• Title, Summary, Keyword: 평균응력

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DYNAMIC MODEL DURING EMERGENCY MEDICAL TECHNICIANS LIFTING POSTURES (응급구조사들의 들어 올리는 자세의 동역학적 모델 분석)

  • Shin, Dong Min
    • The Korean Journal of Emergency Medical Services
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.169-178
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    • 2004
  • 본 연구의 목적은 응급구조사들이 긴 척추고정판을 이용하여 환자를 들어 올리는 3가지 다른 자세와 다른 3가지 부하 조건을 이용하여, 요추 4번과 5번의 압축력, 전단응력 그리고 합력의 변화를 동역학적 모델을 제시하기 위한 분석이다. 연구방법 : 36명의 남자가 본 연구의 실험에 자발적으로 동원되었으며, 나이는 평균 21.42세이고, 신장은 평균 174.05cm이며, 체중은 평균 78.05kg이다. 이 실험에서 부하 조건은 50, 70, 90kg이고, 들어 올리는 높이는 지상에서부터 95cm 이었으며, 들어 올리는 동안의 회전고리는 110cm이었다. 운동현상학적 자료는 2-D ProReflex Motion Capture Camera을 이용하였으며, sampling rate는 60Hz로 하였다. 결과 및 논의 : 동역학적 데이터 자료를 근거로 한 본 연구의 결론은 다음과 같다. Lunge 자세기술에서 전단응력과 합력 등이 최소의 stress로 요추 4번 5번에 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 그러나 Lunge 기술에서 압축력은 약간 증가되는 것으로 나타났다. 이 연구에서 Stooped 자세기술에서는 아주 큰 전단응력과 합력 등이 요추 4번, 5번 관절에 넓게 작용하는 것으로 나타났으며, 이는 들어 올리는 동작을 할 때 상해의 원인이 된다고 사료된다. 특히 응급구조사들이 들것을 들어 올릴 때 너무 큰 전단응력이 요추 4번, 5번 관절에 작용을 하면 비정상적으로 병리학상 또는 해부학상 신체적변화가 온다고 해석할 수 있다. 그래서 응급구조사들에게 들것을 들어올리는 stooped 자세는 아주 크고 많은 합력 작용하기 때문에 권고될만한 기술이 아니라고 해석 된다. Squat 자세에서 중간 정도의 압축력, 전단응력 그리고 합력이 작용된다. 만약 응급구조사가 전단응력 그리고 합력이 요추에 미치는 영향이 가장 걱정된다면, lunge 자세가 두 가지 힘을 줄여줄 수 있다고 사료된다. 마지막으로 응급구조사가 들것을 들어올리는 데는 squat 자세 기술이 가장 좋다고 사료 된다.

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Wall Shear Stress Distribution in the Abdominal Aortic Bifurcation : Influence of wall Motion, Impedance Phase Angle, and non-Newtonian fluid (복부대동맥 분기관에서의 벽면전단응력 분포 벽면운동과 임피던스 페이즈 앵글과 비뉴턴유체의 영향)

  • Choi J.H.;Kim C.J.;Lee C.S.
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.261-271
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    • 2000
  • The present study investigated flow dynamics of a two-dimensional abdominal aortic bifurcation model under sinusoidal flow conditions considering wall motion. impedance phase angle(time delay between pressure and flow waveforms), and non-Newtonian fluid using computational fluid dynamics. The wall shear stress showed large variations in the bifurcated region and the wall motion reduced amplitude of wall shear stress significantly. As the impedance phase angle was changed to more negative values, the mean wall shear stress (time-averaged) decreased while the amplitude (oscillatory) of wall shear stress increased. At the curvature site on the outer wall where the mean wall shear stress approached zero. influence of the phase angle was relatively large. The mean wall shear stress decreased by $50\%$ in the $-90^{\circ}$ phase angle (flow wave advanced pressure wave by a quarter period) compared to the $0^{\circ}$ phase angle while the amplitude of wall shear stress increased by $15\%$. Therefore, hypertensive patients who tend to have large negative phase angles become more vulnerable to atherosclerosis according to the low and oscillatory shear stress theory because of the reduced mean and the increased oscillatory wall shear stresses. Non-Newtonian characteristics of fluid substantially increased the mean wall shear stress resulting in a less vulnerable state to atherosclerosis.

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Hydrostatic pressure in the center of wire drawing and extrusion of viscoplastic material (점소성 재료의 인발과 변형역 중심에서의 정수압에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, Hung Kuk
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.170-177
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    • 1981
  • 1,200.deg.C에서의 단조철은 점소성을 나타내며 인발과 압출시 변형영역이 구형수렴형태가 됨을 실험을 통하여 나타난다. 이 변형역 모델로부터 평형방정식을 사용하여 평균 압출 및 인발응력과 정수압을 계산해 낸다. 평균 압출 및 임발응력은 상계 해석 방법에 의한 결과와 비교하여 본 연구의 해석방법의 유효성을 타진하고 정수압은 다른 연구자들의 결과와 비교 검토되며 특히 냉간가공의 경우와 비교 검토 된다. 그 외에 마찰계수, 급형각도와 단면감소율의 영향에 대해서도 논의 된다.

Stability Estimation of the Pillar between Twin Tunnels Considering Various Site Conditions (다양한 현장조건을 고려한 병설터널 필라의 안정성평가)

  • Kim, Ju-Hwan;Kim, Jong-Woo
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.109-119
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    • 2017
  • A lot of twin tunnels were modelled with different pillar widths, rock mass classes and stress ratios in order to consider various site conditions, and the stabilities of the pillars were estimated by numerical analyses and scaled model tests. The strength-stress ratios of the pillar were obtained from three different methods which were using the stresses appeared at the middle point, the whole average and the left/right edges of the pillar. The strength-stress ratio of the pillar edges showed relatively conservative values among them, and it was also practically consistent with the tunnel excavating steps comprising the construction sequence analyses which included the partial excavation and the support system. Scaled model tests were also performed to investigate the tunnel stability, where it was found that cracks were progressively generated from the pillar edges toward the middle point of the pillar. Therefore, in order to both prevent the local damage of pillar and conservatively estimate the tunnel stability, it was thought to be an appropriate method using the strength-stress ratio obtained from the left/right edges of the pillar.

A Study on the Behavior of the Adhesive Failure of RC Beams Strengthened by Carbon Fiber Sheet (탄소섬유쉬트로 보강된 철근콘크리트보의 부착파괴거동에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • 박칠림;황진석;박형철;백명종
    • Magazine of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.157-164
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    • 1997
  • 최근 손상된 구조물에 탄소섬유쉬트 보강공법이 많이 사용되고 있다. 탄소섬유쉬트 보강에 따른 휨내력의 증진이 이루어지기 위해서는 보와 탄소섬유쉬트의 일체거동이 이루어져야 하며, 쉬트단부에서 부착파괴가 발생하지 않아야 한다. 따라서 이번 실험에서는 탄소섬유쉬트의 보강매수에 따른 부착파괴의 거동을 살펴보았다. 전시험체에서 부착파괴가 발생하였으며 부착파괴가 발생한 하중의 크기는 보강매수에 관계없이 비슷하였다. 부착파괴의 거동은 순수부착파괴와 피복박리파괴로 구분될 수 있었으며 부착응력은 단부에서 집중현상이 나타났고 집중된 응력의 크기는 15.39~41.42kg/$\textrm{cm}^2$로 나타났다. 정착길이내의 평균부착응력은 6.85~8.99kg/$\textrm{cm}^2$으로서 평균 7.38kg/$\textrm{cm}^2$이고 이 값은 이론치인 6.19kg/$\textrm{cm}^2$보다 약간 높으며 설계부착응력인 6kg/$\textrm{cm}^2$에 부합되는 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 설계부착응력 6kg/$\textrm{cm}^2$은 정착길이의 설계시 합리적 값으로 평가되었다.

Effect of Mean Stress on Probability Distribution of Random Grown Crack size in Magnesium Alloy AZ31 (평균응력이 AZ31 마그네슘합금의 렌덤진전균열크기 확률분포에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Seon-Soon;Lee, Ouk-Sub
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Manufacturing Technology Engineers
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.536-543
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    • 2009
  • In this paper the mean stress effects on the probability distribution of the random grown crack size at a specified loading cycle are studied through the fatigue crack propagation tests, which are conducted on the specimens of magnesium alloy under four different stress ratios. Through 80 replicates the probability distributions of the grown crack size are obtained. The goodness-of-fit for probability distributions of the random grown crack size are investigated by Anderson-Darling test and the best fit for those probability distributions is found to be a 3-parameter Weibull distribution. The effects of the mean stress on the probability distribution of the random grown crack size are also estimated.

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Anisotropy of Turbulence in Vegetated Open-Channel Flows (식생된 개수로 흐름에서의 난류의 비등방성)

  • Kang, Hyeong-Sik;Choi, Sung-Uk
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.38 no.10
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    • pp.871-883
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    • 2005
  • This paper investigates the impacts of turbulent anisotropy on the mean flow and turbulence structures in vegetated open-channel flows. The Reynolds stress model, which is an anisotropic turbulence model, is used for the turbulence closure. Plain open-channel flows and vegetated flows with emergent and submerged plants are simulated. Computed profiles of the mean velocity and turbulence structures are compared with measured data available in the literature. Comparisons are also made with the predictions by the k-$\epsilon$ model and by the algebraic stress model. For plain open-channel flows and open-channel flows with emergent vegetation, the mean velocity and Reynolds stress profiles by isotropic and anisotropic turbulence models were hardly distinguished and they agreed well with measured data. This means that the mean flow and Reynolds stress is hardly affected by anisotropy of turbulence. However, anisotropy of turbulence due to the damping effect near the bottom and free surface is successfully simulated only by the Reynolds stress model. In open-channel flows with submerged vegetation, anisotropy of turbulence is strengthenednear the vegetation height. The Reynolds stress model predicts the mean velocity and turbulence intensity better than the algebraic stress model or the k-$\epsilon$ model. However, above the vegetation height, the k-$\epsilon$ model overestimates the mean velocity and underestimates turbulence intensity Sediment transport capacity of vegetated open-channel flows is also investigated by using the computed profiles. It is shown that the isotropic turbulence model underestimates seriously suspended load.

Fatigue Life Analysis and Prediction of 316L Stainless Steel Under Low Cycle Fatigue Loading (저사이클 피로하중을 받는 316L 스테인리스강의 피로수명 분석 및 예측)

  • Oh, Hyeong;Myung, NohJun;Choi, Nak-Sam
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.40 no.12
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    • pp.1027-1035
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    • 2016
  • In this study, a strain-controlled fatigue test of widely-used 316L stainless steel with excellent corrosion resistance and mechanical properties was conducted, in order to assess its fatigue life. Low cycle fatigue behaviors were analyzed at room temperature, as a function of the strain amplitude and strain ratio. The material was hardened during the initial few cycles, and then was softened during the long post period, until failure occurred. The fatigue life decreased with increasing strain amplitude. Masing behavior in the hysteresis loop was shown under the low strain amplitude, whereas the high strain amplitude caused non-Masing behavior and reduced the mean stress. Low cycle fatigue life prediction based on the cyclic plastic energy dissipation theory, considering Masing and non-Masing effects, showed a good correlation with the experimental results.

Development of Three-Dimensional Fracture Strain Surface in Average Stress Triaxiaility and Average Normalized Lode Parameter Domain for Arctic High Tensile Steel: Part II Formulation of Fracture Strain Surface (극한지용 고장력강의 평균 응력 삼축비 및 평균 정규 로드 파라메터를 고려한 3차원 파단 변형률 평면 개발: 제2부 파단 변형률 평면의 정식화)

  • Chong, Joonmo;Park, Sung-Ju;Kim, Younghun
    • Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.454-462
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    • 2015
  • An extended study was conducted on the fracture criterion by Choung et al. (2011; 2012) and Choung and Nam (2013), and the results are presented in two parts. The theoretical background of the fracture and the results of new experimental studies were reported in Part I, and three-dimensional fracture surface formulations and verifications are reported in Part II. How the corrected true stress can be processed from the extrapolated true stress is first introduced. Numerical simulations using the corrected true stress were conducted for pure shear, shear-tension, and pure compression tests. The numerical results perfectly coincided with test results, except for the pure shear simulations, where volume locking appeared to prevent a load reduction. The average stress triaxialities, average normalized lode parameters, and equivalent plastic strain at fracture initiation were extracted from numerical simulations to formulate a new three-dimensional fracture strain surface. A series of extra tests with asymmetric notch specimens was performed to check the validity of the newly developed fracture strain surface. Then, a new user-subroutine was developed to calculate and transfer the two fracture parameters to commercial finite element code. Simulation results based on the user-subroutine were in good agreement with the test results.

A Numerical Study on Characteristics of Solute Transport in a Rough Single Fracture with Spatial Correlation Length and Effect of Effective Normal Stress (공간적 상관길이와 유효수직응력의 효과에 따른 거친 단일 균열내의 용질이동특성에 관한 수치적 연구)

  • Jeong, Woochang
    • Journal of the Korean Geoenvironmental Society
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.5-14
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    • 2009
  • This study is to analyze numerically the spatial behaviors of the solute transport in a spatially correlated variable-aperture fracture under the effective normal stress conditions. Numerical results show that the solute transport in a fracture is strongly affected by the spatial correlation length of apertures and applied effective normal stress. According to increasing spatial correlation length, the mean residence time of solute is decreased and the tortuosity and Peclet number (is a dimensionless number relating the rate of advection of a flow to its rate of diffusion) is also decreased. These results mean that the geometry of the aperture distribution is favorable to the solute transport as the spatial correlation length is increased. However, according to the applied effective normal stress is increased, the mean residence time and tortuosity have a tendency to increase but the Peclet number is decreased. The main reason that the Peclet number is decreased, is that the solute is displaced by one or two channels with relatively higher local flow rate due to the increment of contact areas by increasing effective normal stress. Moreover, based on numerical results of the solute transport in this study, the exponential-type correlation formulae between the mean residence time and the effective normal stress are proposed.

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