• Title, Summary, Keyword: 하이브리드 수치 해석

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Real-Time Hybrid Testing Using a Fixed Iteration Implicit HHT Time Integration Method for a Reinforced Concrete Frame (고정반복법에 의한 암시적 HHT 시간적분법을 이용한 철근콘크리트 골조구조물의 실시간 하이브리드실험)

  • Kang, Dae-Hung;Kim, Sung-Il
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.11-24
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    • 2011
  • A real-time hybrid test of a 3 story-3 bay reinforced concrete frame which is divided into numerical and physical substructure models under uniaxial earthquake excitation was run using a fixed iteration implicit HHT time integration method. The first story inner non-ductile column was selected as the physical substructure model, and uniaxial earthquake excitation was applied to the numerical model until the specimen failed due to severe damage. A finite-element analysis program, Mercury, was newly developed and optimized for a real-time hybrid test. The drift ratio based on the top horizontal displacement of the physical substructure model was compared with the result of a numerical simulation by OpenSees and the result of a shaking table test. The experiment in this paper is one of the most complex real-time hybrid tests, and the description of the hardware, algorithm and models is presented in detail. If there is an improvement in the numerical model, the evaluation of the tangent stiffness matrix of the physical substructure model in the finite element analysis program and better software to reduce the computational time of the element state determination for the force-based beam-column element, then the comparison with the results of the real-time hybrid test and the shaking table test deserves to make a recommendation. In addition, for the goal of a "Numerical simulation of the complex structures under dynamic loading", the real time hybrid test has enough merit as an alternative to dynamic experiments of large and complex structures.

Flexural Strength of Hybrid Steel Fiber-Reinforced Ultra-High Strength Concrete Beams (하이브리드 강섬유 보강 초고강도 콘크리트 보의 휨강도)

  • Yang, In-Hwan;Kim, Kyoung-Chul;Joh, Chang-Bin
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.283-290
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    • 2015
  • This paper proposes a method for predicting flexural strength of hybrid steel fiber-reinforced ultra-high strength concrete beams. It includes an experimental test framework and associated numerical analyses. The experimental program includes flexural test results of hybrid steel fiber-reinforced ultra-high strength concrete beams with steel fiber content of 1.5% by volume. Tensile softening characteristics play an important role in the structural behavior of steel fiber-reinforced ultra high performance concrete. Tension softening modeling is carried out by using crack equation based on fictitious crack and inverse analysis in which load-crack mouth opening displacement relationship is considered. The comparison of moment-curvature curves of the numerical analysis results with the test results shows a reasonable agreement. Therefore, the numerical results confirms that good prediction of flexural behavior of steel fiber-reinforced ultra high strength concrete beams can be achieved by employing the proposed method.

Effect of element size in hybrid stress analysis around a hole in loaded orthotropic composites (직교이방성 재료의 구멍주위에 관한 하이브리드 응력해석시 요소크기의 효과)

  • Baek, Tae-Hyun
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.21 no.10
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    • pp.1702-1711
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    • 1997
  • A numerical study for the number of terms of a power series stress function and the effect of hybrid element size on stress analysis around a hole in loaded orthotropic composites is presented. The hybrid method coupling experimental and/or theoretical inputs and complex variable formulations involving conformal mappings and analytical continuity is used to calculate tangential stress on the boundary of the hole in uniaxially loaded, finite width glass epoxy tensile plate. The tests are done by rarying the number of terms, element size and nodal locations on the external boundary of the hybrid region. The numerical results indicate that the hybrid method is accurate and powerful in both experimental and numerical stress analysis.

Control Method to Single Degree or Three Degrees of Freedom for Hybrid Testing (하이브리드 실험을 위한 1 또는 3자유도에 대한 제어 기법)

  • Lee, Jae-Jin;Kang, Dae-Hung;Kim, Sung-Il
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.2409-2421
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    • 2011
  • This paper will present hybrid tests to a one bay-one story steel frame structure under ground excitation. A structure used in this paper for hybrid test, to evaluate performance and behavior, is divided into two models; one is numerical model with one column element, and a truss or a beam element, the other is physical substructural model with one beam-column element. All tests considered one or three degrees of freedom to implement real-time hybrid test, and two control algorithms to control hardware are used; one using MATLAB/Simulink, the other using OpenSees, OpenFresco and xPCTarget. In addition, for real-time data communication between numerical and physical substructural models SCRAMNet was used. The results of hybrid tests were compared with one of numerical analysis of numerical model with fiber force-based beam-column elements using OpenSees. Real-time hybrid tests were implemented for the validation of control system with simple structure, and then it will be extended to hybrid test for higher nonlinear or complex structure later on.

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Implicit Time Integration Scheme for Real-Time Hybrid Test System (실시간 하이브리드 실험 시스템을 위한 Implicit 시간적분법)

  • Jung, Rae-Young
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.99-106
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    • 2006
  • The Real-Time Hybrid Test system presented in this paper is based on the pseudodynamic test method, and it combines physical testing with model-based simulation. The system is designed to achieve a rate of loading that is significantly higher than that of a conventional pseudodynamic test approaching the real-time response of a structure subjected to earthquake loads. To provide robust computation environment for the analysis of many degree-of-freedom structures, the system adopts an implicit time integration scheme in the model-based simulation. This paper presents an overview of the developed system and numerical simulations that were conducted to evaluate the performance of the computation scheme adopted here. Results of these studies have demonstrated the good performance of the computation scheme for real-time multiple-degree-of-freedom tests.

Numerical Study of Hybrid Base-isolator with Magnetorheological Damper and Friction Pendulum System (MR 감쇠기와 FPS를 이용한 하이브리드 면진장치의 수치해석적 연구)

  • Kim, Hyun-Su;Roschke, P.N.
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.7-15
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    • 2005
  • Numerical analysis model is proposed to predict the dynamic behavior of a single-degree-of-freedom structure that is equipped with hybrid base isolation system. Hybrid base isolation system is composed of friction pendulum systems (FPS) and a magnetorheological (MR) damper. A neuro-fuzzy model is used to represent dynamic behavior of the MR damper. Fuzzy model of the MR damper is trained by ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) using various displacement, velocity, and voltage combinations that are obtained from a series of performance tests. Modelling of the FPS is carried out with a nonlinear analytical equation that is derived in this study and neuro-fuzzy training. Fuzzy logic controller is employed to control the command voltage that is sent to MR damper. The dynamic responses of experimental structure subjected to various earthquake excitations are compared with numerically simulated results using neuro-fuzzy modeling method. Numerical simulation using neuro-fuzzy models of the MR damper and FPS predict response of the hybrid base isolation system very well.

Numerical modeling of rapidly varied flow using the SST turbulence model and a hybrid free-surface capturing approach (자유수면 포착기법과 난류모형을 이용한 급변류 수치모델링)

  • Kim, Byung Ju;Paik, Joongcheol
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.149-149
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    • 2020
  • 하천에서 물 흐름이 보와 댐과 같은 수공구조물을 지날 때 일반적으로 흐름상태에 다양하고 급진적인 변화가 발생한다. 특히 흐름이 구조물을 지나면서 사류(supercritical flow)로 변하고 다시 상류(subcritical flow)로 복원되면서 일어나는 도수(hydraulic jump) 현상은 수위의 급변화, 흐름 에너지 소산, 변동성이 강한 압력 분포 등이 특징이다. 이러한 흐름 특성들은 보나 여수로와 같은 수공구조물 자체의 성능뿐만 아니라 이들 수공구조물의 하류에서 발생하는 국부세굴로 인해 구조물의 안정성에 부정적인 영향을 줄 수 있다. 따라서 수공구조물을 설계할 때는 이들 구조물을 통과하는 흐름의 비정상 난류 흐름 특성을 정확하게 해석하여 반영하여야 한다. 이 연구에서는 k-omega SST 난류 모형과 자유수면의 급격한 변동을 해석하기 위한 하이브리드-VOF(hybrid volume of fluid)기법을 이용하여 도수현상을 수치적으로 재현하고자 한다. 기존 CFD(computational fluid Dynamics) 모델링에서는 자유수면 변동의 영향을 고려하기 위해 VOF 기법을 많이 사용하였다. 하지면 전통적인 VOF 기법은 다상흐름(multiphase flow)을 오직 부피분율(volume fraction)의 함수로만 고려하며 모의함으로써 강한 수면변동뿐만 아니라 공기연행(air entrainment)를 동반하는 난류 흐름을 모의하는데는 한계가 있다. 이 연구에서 이용하는 Eulerian 기법인 하이브리드 VOF 기법은 물과 공기의 각 상에 대하여 흐름 특성들을 개별적으로 계산하기 때문에 공기연행을 포함한 급변류 흐름에서 전통적인 VOF 기법보다 적용성이 우수하다. 이와 같은 난류모형과 자유수면 포착기법을 이용하여 3차원 비정상 난류 흐름 수치모형을 구축하여 수공구조물 주변에서 발생하는 강한 공기연행과 난류 특성를 보이는 급변류를 수치적으로 재현한다. 이 연구는 계산된 수치해석 결과를 기존 수리실험 결과와 비교하여 수치모형의 적용성을 평가하고 도수 현상에서 발생하는 독특한 흐름 특성을 제시한다.

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FE Model Updating on the Grillage Model for Plate Girder Bridge Using the Hybrid Genetic Algorithm and the Multi-objective Function (하이브리드 유전자 알고리즘과 다중목적함수를 적용한 플레이트 거더교의 격자모델에 대한 유한요소 모델개선)

  • Jung, Dae-Sung;Kim, Chul-Young
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.13-23
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    • 2008
  • In this study, a finite element (FE) model updating method based on the hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA) is proposed to improve the grillage FE model for plate girder bridges. HGA consists of a genetic algorithm (GA) and direct search method (DS) based on a modification of Nelder & Mead's simplex optimization method (NMS). Fitness functions based on natural frequencies, mode shapes, and static deflections making use of the measurements and analytical results are also presented to apply in the proposed method. In addition, a multi-objective function has been formulated as a linear combination of fitness functions in order to simultaneously improve both stiffness and mass. The applicability of the proposed method to girder bridge structures has been verified through a numerical example on a two-span continuous grillage FE model, as well as through an experimental test on a simply supported plate girder skew bridge. In addition, the effect of measuring error is considered as random noise, and its effect is investigated by numerical simulation. Through numerical and experimental verification, it has been proven that the proposed method is feasible and effective for FE model updating on plate girder bridges.

Single Degree of Freedom Hybrid Dynamic Test with Steel Frame Structure (강 뼈대 구조물의 단자유도 하이브리드 동적 실험)

  • Kim, Se-Hoon;Na, Ok-Pin;Kim, Sung-Il;Lee, Jae-Jin;Kang, Dae-Hung
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.413-421
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the structural dynamic behavior under hybrid control system. The hybrid test is to consider the interaction between the numerical and physical models. In this paper, single degree of freedom hybrid test was performed with one-bay, two-story steel frame structure. One column at the first floor was selected as a physical substructure and one actuator was used for applying the displacement load in horizontal direction. El Centro as earthquake waves was inputted and OpenSees was employed as the numerical analysis program for the hybrid real-time simulation. As a result, the total time of the hybrid test was about 9.6% of actual measured seismic period. The experimental results agreed well with the numerical one in terms of the maximum displacement. In nonlinear analysis, however, material nonlinearity made a difference of residual strain. Therefore, this hybrid dynamic test can be used to predict the structural dynamic performance more effectively than shaking table test, because of the spatial and economic limitations.

객체 지향 언어를 이용한 통합 환경 플라즈마 시뮬레이터 개발

  • Hwang, Seok-Won;Lee, Ho-Jun;Lee, Hae-Jun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.163.1-163.1
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    • 2013
  • 플라즈마 시뮬레이션을 수행하기 전에 현 컴퓨터의 계산 능력범위 내에서 물리적으로 타당하게 설명할 수 있는 수치 해석 방법을 먼저 정한다. 예를 들면, 가스 반응이 많고 각 가스 반응 중에 중요가스 반응을 빠르고 선택적으로 선별하고자 할 때, 혹은 외부 입력 변화에 따른 플라즈마 종의 온도 또는 밀도를 대략적으로 파악하고자 할 때는 공간적인 분포를 고려하지 않는 0차원 global 모델링을 이용한다. 압력이 높고 충돌이 빈번한 경우에는 플라즈마를 유체적인 관점에서 기술이 가능하므로, 볼츠만 방정식에서 속도에 관한 0차, 1차, 2차 모멘텀을 이용하여 유도된 유체 방정식을 이용한다. 반대로 압력이 낮고 충돌이 거의 없는 경우에는 플라즈마 입자를 개별적으로 추적하는 입자 전산 모사 방법을 이용한다. 지금까지는 앞에서 언급한 예와 같이, 개별 플라즈마 상태에 맞는 시뮬레이션 코드를 각각 만들어야 했고, 각 코드를 개별적으로 유지 보수해야 했다. 하지만, 개별적으로 코드를 유지 보수를 해야 할 경우에는, 동일한 기능을 하는 함수를 반복적으로 각 코드에 입력해야 하는 불편함이 따르고, 각 수치해석 방법의 장점을 모은 하이브리드 방법과 같은 전사모사를 개발할 때 각 기능을 통합해야 하는 어려움이 따른다. 또한 지금까지 개발된 대부분의 플라즈마 코드는 외부 입력에 대해 유연하지 못한 대처로 새로운 가스 반응을 추가하거나 새로운 수치해석 방법을 추가할 경우에는 코드를 전체적으로 수정해야 하는 어려움이 있었다. 따라서 코드를 통합적으로 관리할 수 있고, 외부 입력에 대해 유연하게 대처할 수 있는 시뮬레이터가 필요했다. 여기에서는 객체 지향 언어인 C++ 언어를 이용하여, 사용자 입력에 대해 유연하게 대처할 수 있고, 복잡한 화학 반응을 특정 수치 해석 방법에 상관없이 통합적으로 관리할 수 있는 코드를 개발하였다.

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