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Experiments on Flow Characteristics of Asphalt Seal Composite Waterproofing Method for Underground Concrete Structure Exterior Wall Waterproofing (지하 콘크리트 구조물 외벽 방수용 아스팔트 씰재 복합방수 공법의 흘러내림 특성에 관한 실험)

  • Ko, Sang-Ung;Kim, Kyoung-Hoon;Kim, Young-Sam;Shin, Hong-Chul;Kim, Jin-Man
    • Journal of the Korean Recycled Construction Resources Institute
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.297-303
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    • 2018
  • With the changing trend of the building construction to high rising and large scaling, the underground structure has been increased, and its usage also increased and variety. Hence, to protect the underground structure against underground water, various water proofing methods has been developed. Among the many water proofing methods, the combined water proofing method using both asphalt seal and sheet has been widely used to secure the sufficient performance and decrease the construction failure. However, during the summer period of extremely high temperature conditions, the asphalt sealing materials were separated and leaked into the structure. Therefore, the aim of the research is to provide the quality standard of asphalt sealing material based on the various temperature changes depending on seasons. According to the experimental results, the temperature of the sealing materials applied on the slab was increased up to $54^{\circ}C$ which was $3^{\circ}C$ higher than the structure temperature of $51^{\circ}C$. Based on the melting test for asphalt sealing materials applied on the outside wall of the structure, in the case of water-dispersing typed materials showed significant melting down due to its slow evaporation and low viscosity. Furthermore, from the accelerated test conducted indoor conditions, a solvent-type and water-dispersing typed materials showed significant melting down due to their low viscosity and melting point in ambient conditions. Based on these results, viscosity and melting point are found as the important factors on asphalt sealing materials' quality, and it is necessary to designate the quantitative level of the viscosity and melting point for quality control.

Occurrence and Distribution of Manganese Nodules in KODOS-89 Area, Northeast Pacific (KODOS-89 지역 망간단괴의 산상 및 분포 특성)

  • 이경용;문재운
    • 한국해양학회지
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.210-227
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    • 1992
  • KODOS-89 area, the northwestern part of Clarion-Clarion-Clipperton fracture zones in the Northeast Pacific, was surveyed in order to study the occurrence and distribution of manganese nodules. Variations in the nodule characteristics are related mainly to seafloor topography. Nodules from abyssal plain have high Mn/Fe ratio and high Mn, Cu, Ni and Zn concentrations, whereas those from seamount are characterized by low Mn/Fe ratio and high Fe and Co concentrations. These compositional characteristics are attributed to toxic diagnosis and hydrogenesis, respectively. Nodules of the early diegenetic origin tend to accurate crystalline Mn-oxides uniformly within the topmost sediment layers and maintain a regular spheroidal, ellipsoidal to discoidal shape with rough surface textures. On the other hand, those of hydrogenetic origin are characterized by polynucleation, irregualr shape, and smooth surface textures. Nodule abundance is high (avg. 13.4 kg/m$^2$) in seamount area, resulting from ample supply of nucleating materials by auto-fragmentation of older nodules. Nodule abundance in abyssal plain is relatively low (avg. 3.9 kg/m$^2$) and tends to increase southward. This phenomenon results from facilitation of taking seed materials from adjacent seamount and enhancement of the early diagenesis by sufficient supply of organic materials. Nodule abundance is considered to be controlled primarily by seeding effects and secondly by supplies of organic materials.

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Bioactivity of precalcified nanotubular $TiO_2$ layer on Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy (나노튜브 $TiO_2$ 층 생성 후 전석회화 처리한 Ti-6Al-7Nb 합금의 생체활성도)

  • Seo, Jae-Min
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.16-21
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the bioactivity of precalcified nanotubular $TiO_2$ layer on Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy. Materials and methods: Anodic oxidation was carried out at a potential of 20 V and current density of 20 mA/$cm^2$ for 1 hour. The glycerol solution containing 1 wt% $NH_4F$ and 20 wt% deionized water was used as an electrolyte. Precalcification treatment was obtained by soaking in $Na_2HPO_4$ solution at $80^{\circ}C$ for 30 minutes followed by soaking in saturated $Ca(OH)_2$ solution at $100^{\circ}C$ for 30 minutes, followed by heat treatment at $500^{\circ}C$ for 2 hours. To evaluate the activity of precalcified nanotubular $TiO_2$ layer, specimens were immersed in a simulated body fluid with pH 7.4 at $36.5^{\circ}C$ for 10 days. Results: 1. Nanotubular $TiO_2$ layer showed the highly ordered dense structure by interposing small diameter nanotubes between large ones, the shape of nanotubes was enlarged as going down. 2. The mean length of nanotubes was $517.0{\pm}23.2\;nm$ innm glycerol solution containing 1 wt% $NH_4F$ and 20 wt% $H_2O$ at 20 V for 1 hour. 3. The bioactivity of Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy was improved with formation of nanotubular $TiO_2$ layer and precalcification treatment in $80^{\circ}C$ 0.5 M $Na_2HPO_4$ and saturated $100^{\circ}C$ $Ca(OH)_2$ solution. Conclusion: Bioactivity of precalcified nanotubular $TiO_2$ layer on Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy was improved.

Silicon thin films and solar cells by HWCVD (열선 화학 기상 증착법에 의한 실리콘 박막 및 태양전지 특성)

  • Kim Sang-Kyun;Lee Jeong Chul;Jeon Sang Won;Lim Chung Hyun;Ahn Sae Jin;Yun Jae Ho;Kim Seok Ki;Song Jinsoo;Park S-J;Yoon Kyung Hoon
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.205-208
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    • 2005
  • 최근 열선 화학 기상 증착법(HWCVD)은 낮은 온도에서 TFT용 Poly Si 중착을 할 수 있다는 점과 실리콘 박막을 빠른 속도로 증착할 수 있다는 점에서 각광을 받고 있다. 본 연구에서는 HWCVD를 이용하여 태양전지를 제조하고 그 특성을 평가하였다. 조건에 따른 실리콘 박막의 특성 변화를 알기 위해 corning glass 및 실리콘 wafer에 다양한 조건에서 단위 박막(intrinsic layer)을 증착하였고 이 결과를 바탕으로 p/i/n 구조의 태양전지를 제조하였다. Ta 열선 온도는 1700-2000도였고 가스 원료인 $SiH_4$와 수소의 비율을 조절하면서 그 영향을 관찰하였다. 태양전지의 경우 p충과 n충은 PECVD로 증착하였으며 단위박막 및 태양전지 i충 증착시 기판과 열선간의 거리는 7cm, 기판 온도는 $200^{\circ}C$$250^{\circ}C$로 고정하였고 작업압력은 30mTorr였다. 단위 박막 특성 평가를 위해 암/광 전도도, SEM, Raman Scattering, FT-IR등을 사용하였으며 태양전지 특성 평가를 위해 I-V 및 Spectral response를 측정하였다. 열선 온도가 증가함에 따라 증착속도 및 결정화 분율은 증가하였다. 특히 비정질에서 결정질로 전이되는 구간은 매우 좁았으며 여러 분석 방법에서 일치되는 결과를 보였다. $SiH_4$ 유량이 늘어날수록 비정질이 결정질로 바뀌는 열선 온도가 증가하였으며 기판 온도가 낮을 경우 또한 결정으로 바뀌는 열선 온도가 증가하였다. 태양전지의 경우 열선 온도가 증가함에 따라 $V_{oc}$ 및 W가 낮아졌으며 $J_{sc}$, 는 증가하는 경향을 보였으며 결정질 비율이 증가하는 것을 관찰할 수 있었다. 이러한 경향은 quantum efficiency 결과에서도 확인할 수 있었다.용을 반복하면서 석재 내부와 외부의 암석 및 결정에 균열과 미세열극 등이 생성되어 석재 자체의 구조적 안정성에 영향을 주고 있다. 따라서 감은사지 석탑은 지리적 환경 차이로 인해 일반적인 환경의 석조물들과는 다른 형태의 풍화양상을 보이고 있어서 풍화양상 및 풍화형태에 대한 정확한 연구와 이해를 바탕으로 보존대책이 마련되어야 한다.되었다. 이런 모든 시편들을 각 탈염방법에 따라 탈염처리한 후 XRD와 SEM-EDS으로 분석한 결과 인철광과 침철광은 어떠한 변화도 보이지 않았고, 다만 적금광으로 동정된 시편만이 잔존하지 않았다. 철기 제작별 $Cl^-$ 이온 추출량과 탈염효과에 대한 비교 실험은 이온 크로마토그래피 분석 결과와 마찬가지로 단조 철제유물이 주조 철제보다 $Cl^-$ 이온을 많이 가지고 있었으며, 탈염 처리 후에는 $Cl^-$ 이온은 전혀 발견되지 않았다. 이상의 결과 $K_2CO_3$와 Sodium 용액은 탈염처리에서 가장 적합한 탈염처리 용액으로 알수가 있었으며 특히 어떠한 탈염 용액으로 유물을 처리한다 해도 철제유물에 생성된 부식물은 제거되지 않는다는 것을 알게 되었다. 따라서 보존처리자는 유물 표면의 부식 상태만을 보고 처리하기 보다는 철기제작물로 고려하여 처리하는 것이 필요하다. 또한 금속에 부식을 야기시키는 $Cl^-$ 이온과 부식물을 완전하게 제거하여 탈염처리를 하는 것이 유물 부식을 최대한 지연시킬 수 있는 것이라 생각된다.TEX>$88\%$)였다.(P=0.063). 결론: 본 연구에서는 MTHFR C/T & T/T 유전자 다형성이 위암의 발생과 그 위치에 대해 관련이 있는 것으로 여겨지고, 흡연력, 음주력과는 관련이 없는 것으로 여겨진다.험이 커지는 경향을 보였으나, 나이 및 병기, 종양의 크기, MD-BED $Gy_{10}$ 등의 예후 인자를 보정한 다변

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Cooking and textural properties of specialty germinated brown rices (기능성 쌀 품종 발아현미의 취반 및 식감특성)

  • Cho, Dong-Hwa;Park, Hye-Young;Lee, Seuk-Ki;Park, Jiyoung;Choi, Hye-Sun;Woo, Koan-Sik;Kim, Hyun-Joo;Sim, Eun-Yeong;Ahn, Eok-Keun;Oh, Sea-Kwan
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.575-583
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    • 2017
  • Germination is a well-known economical technique that has been utilized to enhance the nutritional value of brown rice. Owing to its higher nutritive quality, germinated brown rice has received significant attention in the past decade. In this study, the physicochemical and cooking properties of specialty brown rice (SBR) were analyzed before and after germination. Germination enhanced cooking properties such as water absorption, expanded volume, and increased solid solubility of cooked SBR. The SBR texture measured using tensipresser, was significantly improved by germination. The hardness of cooked SBR was decreased by germination, but stickiness was increased. Pasting analysis of the SBR flours revealed a decrease in all viscosity values (peak viscosity, breakdown, setback, and final viscosity) after germination. However, the gelatinization temperature remains unchanged upon germination. Additionally, amylose content and amylopectin chain length distribution of SBR starch were slightly changed by germination. These results indicate that germination leads to a substantial improvement in the cooking properties and texture of SBR.

Microstructural Study of Mortar Bar on Akali-Silica Reaction by Means of SEM and EPMA Analysis (알칼리-실리카 반응에 의한 모르타르 봉의 SEM과 EPMA 분석을 통한 미세구조 연구)

  • Jun, Ssang-Sun;Lee, Hyo-Min;Jin, Chi-Sub
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.531-537
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    • 2009
  • In this study alkali reactivity of crushed stone was conducted according to the ASTM C 227 that is traditional mortar bar test, and C 1260 that is accelerated mortar bar test method. The morphology and chemical composition of products formed in mortar bar, 3 years after the mortar bar tests had been performed, were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with secondary electron imaging (SEI) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) with backscattered electron imaging (BSEI). The crushed stone used in this study was not identified as being reactive by ASTM C 227. However, mortar bars exceeded the limit for deleterious expansion in accelerated mortar bar test used KOH solution. The result of SEM (SEI) analysis, after the ASTM C 227 mortar bar test, confirmed that there were no reactive products and evidence of reaction between aggregate particles and cement paste. However, mortar bars exposed to alkali solution (KOH) indicated that crystallized products having rosette morphology were observed in the interior wall of pores. EPMA results of mortar bar by ASTM C 227 indicated that white dots were observed on the surface of particles and these products were identified as Al-ASR gels. It can be considered that the mortar bar by ASTM C 227 started to appear sign of alkali-silica reaction in normal condition. EPMA results of the mortar bar by ASTM C 1260 showed the gel accumulated in the pores and diffused in to the cement matrix through cracks, and gel in the pores were found to be richer in calcium compared to gel in cracks within aggregate particles. In this experimental study, damages to mortar bars due to alkali-silica reaction (ASR) were observed. Due to the increasing needs of crushed stones, it is considered that specifications and guidelines to prevent ASR in new concrete should be developed.

Material Characteristics and Deterioration Assessment of the Stone Buddhas and Shrine in Unjusa Temple, Hwasun, Korea (화순 운주사 석조불감의 재질특성과 풍화훼손도 평가)

  • Park, Sung-Mi;Lee, Myeong-Seong;Choi, Seok-Won;Lee, Chan-Hee
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.24
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    • pp.23-36
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    • 2008
  • The stone Buddhas and Shrine of Unjusa temple (Korea Treasure No. 797) in Hwasun formed in Koryo Dynasty are unique style which the Buddha faces each other the back parts of south and north within the stone Shrine. The stone Buddhas and Shrine are highly evaluated in historical, artistic and academic respects. But, the stone properties have been exposed in the open system various aspects of degradations weathered for a long time without specific protective facilities. The rock materials of the stone Buddhas and Shrine are about 47 blocks, and total press load is about 56.6 metric ton. The host rocks composed mainly of white grey hyaline lithic tuff and rhyolitic tuff breccia. In addition, biotite granite used as part during the restoration works. The chemical index of alteration for host tuffaceous rocks and the replacement granites range from 52.1 to 59.4 and 50.0 to 51.0, respectively. Weathering types for the stone Buddhas and Shrine were largely divided with physical, chemical and biological weathering to make a synthetic deterioration map according to aspects of damage, and estimate share as compared with surface area. Whole deterioration degrees are represented that physical weathering appeared exfoliation. Chemical weathering is black coloration and biological weathering of grey lichen, which show each lighly deterioration degrees. According to deterioration degree by direction of stone Buddhas and Shrine, physical weathering mostly appeared by 39.1% on the sorthern part, and chemical weathering is 61.2% high share on the western part. Biological weathering showed 38.3% the largest distribution on the southern part. Therefore, it is necessary to try hardening for the parts with serious cracks or exfoliations, remove secondary contaminants and organisms through regular cleaning. Also necessary to make a plan to remove moisture of the ground which causes weathering, and estimate that need established and scientific processing through clinical demonstration of conservation plan that chooses suitable treatment.

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Analysis of Annual Variability of Landfast Sea Ice near Jangbogo Antarctic Station Using InSAR Coherence Images (InSAR 긴밀도 영상을 이용한 남극 장보고기지 인근 정착해빙의 연간 변화 분석)

  • Han, Hyangsun;Kim, Yeonchun;Jin, Hyorim;Lee, Hoonyol
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.501-512
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    • 2015
  • Landfast sea ice (LFI) in Terra Nova Bay, East Antarctica where the Jangbogo Antarctic Research Station is located, has significant influences on marine ecosystem and the sailing of an icebreaker. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the spatio-temporal variation of the LFI in Terra Nova Bay. In this study, we chose interferometric pairs with the temporal baseline from 1 to 9 days out of a total of 62 COSMO-SkyMed synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images over Terra Nova Bay obtained from December 2010 to January 2012, and then constructed the coherence image of each pair. The LFI showed coherence values higher than 0.3 even in the interferometric SAR (InSAR) pairs of up to 9-days of temporal baseline. This was because the LFI was fixed at coastline and thus showed low temporal phase decorrelation. Based on the characteristics of the coherence on LFI, We defined the areas of LFI that show spatially homogeneous coherence values higher than 0.5. Pack ice (PI) and open water showed low coherence values due to large temporal phase decorreation caused by current and wind. Distinguishing PI from open water in the coherence images was difficult due to their similarly low coherence values. PI was identified in SAR amplitude images by investigating cracks on the ice. The extents of the LFI and PI were estimated from the coherence and SAR amplitude images and their temporal variations were analyzed. The extent of the LFI increased from March to July (maximum extent of $170.7km^2$) and decreased from October. The extent of the PI increased from February to May and decreased from May to July when the LFI increases dramatically. The extent of the LFI and air temperature showed an inverse correlation with a time lag of about 2 months, i.e., the extent of the LFI decreases after 2 months of the increase in the air temperature. Meanwhile the correlation between wind speed and the extent of the LFI was very low. This represents that the extent of LFI in Terra Nova Bay are influenced more by the air temperature than wind speed.

A Study on the Material and Production Method of Bronze Casting Earthen Mold - Focusing on Earthen Mold Excavated in Dongcheon-dong, Gyungju - (청동주조 토제범(土製范)의 재질과 제작기법 연구 - 경주 동천동 출토 토제범을 중심으로 -)

  • Son, Da-nim;Yang, Hee-jae
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.108-125
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    • 2013
  • This study examined the actual reconstruction drawing, composite mineral, particle size and property test, fine organic matters, color differences and main ingredients of the earthen mold excavated in Dongcheon-dong, Gyungju. The cross-section of the inner mold and outer mold divides into inside (1st layer) and outside (2nd layer), with organic matters mixed outside. The cross-section has been altered due to heat and form removal agent. X-ray analysis revealed that the layer was made of minerals with high transmissivity and only quartz particles were observed through a polarizing microscope. The inside of cross-section in SEM observation identified enlarged air gap, with crack developed in the center, but no changes observed on the outside. The particle size of the composites is almost the same for the inner mold and outer mold and is silt clay loam. The ratio between silt clay and silt clay loam was about 2.7:1 and 2.9:1 respectively. In the property test, the density and absorption rate of inner mold and outer mold were similar, but porosity was different, with inner mold of 27.36% and outer mold of 31.09%. The color difference of cross-section seems to have been caused by the spread of soot on the 1st layer surface for removal of form or by the covering of ink to protect the 1st layer. Composite mineral analysis revealed the same composition for the inner mold and outer mold, except for the magnetite that was detected in the inner mold alone. As for the main ingredient analysis, the average content of $SiO_2$ was 71.64% and that of $Al_2O_3$ was 14.59%. As for the sub-ingredients, $Fe_2O_3$ was 4.51%, $K_2O$ 3.06%, $Na_2O$, MgO, CaO, $TiO_2$, $P_2O_5$ and MnO was less than 2%.

Conservation Scientific Diagnosis and Evaluation of Bird Track Sites from the Haman Formation at Yongsanri in Haman, Korea (함안 용산리 함안층 새발자국 화석산지의 보존과학적 진단 및 평가)

  • Lee, Gyu Hye;Park, Jun Hyoung;Lee, Chan Hee
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.74-93
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    • 2019
  • The Bird Track Site in the Haman Formation in Yongsanri (Natural Monument No. 222) was reported on the named Koreanaornis hamanensis and Jindongornipes kimi sauropod footprint Brontopodus and ichnospecies Ochlichnus formed by Nematoda. This site has outstanding academic value because it is where the second-highest number of bird tracks have been reported in the world. However, only 25% of the site remains after being designated a natural monument in 1969. This is due to artificial damage caused by worldwide fame and quarrying for flat stone used in Korean floor heating systems. The Haman Formation, including this fossil site, has lithofacies showing reddish-grey siltstone and black shale, alternately. The boundary of the two rocks is progressive, and sedimentary structures like ripple marks and sun cracks can clearly be found. This site was divided into seven formations according to sedimentary sequences and structures. The results of a nondestructive deterioration evaluation showed that chemical and biological damage rates were very low for all formations. Also, physical damage displayed low rates with 0.49% on exfoliation, 0.04% on blistering, 0.28% on break-out; however, the joint crack index was high, 6.20. Additionally, efflorescence was observed on outcrops at the backside and the northwestern side. Physical properties measured by an indirect ultrasonic analysis were found to be moderately weathered (MW). Above all, the southeastern side was much fresher, though some areas around the column of protection facility appeared more weathered. Furthermore, five kinds of discontinuity surface can be found at this site, with the bedding plane showing the higher share. There is the possibility of toppling failure occurring at this site but stable on plane and wedge failure by means of stereographic projection. We concluded that the overall level of deterioration and stability were relatively fine. However, continuous monitoring and conservation treatment and management should be performed as situations such as the physicochemical weathering of the fossil layer, and the efflorescence of the mortar adjoining the protection facility's column appear to be challenging to control.