• Title, Summary, Keyword: 평균응력

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Effect of Average and Cyclic Shear Stress on Undrained Cyclic Behavior of Marine Silty Sand (해양 실트질 모래의 비배수 동적 거동에 대한 평균 및 반복전단응력의 영향)

  • Muhammad, Safdar;Son, Su-Won;Kim, Jin-Man
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.17-25
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    • 2014
  • Offshore wind turbine foundations are subjected to wind, current and wave loadings. Hence, both static and cyclic behaviors of foundation's soil are important for the design of offshore wind turbine foundation. Undrained cyclic behaviors of soils depend upon the number of loading cycles, vertical effective stress, cyclic shear strain, relative density, and the combination of cyclic and average shear stresses. In order to evaluate the effect of average and cyclic shear stresses on the undrained cyclic behavior of marine silty sand, cyclic direct simple shear (CDSS) tests are performed with relative density of 85%, vertical effective stress of 200 and 300 kPa, and failure criteria of either 15% double amplitude cyclic shear strain (${\gamma}_{cyc}$) or permanent shear strain (${\gamma}_{p}$). The results are presented in the form of design graphs or contour diagrams. The undrained cyclic behavior of marine silty sand is found to be dependent on cyclic and average shear stresses and/or the combination of both shear stresses. It is found that when significant average shear stress exists the permanent or progressive shear strain is the govering failure criteria instead of cyclic shear strain.

Area-Averaged Solution of Peening Residual Stress Using a 3D Multi-impact Symmetry-cell FE Model with Plastic Shots (소성숏이 포함된 3차원 다중충돌 대칭-셀 해석모델을 이용한 면적평균 피닝잔류응력해)

  • Kim, Tae-Hyung;Lee, Hyung-Yil
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.310-320
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    • 2009
  • In this paper, we estimate area-averaged solution of peening residual stress using a 3-D multi-impact symmetry-cell FE model. The symmetry-cell model includes factors reflecting peening phenomena and plastic shot. Area-averaged solution is much closer to XRD experimental solution than 4-node-averaged solution in plastic shot FE model. We then obtain FE Almen saturation curve corresponding to experimental Almen curve based on area-averaged solution. Using the curve, we obtain FE area-averaged solution in major peening materials, and compare the FE solution with experimental solution. In peening materials, surface, maximum compressive residual stress and deformation depth reach experimental solutions. Thus, FE Almen curve is useful for estimation of residual stress solution and could improve the efficiency of peening process. Consequently, it is confirmed that concept of area-averaged solution is the realistic analytical method for evaluation of peening residual stress.

Micromechanical Analysis for Transverse Properties of Ceramic/Metal Composite (세라믹/금속기지 복합재료의 특성예측을 위한 미시역학적 유한요소해석)

  • 김태우;박상환
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.575-581
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    • 2001
  • 세라믹/금속기지 복합재료에서 횡방향의 단축인장하중을 받는 경우, 복합재료의 특성에 관한 시뮬레이션 결과이다. 세라믹과 금속기지간 계면에 강한 결합이 존재하는 복합재와, 계면에서의 결합이 약한 복합재의 두 경우에 대하여 횡방향 평균응력과 평균변형율에 대한 관계를 계산하였다. 복합재료의 미시역학적개념과 유한요소해석법을 적용하여 세라믹체적분율의 변화에 따라 각기 해석되었다. 본 연구에서 계산된 횡방향 탄성계수는 문헌에 알려져 있는 미시역학개념으로 유도된 식에 의한 횡방향탄성계수값과 잘 일치되었다. 계면에서 강한 결합이 있는 복합재와는 달리, 약한 결합의 복합재는 인장하중에 의하여 세라믹/금속계면에서 금속재료와 세라믹간의 분리가 발생된다. 이 분리는 전체복합재의 강성을 감소시키며, 금속의 부피분율이 감소될수록 (즉, 세라믹의 부피분율이 증가할수록) 횡방향 평균응력의 평균변형율에 대한 감소로 나타났다. 미시역학의 개념을 적용한 유한요소해석기법을 통하여, 이미 알고 있는 복합재 각 성분의 특성으로부터 복합재료의 계면특성과 횡방향특성을 예측할 수 있다.

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Impact of Drag-Related Weighting Coefficients in Vegetated Open-Channel Flows (식생된 개수로에서 항력가중계수가 흐름에 미치는 영향 분석)

  • Kang, Hyeongsik;Choi, Sung-Uk
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.26 no.5B
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    • pp.529-537
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    • 2006
  • This paper investigates the impacts of the drag-related weighting coefficients on mean velocity and turbulence structures. The transport equations for the Reynolds stress of vegetated open-channel flows are derived by using the temporal- and horizontal-averaging scheme. It is found that the total Reynolds stress of vegetated open channel flows consists of the Reynolds stress due to temporally fluctuating velocities and the Reynolds stress due to spatially fluctuating velocities. The drag-related weighting coefficient $C_{fk}$ for the total Reynolds stress component is found to be unit, while the coefficient for the Reynolds stress due to temporally fluctuating velocities can be negligible. This is the reason why very small weighting coefficients in previous studies yield very good agreements with measured data. In other words, the Reynolds stress due to spatially fluctuating velocities remains still unknown, especially due to the large number of measuring locations. Through a developed Reynolds stress model, vegetated open-channel flows are simulated and compared with measured data from the literature. Comparisons reveal that the computed mean flow and Reynolds stress structures are hardly affected by the drag-related weighting coefficients. However, the computed turbulence intensity profiles are significant different with the drag-related weighting coefficients. A budget analysis of the transport equations for the Reynolds stress component is carried to investigate why turbulence intensity is affected by the drag-related weighting coefficients.

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Effect of Stress History on CPT-DMT Correlations in Granular Soil (응력이력이 사질토의 CPT-DMT 상관관계에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Moon-Joo;Choi, Sung-Kun;Kim, Min-Tae;Lee, Ju-Hyeong;Lee, Woo-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.26 no.7
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    • pp.7-16
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    • 2010
  • Stress history increases the residual horizontal stress of granular soil and, consequently, the penetration resistance. This study analyzes the effect of stress history on the cone resistance ($q_c$), horizontal stress index ($K_D$) and dilatometer modulus ($E_D$) of CPT and DMT from calibration chamber specimen in OC as well as NC state. Test results show that the normalized cone resistance by mean effective stress correlates well with the relative density and the state parameter, whereas the normalized cone resistance by vertical effective stress is a little affected by stress history. The influence of stress history is more reflected on $K_D$ than $E_D$ and $q_c$. The $K_D/K_0$, in which the effect of stress history on $K_D$ is compensated by the at-rest coefficient of earth pressure, $K_0$, is related to relative density, state parameter and the normalized cone resistance by mean effective stress. It is also observed that the normalized dilatometer modulus by mean effective stress ($E_D/{\sigma}_m'$) shows a unique correlation with the state parameter, regardless of stress history.

소성가공에 관한 몇 가지 현상 해설

  • Choe, Jae-Chan
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.5-12
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    • 1985
  • 압력유도연성(Pressure-lnduced Ductility) : 금속성형공정에서의 가장 중요한 인자는 가공물의 연성이다. 금속학적인 측면에서의 연성이란 실온에서 측정되는 것이며 가장 일반적인 연성연성측정방법은 인장시험이다. 금속재료의 연성을 증가시키기 위한 보통의 방법은 가열이며 대부분의 경우 가열된 재료는 보다 연하게 되므로, 보통가열은 변형한도를 증가시키고 성형력을 줄이기 위해 사용되어 왔다. 그 런데 Bridgman은 금속의 연성이란 금속학적 성질 뿐 아니라 주변압력이라는 기계적 방법에 의해서도 조정될 수 있다는 것을 지적하였다. 그는 응력-연신률 선도에서 얻어진 금속의 연성은 정수압을 가함으로써 증가될 수 있다는 것을 보였다. 중간응력, 평균응력, 정수압 응력, 정수압 압력, 주변압력 등의 용어가 같은 의미로 사용되어진다. 재료의 금속학적성질 뿐 아니라 공정의 압력도 변수로 작용하여 성형성을 개선시키게 되는데 이런 현상을 압력유도연성(PID)은 주변압력이 재료내부에서의 공동발생 및 그 성장을 억제하기 때문에 얻어진다. 공동 의 합체 및 성장은 연성파괴의 전제조건이 되므로 이러한 현상이 발생되지 않도록 하면 성형성 및 연성이 증가된다. 공동의 형성 및 예방 과 인장봉의 강도와 변형에 미치는 압력효과의 수학적 해석은 참고문헌 2에 나타나 있다. 이 압력유도연성은 Bobrowsky, Pugh와 Green, Alexander등에 의해 확인되었다.

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Variation of Wave Set-Up/set-Down due to the Evaluation of Radiation Stress (라디에이션 응력의 평가방법에 따른 평균수위변화)

  • 김경호;차기욱;조재희;윤영호
    • Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.263-270
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    • 1993
  • A study on the variation of radiation stress and mean water level is carried out for the shoaling and breaking waves on a plane beach. In general, the radiation stresses computed based on the linear wave theory are overestimated. which results in the discrepancy between the computed results and laboratory data of mean water level in the surf zone. In this paper, by modifying the Svendsen's approach (1984), radiation stress is expressed in terms of water depth. The computed results are compared with the results calculated by a linear wave theory and Sawaragi's approach (1984) based on the spectrum of breaking wave components, and published laboratory data. The computed results of the modifed Svendsen's approach are favourably compared with the laboratory data.

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Fatigue Life Estimation of Welded Components Considering Welding Residual Stress Relaxation and Its Mean Stress Effect (잔류응력 이완 및 이의 평균응력 효과를 고려한 용접부 피로수명 평가)

  • Han, Seung-Ho;Han, Jeong-Woo;Shin, Byung-Chun;Kim, Jae-Hoon
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.175-182
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    • 2003
  • The fatigue life of welded joints is sensitive to welding residual stress and complexity of their geometric shapes. To predict the fatigue life more reasonably. the effects of welding residual stress and its relaxation on their fatigue strengths should be considered quantitatively, which are often regarded to be equivalent to the effects of mean stresses by external loads. The hot-spot stress concept should be also adopted which can reduce the dependence of fatigue strengths for various welding details. Considering the factors mentioned above, a fatigue life prediction model using the modified Goodman's diagram was proposed. In this model, an equivalent stress was introduced which is composed of the mean stress based on the hot-spot stress concept and the relaxed welding residual stress. From the verification of the proposed model to real welding details, it is proved that this model can be applied to predict reasonably their fatigue lives.

Flume experiments for turbulent flow around a spur dike (수제 주위의 난류 특성 변화에 대한 실험 연구)

  • Jeon, Jeongsook;Kang, Seokkoo
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.49 no.8
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    • pp.707-717
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    • 2016
  • In this study we carried out laboratory experiments to investigate the three-dimensional turbulent flows around a spur dike installed in a straight open channel flume. The experiments are conducted under the two different Froude numbers, 0.100 and 0.185. The three-dimensional instantaneous velocities are measured using the Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV) to obtain the time-averaged velocities and the turbulence stresses. The measured flow field reveal the existence of the recirculation zones downstream of the dike, which is characterized by high turbulence stresses near its boundaries. The results show that although the overall mean flow patterns between the low and high Froude number cases are very similar to each other, there exist moderate changes in the maximum dimensionless turbulence stresses and the maximum dimensionless bed shear stress with the increase of the Froude number.

Influence of mean strain on the behavior of early stage stress amplitude in low cycle fatigue of quenched and tempered SM45C steel (퀜칭-템퍼링한 SM45C강의 저주기 피로에 있어서 초기단계 응력진폭 거동에 미치는 평균변형의 영향)

  • Choe, Jae-Yeong;Lee, Nae-Seong;Kim, Chang-Ju;Kim, Gyeong-Hyeon
    • 한국기계연구소 소보
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    • pp.169-175
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    • 1988
  • The influence of mean strain on the behavior of early stage stress amplitude was investigated quantitatively in low cycle fatigue. It was obtained that the exponent of cyclic strain(n') and the coefficient of cyclic strain(C') decreased with increasing cycle numbers in compressive mean strain level. But it was the opposite in 0% mean strain and tensile mean strain level. And the cyclic yield strength ($\delta_(yc)$) was constant irrespective of mean strain or cyclic strain

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