Summary, Keyword: 펄스레이저

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Study on the Composition and Crystallization of TiNi Thin Films Fabricated by Pulsed Laser Deposition in Ambient Ar Gas (Ar가스 분위기에서 PLD방법으로 제작된 TiNi박막의 조성 및 결정성에 관한 연구)

  • Cha, J.O.;Shin, C.H.;Yeo, S.J.;Ahn, J.S.;Nam, T.H.
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.116-121
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    • 2007
  • TiNi shape memory alloy(SMA) was fabricated by PLD(plused laser deposition) using equiatomic TiNi target. Composition and crystallization of TiNi thin films which were fabricated in ambient Ar gas(200m Torr)and vacuum($5{\times}10^{-6}\;Torr$) were investigated. Composition of TiNi thin films was characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXS) and crystallization was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The composition of films depends on the distance between target and substrate but does not sensitively depend on the substrate temperature. It is found that the composition of films can be easily controlled when substrate is placed inside plume in ambient Ar gas. It is also found that the in situ crystallization temperature ($ca.\;400^{\circ}C$) in ambient Ar gas is lowered in comparison with that of TiNi film prepared under vacuum. The low crystallization temperature in ambient Ar gas makes it possible to prepare the crystalline TiNi thin film without contamination.

Measurement of the Flow Field in a River (LSPIV에 의한 하천 표면유속장의 관측)

  • Kim, Young-Sung;Yang, Jae-Rheen
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.1812-1816
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    • 2009
  • 이미지 해석에 의한 유속장 측정방법은 유체역학분야에서 지난 30 여년 동안 많이 활용되어온 속도측정 기법으로 오늘날에는 이를 수공학 분야에서 이를 유량측정 등 수리현상 해석에 활용하려는 시도가 다각적으로 이루어지고 있다. 이에 본 연구에서는 이미지 해석에 의한 유속장 측정방법을 용담댐 시험유역에 적용하여 그의 자연하천에서의 적용성을 검토하고자 한다. 이미지 해석에 의한 유속장 측정방법은 PIV(Particle Image Velocimetry)로 통칭되고 있으며, PIV는 seeding, illumination, recording, 및 image processing의 네 가지 요소로 구성된다. seeding을 위해서 유체를 따라 흐를수 있는 작은 입자를 유체에 첨가한다. 유체를 따라 흐르는 입자들의 선명한 이미지를 얻기 위해서illumination이 필요하다. PIV를 이용하여 흐름을 해석하기 위한 illumination은 일반적으로 이중펄스 레이저가 이용된다. 이렇게 유속장 해석을 하려는 유체에 대하여 seeding 및 illumination이 준비되면 단일노출- 다중 프레임법, 혹은 다중노출-단일 프레임법으로 흐름을 recording을 한다. image processing은 이미지를 다운로드하고, 디지타이징 및 화질향상을 하는 전처리(pre-processing), 상관계수의 산정에 의한 유속 벡터의 결정 및 에러 벡터를 제거하고 유속장을 그래프화하는 후처리(post-processing) 과정으로 구성된다. LSPIV(Large Scale PIV)는 PIV의 기본원리를 근거로 하여 기존의 PIV에 비하여 실험실 내에서의 수리모형실험이나 일반 하천에서의 유속측정과 같은 큰 규모$(4m^2\sim45,000m^2$)의 흐름해석을 할 수 있도록 Fujita et al.(1994)와 Aya et al.(1995)이 확장시킨 것이다. PIV와 비교시 LSPIV의 다른 점은 넓은 흐름 표면적을 포함하기 위하여 촬영시에 카메라의 광축과 흐름 사이의 각도가 PIV에서 이용하는 수직이 아닌 경사각을 이용하였고 이에 따라 발생하는 이미지의 왜곡을 제거하기 위하여 이미지 변환기법을 적용하여 왜곡이 없는 정사촬영 이미지로 변환시킨다. 이후부터는 PIV의 이미지 처리 방법이 적용되어 표면유속을 산정한다. 다만 이미지 변환을 PIV 이미지 처리 전에 하느냐 후에 하느냐에 따라 유속장 해석결과에 차이가 있다. PIV의 네가지 단계를 포함하여 LSPIV의 각 단계를 구분하면, seeding, illumination, recording, image transformation,image processing 및 post-processing의 여섯 단계로 나뉘어진다 (Li, 2002). LSPIV를 적용시 물표면 입자의 Tracing을 위하여 자연하천에서 사용하기에 적합한 환경친화적인 seeding 재료인 Wood Mulch를 사용하여 유속을 측정하였다. 적용지점은 용담댐 상류의 동향수위관측소 지점으로 이 지점은 한국수자원공사의 수자원시험유역이 위치하고 있다. 이미지의 촬영은 가정용 비디오 캠코더 (Sony DCR-PC 350)을 이용하여 두 줄기의 흐름에 대하여 각각 약 5분 동안의 영상을 촬영한후 이중에서 seeding의 분포가 잘 이루어진 약 1분간을 추출한후 이를 이용하여 PIV 분석에 이용하였다. 대체적으로 유속장의 계산이 무난하게 이루어지었으나 비교적 수질 상태가 양호하고, 수심이 낮고, 하상재료가 자갈로 이루어져 있어 비슷한 색상의 seeding 재료를 추적하기 어려운 구간이 발생한 부분에서는 유속의 계산이 정확히 이루어지지 않았다.

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A Study on he Optical and Electrical Properties of $In_2O_3-ZnO$ Thin Films Fabricated by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD 법으로 제작한 $In_2O_3-ZnO$ 박막의 광학적 및 전기적 특성)

  • Shin, Hyun-Ho;Han, Jung-Woo;Kang, Seong-Jun;Yoon, Yung-Sup
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SD
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    • v.45 no.7
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    • pp.32-36
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    • 2008
  • In this study, $In_2O_3-ZnO$ thin films are prepared on quartz substrates by the pulsed laser deposition and their optical and electrical properties are investigated as the function of substrate temperatures ($200{\sim}600^{\circ}C$) at the fixed oxygen pressure of 200 mTorr. The XRD measurement shows that polycrystalline $In_2O_3-ZnO$ thin films are formed. In the XRD measurement, the intensity of the (400) $In_2O_3$ peak at $35.5^{\circ}$ decreases and that of the (222) $In_2O_3$ peak at $30.6^{\circ}$ increases with the increase substrate temperature up to $500^{\circ}C$. From the result of AFM measurement, the morphology of $In_2O_3-ZnO$ thin films are observed as round-type grains. The lowest surface roughness (6.15 nm) is obtained for the $In_2O_3-ZnO$ thin film fabricated at $500^{\circ}C$. The optical transmittance of $In_2O_3-ZnO$ thin films are higher than 82% in the visible region. The maximum carrier concentration of $2.46{\times}10^{20}cm^{-3}$ and the minimum resistivity of $1.36{\times}10^{-3}{\Omega}cm$ are obtained also for the $In_2O_3-ZnO$ thin film fabricated at $500^{\circ}C$.

Performance Improvement of ZnO Thin Films for SAW Bandpass Filter (SAW 대역 통과 필터용 ZnO 박막의 특성 개선 연구)

  • Lee, Seung-Hwan;Kang, Kwang-Yong;Yu, Yun-Sik
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.25 no.12
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    • pp.1219-1227
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    • 2014
  • For development of the surface acoustic wave bandpass filter(SAW-BPF), we fabricated the high quality ZnO thin films through the step-by-step(double) deposition using two different deposition methods which are pulsed laser deposition(PLD) and RF sputtering techniques. The second growth of ZnO thin films was completed by RF sputtering method on the first ZnO thin films pre-deposited by PLD method. The characteristics of ZnO thin films were analyzed by XRD, SEM and AFM systems. The FWHM of ${\omega}$-scan analysis and the minimum RMS value of surface roughness of step-by-step grown ZnO thin films were $0.79^{\circ}$ and 1.108 nm respectively. As a result, the crystallinity and the preferred orientation of the grown ZnO thin films were kept good quality and the surface roughnesses of those were improved by post-annealing process as comparison with ZnO thin film fabricated by the conventional PLD technique only. Using these proposed ZnO thin films, we demonstrated the RF device such as SAW-BPF, built by the proposed ZnO thin films, shows that it has the bandwidth of 2.98 MHz and the insertion loss of 36.5 dB at the center frequency of 260.8 MHz, respectively.

3-Dimensional LADAR Optical Detector Development in Geiger Mode Operation (Geiger Mode로 동작하는 3차원 LADAR 광수신기 개발)

  • Choi, Soon-Gyu;Shin, Jung-Hwan;Kang, Sang-Gu;Hong, Jung-Ho;Kwon, Yong-Joon;Kang, Eung-Cheol;Lee, Chang-Jae
    • Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.176-183
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    • 2013
  • In this paper, we report the design, fabrication and characterization of the 3-Dimensional optical receiver for a Laser Detection And Ranging (LADAR) system. The optical receiver is composed of three parts; $16{\pm}16$ Geiger Mode InGaAs Avalanche Photodiode (APD) array device operated at 1560 nm wavelength, Read Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC) measuring the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) of the return signal reflected from target objects, a package and cooler maintaining the proper operational condition of the detector and control electronics. We can confirm that the LADAR system can detect the signal from a target up to 1.2 km away, and it showed low Dark Count Rate (DCR) of less than 140 kHz, and higher than 28%-Photon Detection Efficiency (PDE). This is considered to be the best performance of the $16{\pm}16$ FPA APD optical receiver for a LADAR system.

A STUDY OF THE MECHANISM OF IMPROVING ACID RESISTANCE OF BOVINE TOOTH ENAMEL AFTER PULSED Nd-YAG LASER IRRADIATION (펄스형 Nd-YAG 레이저 조사에 의한 법랑질 내산성 증가 기전에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Young-Soon;Shon, Heung-Kyu
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.640-658
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    • 1996
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanism of improving acid resistance of Nd-YAG laser irradiated tooth enamel and determine the most effective energy density for improving acid resistance. The bovine tooth enamel were lased with a pulsed Nd-YAG laser. The energy densities of exposed laser beam were varied from 10 to $70\;J/cm^2$. To investigate the degree of improving acid resistance by irradiation, all the samples were submerged to demineralize in 0.5 N $HClO_4$ solution for 1 minute. After 1 minute, 0.05 % $LaCl_3$ was added to the solution for interrupting the demineralization reaction. The amounts of dissolved calcium and phosphate in the solution were measured by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer and the UV/VIS spectrophotometer, respectively. To examine the mechanism of improving acid resistance, X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were taken. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the samples were obtained in the $10^{\circ}{\sim}80^{\circ}2{\theta}$ range with $Cu-K{\alpha}$ radiation using M18HF(Mac Science Co.) with X-ray diffractometer operating at 40 KV and 300 mA. The infra-red spectra of the ground samples in 300 mg KBr pellets 10 mm diameter were obtained in the $4000cm^{-1}\;to\;400cm^{-1}$ range using JASCO 300E spectrophotometer. The scanning electron microscopy was carried out using JSM6400(JEOL Co.) with $500{\sim}2000$ times magnification. The results were as follow 1. The concentration of calcium dissolved from laser irradiated enamel with $50J/cm^2$ was significantly lesser than that of unlased control group (p<0.05) 2. From the result of the X-ray diffraction analysis, $\beta$-TCP, which increases acid solubility, was identified in lased enamel but the diffraction peaks of (002) and (004) became sharp with increasing energy density of laser irradiation. This means that the crystals in lased samples were grown through the c-axis and subsequently, the acid solubility of enamel decreased. 3. The a-axis parameter was slightly increased by laser irradiation, whereas the c-axis parameter was almost constant except for a little decrease at $50J/cm^2$. 4. In the infra-red spectra of lased enamels, phosphate bands ($600{\sim}500cm^{-1}$), B-carbonate bands (870, $1415{\sim}1455cm^{-1}$), and A-carbonate band ($1545cm^{-1}$) were observed. The amounts of phosphate bands and the B-carbonate bands were reduced, on the other hand, the amount of the A-carbonate band was increased by increase the energy density. 5. The SEM experiments reveal that the surface melting and recrystallization were appeared at $30J/cm^2$ and the cracks were observed at $70J/cm^2$. From above results, It may be suggested that the most effective energy density for improving acid resistance of tooth enamel with the irradiation of Nd-YAG laser was $50J/cm^2$. The mechanism of improving acid resistance were reduction of permeability due to surface melting and recrystallization of lased enamel and reduction of acid solubility of enamel due to decrease of carbonate content and growth of crystal.

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Rapid Detection of Radioactive Strontium in Water Samples Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)를 이용한 방사성 스트론튬 오염물질에 대한 신속한 모니터링 기술)

  • Park, Jin-young;Kim, Hyun-a;Park, Kihong;Kim, Kyoung-woong
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.341-352
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    • 2017
  • Along with Cs-137 (half-life: 30.17 years), Sr-90 (half-life: 28.8 years) is one of the most important environmental monitoring radioactive elements. Rapid and easy monitoring method for Sr-90 using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has been studied. Strontium belongs to a bivalent alkaline earth metal such as calcium and has similar electron arrangement and size. Due to these similar chemical properties, it can easily enter into the human body through the food chain via water, soil, and crops when leaked into the environment. In addition, it is immersed into the bone at the case of human influx and causes the toxicity for a long time (biological half-life: about 50 years). It is a very reductive and related with the specific reaction that makes wet analysis difficult. In particular, radioactive strontium should be monitored by nuclear power plants but it is very difficult to be analysed from high-cost problems as well as low accuracy of analysis due to complicated analysis procedures, expensive analysis equipment, and a pretreatment process of using massive chemicals. Therefore, we introduce the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis method that analyzes the elements in the sample using the inherent spectrum by generating plasma on the sample using pulse energy, and it can be analyzed in a few seconds without preprocessing. A variety of analytical plates for samples were developed to improve the analytical sensitivity by optimizing the laser, wavelength, and time resolution. This can be effectively applied to real-time monitoring of radioactive wastewater discharged from a nuclear power plant, and furthermore, it can be applied as an emergency monitoring means such as possible future accidents at a nuclear power plants.