• Title, Summary, Keyword: 한계하중

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Clinical outcomes of implant supported fixed-hybrid prostheses in the fully edentulous arches (완전무치악 환자에서 고정성 임플란트 하이브리드 수복물의 임상성적)

  • Huh, Yoon-Hyuk;Yi, Yang-Jin;Kwon, Min-Jung;Kim, Young-Kyun;Cha, Min-Sang
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.183-189
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes of implant supported fixed-hybrid prostheses (FHP) in the fully edentulous arches. Materials and methods: Patients in this retrospective study were restored with fixed-hybrid prostheses supported by 4 to 6 implants and functioned more than 1 year of loading. Outcome measures were marginal bone change of implant related with sex, anatomical location (maxilla vs. mandible), opposing teeth, loading time of patients, tilting of posterior implant by Mann- Whitney U test and cantilever length of superstructure by regression analysis, and complication rates. Significance level was set P<.05. Results: A total number of 84 implants (16 restorations) placed in 16 patients were observed for 28 months and mean marginal bone loss was $0.53{\pm}0.39mm$. There were no differences of marginal bone loss according to sex, anatomical location (maxilla vs. mandible), opposing teeth, loading time of patients (P>.05), and cantilever length was not significantly related with a marginal bone loss of implant next to cantilever (P>.05). Complication was shown in 11 patients and veneer fracture and dislodging of artificial teeth were most prevalent. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, although marginal bone loss of FHP was very little, complication rates were high. Irrespective of tilting of most posterior implants, marginal bone loss of most posterior implants next to cantilever was less than those of the other implants positioned anteriorly. Cantilever length (<17 mm) did not affect a marginal bone loss of most posterior implants.

Determination of cross section of composite breakwaters with multiple failure modes and system reliability analysis (다중 파괴모드에 의한 혼성제 케이슨의 단면 산정 및 제체에 대한 시스템 신뢰성 해석)

  • Lee, Cheol-Eung;Kim, Sang-Ug;Park, Dong-Heon
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.51 no.9
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    • pp.827-837
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    • 2018
  • The stabilities of sliding and overturning of caisson and bearing capacity of mound against eccentric and inclined loads, which possibly happen to a composite caisson breakwaters, have been analyzed by using the technique of multiple failure modes. In deterministic approach, mathematical functions have been first derived from the ultimate limit state equations. Using those functions, the minimum cross section of caisson can straightforwardly be evaluated. By taking a look into some various deterministic analyses, it has been found that the conflict between failure modes can be occurred, such that the stability of bearing capacity of mound decreased as the stability of sliding increased. Therefore, the multiple failure modes for the composite caisson breakwaters should be taken into account simultaneously even in the process of deterministically evaluating the design cross section of caisson. Meanwhile, the reliability analyses on multiple failure modes have been implemented to the cross section determined by the sliding failure mode. It has been shown that the system failure probabilities of the composite breakwater are very behaved differently according to the variation of incident waves. The failure probabilities of system tend also to increase as the crest freeboards of caisson are heightening. The similar behaviors are taken place in cases that the water depths above mound are deepening. Finally, the results of the first-order modal are quite coincided with those of the second-order modal in all conditions of numerical tests performed in this paper. However, the second-order modal have had higher accuracy than the first-order modal. This is mainly due to that some correlations between failure modes can be properly incorporated in the second-order modal. Nevertheless, the first-order modal can also be easily used only when one of failure probabilities among multiple failure modes is extremely larger than others.

Reliability Based Stability Analysis and Design Criteria for Reinforced Concrete Retaining Wall (신뢰성(信賴性) 이론(理論)에 의한 R.C.옹벽(擁壁)의 안정해석(安定解析) 및 설계규준(設計規準))

  • Cho, Tae Song;Cho, Hyo Nam;Chun, Chai Myung
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.71-86
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    • 1983
  • Current R.C. retaining wall design is bared on WSD, but the reliability based design method is more rational than the WSD. For this reason, this study proposes a reliability based design criteria for the cantilever retaining wall, which is most common type of retaining wall, and also proposes the theoretical bases of nominal safety factors of stability analysis by introducing the reliability theory. The limit state equations of stability analysis and design of each part of cantilever retaining wall are derived and the uncertainty measuring algorithms of each equation are also derived by MFOSM using Coulomb's coefficient of the active earth pressure and Hansen's bearing capacity formula. The levels of uncertainties corresponding to these algorithms are proposed appropriate values considering our actuality. The target reliability indices (overturning: ${\beta}_0$=4.0, sliding: ${\beta}_0$=3.5, bearing capacity: [${\beta}_0$=3.0, design for flexure: [${\beta}_0$=3.0, design for shear: ${\beta}_0$=3.2) are selected as optimal values considering our practice based on the calibration with the current R.C. retaining wall design safety provisions. Load and resistance factors are measured by using the proposed uncertainties and the selected target reliability indices. Furthermore, a set of nominal safety factors, allowable stresses, and allowable shear stresses are proposed for the current WSD design provisions. It may be asserted that the proposed LRFD reliability based design criteria for the R.C. retaining wall may have to be incorporated into the current R.C. design codes as a design provision corresponding to the USD provisions of the current R.C. design code.

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A Study on the Static Behaviors of Steel Deck Plates of Skew Bridges (사교(斜橋)의 강상판(鋼床板)의 정적거동(靜的擧動)에 대한 연구(研究))

  • Yang, Chang Hyun;Oh, Gi Taek
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.815-826
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    • 1994
  • Skew bridges are found frequently in new bridge construction due to geographical conditions when new constructing bridges are put across the existing highways, railroads or rivers. This study is to investigate the static behaviors of the steel deck plates of skew bridges which are increasingly used in bridges due to outstanding quality of structural steels, development of welding techniques, in order to reduce dead loads and period of constructions. The static behaviours of steel deck plates are analyzed using general purpose FE code SAP90 by modeling the skewed deck plates with rigorous finite elements, as the skew angles vary. The results of finite element analysis for the behaviors of steel deck plates and concrete slabs in acute, obtuse corners and center of decks are compared and discussed as the skew angles vary from $90^{\circ}$ to $30^{\circ}$. Two types of decks are treated, as isotropic plates and orthotropic plates, respectively. From the results of finite element analysis, it is found that more moments, reactions, and deflections occur at the obtuse corners than at the center of skewed decks regardless of isotropy or orthotropy. Especially, in case of the skewed deck plates with skew angles less than 45 degrees, significantly large discrepancies for the values of those internal forces are shown between the skewed and right deck plates. This study estimates the characteristics of deck behaviors according to skew angles, and proposes limitations of skew angles and the ciritical regions of decks.

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A Feasibility Study on the Use of Liner and Cover Materials Using Sewage Sludge (하수슬러지의 차수재 및 복토재로의 이용타당성에 관한 연구)

  • 유남재;김영길;박병수;정하익
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.43-71
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    • 1999
  • This research is an experimental work of developing a construction material using municipal wastewater sludge as liner and cover materials for waste disposal landfill. Weathered granite soil and flyash, produced as a by-product in the power plant, were used as the primary additives to improve geotechnical engineering properties of sludge. For secondary additives, bentonite and cement were mixed with sludge to decrease the permeability and to increase the shear strength, respectively. Various laboratory test required to evaluate the design criteria for liner and cover materials, were carried out by changing the mixing ratio of sludge with the additives. Basic soil properties such as specific gravity, grain size distribution, liquid and plastic limits were measured to analyze their effects on permeability, compaction, compressibility and shear strength properties of mixtures. Laboratory compaction tests were conducted to find the maximum dry densities and the optimum moisture contents of mixtures, and their effectiveness of compaction in field was consequently evaluated. Permeability tests of variable heads with compacted samples, and the stress-controlled consolidation tests with measuring permeabilities of samples during consolidation process were performed to obtain permeability, and to find the compressibility as well as consolidational coefficients of mixtures, respectively. To evaluate the long term stability of sludges, creep tests were also conducted in parallel with permeability tests of variable heads. On the other hand, for the compacted sludge decomposed for a month, permeability tests were carried out to investigate the effect of decomposition of organic matters in sludges on its permeability. Direct shear tests were performed to evaluate the shear strength parameters of mixed sludge with weathered granite, flyash and bentonite. For the mixture of sludge with cement, unconfined compression tests were carried out to find their strength with varying mixing ratio and curing time. On the other hand, CBR tests for compacted specimen were also conducted to evaluate the trafficability of mixtures. Various test results with mixtures were assessed to evaluate whether their properties meet the requirements as liner and cover materials in waste disposal landfill.

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Forest Soil Characteristics and their Effects on the Trafficability of Logging Vehicles (산림토양(山林土壤) 특성(特性)이 집재차량(集材車輛)의 주행성(走行性)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Kim, Ki Weon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.88 no.2
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    • pp.255-265
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    • 1999
  • This study deals with forest soil characteristics and their effects on the trafficability of logging vehicles. The study area is the national experimental forest located in Kwangnung. This site has 20m length and is equally divided by 5 surveying ranges with 4m width, on which a tractor(FIATAGRI) attached with logging boogie can drive in 4 driving types, namely 1time-return unload, 1time-return with load of 780-790kg weight of 3 logs, 5 and 10times-return with same load. After one driving type on all surveying ranges, the soil hardness is surveyed 5 times with 3 several type tools, SHM-1 type, lang penetrometer(L-PNTM), and clegg impact soil tester(CIST). A disturbed degree of cover vegetation and sliding conditions of vehicle are also observed. As results, the soil type of the test site was SC by USCS and dry brown forest soil. The cover vegetation is gotten trambled under driving after 3-5 times-return, shrubs leaves are fully fallen and their bark are peeled, and after 10 times-return the cover vegetations were nearly disappeared. The test vehicle has neither slided nor was overthrown. The wheel tracks in the 1-3 ranges, of which unit weight(gd, gt) is high and soil moisture content(MC) is low, were only 1-2cm deep, but those in the 4-5 ranges, of which the gd, gt is low and the MC is high, were 5-7cm deep. In the soil hardness test, which was established in 5 test ranges by types of driving, the more driving times, the higher the hardness. The soil hardness surveyed by L-PNTM has changed slowly and that surveyed by SHM-1 type has risen sharply. In the ranges with higher specific gravity(Gs), higher unit weight, lower MC and higher liquid limit(LL) and plasticity index(PI) was the soil hardness high and the trafficability was good. In the ranges with opposite conditions, also in the ranges of the lower soil hardness, the trafficability must be not good, because the wheel track may be deep. The results from CIST attached with 4kg hammer was not better than expected. So it is recommended to use CIST with 2.5kg or 0.5kg hammer.

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Shape Scheme and Size Discrete Optimum Design of Plane Steel Trusses Using Improved Genetic Algorithm (개선된 유전자 알고리즘을 이용한 평면 철골트러스의 형상계획 및 단면 이산화 최적설계)

  • Kim, Soo-Won;Yuh, Baeg-Youh;Park, Choon-Wok;Kang, Moon-Myung
    • Journal of the Korean Association for Spatial Structures
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.89-97
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    • 2004
  • The objective of this study is the development of a scheme and discrete optimum design algorithm, which is based on the genetic algorithm. The algorithm can perform both scheme and size optimum designs of plane trusses. The developed Scheme genetic algorithm was implemented in a computer program. For the optimum design, the objective function is the weight of structures and the constraints are limits on loads and serviceability. The basic search method for the optimum design is the genetic algorithm. The algorithm is known to be very efficient for the discrete optimization. However, its application to the complicated structures has been limited because of the extreme time need for a number of structural analyses. This study solves the problem by introducing the size & scheme genetic algorithm operators into the genetic algorithm. The genetic process virtually takes no time. However, the evolutionary process requires a tremendous amount of time for a number of structural analyses. Therefore, the application of the genetic algorithm to the complicated structures is extremely difficult, if not impossible. The scheme genetic algorithm operators was introduced to overcome the problem and to complement the evolutionary process. It is very efficient in the approximate analyses and scheme and size optimization of plane trusses structures and considerably reduces structural analysis time. Scheme and size discrete optimum combined into the genetic algorithm is what makes the practical discrete optimum design of plane fusses structures possible. The efficiency and validity of the developed discrete optimum design algorithm was verified by applying the algorithm to various optimum design examples: plane pratt, howe and warren truss.

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An analysis of horizontal deformation of a pile in soil using a beam-on-spring model for the prediction of the eigenfrequency of the offshore wind turbine (해상풍력터빈의 고유진동수 예측을 위한 지반에 인입된 파일의 탄성지지보 모델 기반 수평 거동 해석)

  • Ryue, Jungsoo;Baik, Kyungmin;Kim, Tae-Ryong
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.261-271
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    • 2016
  • In the prediction of response of a pile in soil, numerical approaches such as a finite element method are generally applied due to complicate nonlinear behaviors of soils. However, the numerical methods based on the finite elements require heavy efforts in pile and soil modelling and also take long computing time. So their usage is limited especially in the early design stage in which principal dimensions and properties are not specified and tend to vary. On the contrary, theoretical approaches adopting linear approximations for soils are relatively simple and easy to model and take short computing time. Therefore, if they are validated to be reliable, they would be applicable in predicting responses of a pile in soil, particularly in early design stage. In case of wind turbines regarded in this study, it is required to assess their natural frequencies in early stages, and in this simulation the supporting pile inserted in soil could be replaced with a simplified elastic boundary condition at the bottom end of the wind turbine tower. To do this, analysis for a pile in soil is performed in this study to extract the spring constants at the top end of the pile. The pile in soil can be modelled as a beam on elastic spring by assuming that the soils deform within an elastic range. In this study, it is attempted to predict pile deformations and influence factors for lateral loads by means of the beam-on-spring model. As two example supporting structures for wind turbines, mono pile and suction pile models with different diameters are examined by evaluating their influence factors and validated by comparing them with those reported in literature. In addition, the deflection profiles along the depth and spring constants at the top end of the piles are compared to assess their supporting features.

The Effect of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) loading on the bone formation surrounding sandblasted and large-grit and acid-etched implants in the dog: A pilot study (성견에 식립된 sandblasted and large-grit and acid-etched 임플란트에서 N-acetyl cysteine(NAC)의 탑재가 주위 골형성에 미치는 영향에 대한 선행연구)

  • Seo, Jae-Min;Kim, In-Ju;Bae, Min-Soo;Lee, Jung-Jin;Ahn, Seung-Geun
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.58 no.2
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    • pp.77-85
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) loading on the bone formation surrounding sandblasted, large-grit and acid-etched (SLA) implants. Materials and methods: Implantation of NAC loaded SLA implants (NSI group) and SLA implants (SI group) was performed bilaterally in the mandible of 4 adult beagle dogs (each group, n = 8). The animals were sacrificed after a healing period of 3 and 6 weeks, respectively (n = 2 animal each). Dissected blocks were processed for histomorphometrical analysis. Bone to implant contact percentage (BIC%) and bone volume (BV%) were assessed histomorphometrically. Results: BIC% of NAC loaded SLA implants were about 50% higher than that of SLA implants at 3 weeks of bone healing, but not significantly (51.79 vs 35.43%; P=.185). BV% of NAC loaded SLA implants were significantly higher than that of SLA implants at 3 weeks of bone healing (45.09 vs 37.57 %; P=.044). At 6 weeks of bone healing, BIC% and BV% of two experimental groups were similar (P>.05). Conclusion: Within the limits of the present study, NAC loading have a positive effects on the early bone formation surrounding SLA implants. So, it might be concluded that NAC loading enhance the osseointegration and shorten the healing time after implantation of the SLA implants.

Effect of attachments and palatal coverage of maxillary implant overdenture on stress distribution: a finite element analysis (상악 임플란트 피개의치에서 유지장치 종류와 구개 피개 유무에 따른 응력분포에 대한 유한요소분석)

  • Park, Jong-Hee;Wang, Yuan-Kun;Lee, Jeong-Jin;Park, Yeon-Hee;Seo, Jae-Min;Kim, Kyoung-A
    • Journal of Dental Rehabilitation and Applied Science
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.70-79
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of attachments and palatal coverage on stress distribution in maxillary implant overdenture using finite element analysis. Materials and Methods: Four maxillary overdenture 3-D models with four implants placed in the anterior region were fabricated with computer-aided design. 1) Ball-F: Non-splinted ball attachment and full palatal coverage, 2) Ball-P: Non-splinted ball attachment and U-shaped partial palatal coverage, 3) Bar-F: Splinted milled bar attachment and full palatal coverage, 4) Bar-P: Splinted milled bar attachment and U-shaped partial palatal coverage. Stress distribution analysis was performed with ANSYS workbench 14. 100 N vertical load was applied at the right first molar unilaterally and maximum stress was calculated at the implant, peri-implant bone and mucosa. Results: The use of the ball attachment showed lower maximum stress on implant and peri-implant bone than the use of the milled bar attachment. But it showed contrary tendency in the mucosa. Regardless of attachment, full palatal coverage showed lower maximum stress on implant, peri-implant bone and mucosa. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, ball attachment improved stress distribution on implant and peri-implant bone rather than milled bar attachment in maxillary implant overdenture. Also, full palatal coverage is more favorable in stress distribution.