• Title/Summary/Keyword: 한지

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A Study on Standardization Plan to Foster Hanji Industry (한지산업 육성을 위한 표준화 방안 연구)

  • Jang, Se Gil
    • Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.121-154
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    • 2014
  • This study explores standardization plans concerning industrialization of Hanjii which is traditional culture resources of rural community. Hanji is very useful in many ways, and its usefulness is not confined to only paper. In other words, it comes to have architectural uses, agricultural uses, clothing uses, and medical uses through fusion and convergence. However, the expansion of Hanji market dose not lead to profits for related stake holders because its standardization is not nurtured yet. For standardization, this paper argues, first, a industrial definition of Hanji is needed in which Hanji's own characteristics is involved. Besides maintaining traditional characteristics, the definition and quality standards of Hanji needs to be established by considering a given condition of Hanji industy. Second, a satisfactory method to measure Hanji's own material characteristics(i.g., mulberry paper content and long-term sustainability), which affects Hanji's quality, needs to be developed and standardized. Third, a government standard is urgently needed in order to keep consumers from being confused when they select Hanji products. The standardization of Hanji products and technology needs to be established in both case of current Hanji market and newly developed products and technology.

SEM 및 AFM을 이용한 한지의 특성 분석

  • 최태호;조남석
    • Proceedings of the Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Conference
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    • pp.141-141
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    • 2000
  • 한지의 제조에 있어서 부원료인 점질물은 초지시 매우 중요한 역할을 하는데 그 주된 역 할은 다음과 같다. 먼저 점질물은 섬유의 분산을 용이하게 하고 종이의 강도를 증가시키며, 양지와는 달리 박엽지의 제조가 편리하고, 종이의 경도를 증가시키며, 습지의 처리를 용이하 게 하며, 점성으로 인하여 섬유의 침전올 방지하고, 종이의 광택을 향상시키는 둥 매우 중요 한 역할을 한다. 그러나 한지 제조시 이러한 식물성 점제의 미묘한 작용은 현재 대다수의 한지 제조 공장에서 사용하고 있는 합성점제인 PAM이나 PEO 등의 합성 고분자 화합물에 서는 기대하기 어려운 작용이라 여겨진다. 이와 같은 사실에서 본 연구에서는 전통적인 천 연점질물인 황촉규근의 점질물과 합성점제인 PAM 및 우리 나라에서 전혀 사용되지 않고 있는 나무수국 내수피의 점질물을 이용하여 한지를 제조하고 이들 한지의 특성을 SEM 및 A AFM(Atomic Force Microscopy)를 이용하여 분석하였다. 먼저 각각의 점질물로 제조한 한지를 SEM으로 관찰한 결과 닥나무 인피섬유의 최외층에 투명막이 존재하는 사실을 발견할 수 있었다. 이러한 투명막은 닥나무나 뽕나무 인피섬유에 만 존재하고 삼지닥나무나 산닥나무 둥과 같은 기타 인피섬유에는 존재하지 않으므로 한지 의 원료 섬유의 식별에 매우 중요한 요소가 된다. 또한 이러한 투명막은 섬유간 결합을 증 대시켜 한지의 강도 발현에 기여한다고 사료된다. 천연점질물인 황촉규근과 나무수국 점 질물을 이용하여 제조한 한지를 SEM 및 SEM-EDXA를 이용하여 분석한 결과, 황촉규근 점질물로 제조한 한지에는 상당량의 전분입자가 폰재하고 있었으며 나무수국 점질물로 제 조한 한지에는 침상의 수산칼슐 결정이 상당량 존재하고 있는 사실을 발견하였다. 이러한 사실은 한지 제조시 사용된 점질물의 식별에 중요한 요소라 사료된다. 한지의 원료인 닥나무 인피펄프와 침엽수 미표백 크라프트 펄프를 AFM을 이용하여 분석 한 결과, 닥나무 인피펄프의 마이크로피브릴 폭은 5-10nm로 Sw-UKP의 마이크로피브릴 폭 lO-20nm보다 매우 가늘고, 치밀한 세포벽 구조를 하고 있었다. 닥나무 인피펄프의 이러 한 세포벽 구조 및 마이크로피브렬의 형태가 Sw-UKP보다 높은 섬유강도를 나타내는 원인 이라 사료된다. 각각의 점질물을 이용하여 제조한 한지의 섬유표면을 AFM을 이용하여 관 찰한 결과, 원료펄프의 표면관찰에서와는 달리 초지시 사용된 점질물이 섬유표면을 피복하 고 있어 명확한 형태의 마이크로피브렬을 관찰할 수 가 없었다. 따라서 점질물의 이러한 역 할이 한지의 강도 및 보존성 향상에 기여하리라 사료된다.

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한지의 처리공정에 따른 섬유와 한지의 물성 비교

  • Choi, Chan-Ho;Seo, Yeong-Beom;Jeon, Yang
    • Proceedings of the Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Conference
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    • pp.193-197
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    • 2001
  • 본 연구에서는 국산닥, 태국닥, 중국닥의 원료를 사용하여 펄핑, 표백, 고해, 초지, 건조의 방식을 변화시켜 총 3500 여장에 이르는 한지를 한지제조 전문가가 일정한 방법에 따라 제 조하였고 그 특정들을 조직적으로 검토하였다. 이러한 연구는 한지의 물성이 닥섬유의 처 리공정에 의해 어떻게 영향을 받는지 연구를 통계적으로 가능하게 하였다. 본 연구에서는 육재펄핑과 일광표백의 효과, 외발뜨기와 쌍발뜨기의 효과, 고해방식의 차이, 먹퍼집성에 대 해 결과들을 보이 고 있다. 육재 펄핑과 일광표백이 한지의 물성에 어떠한 영향을 미치는지 알아보기로 하였다. 현 재는 많은 한지 업자들이 육재펄핑보다는 가성소다 펄핑 (그림에서는 약품펄핑으로 표기), 일광표백보다는 차아염소산 나트륨 (그림에서는 약품표백으로 표기)을 사용하는 것이 보통 이다. 육재펄핑과 일광표백을 실시한 한지는 열단장, 인열강도, 내절도를 약품펄핑이나 약 품표백보다 높이는 효과가 있음을 알 수 있었다. 하지만 약품을 사용하는 경우 리그닌의 용출이 더 수윌하므로 백색도는 약품을 사용하는 경우가 더 유리하였다. 국산닥의 경우 육 재펄핑과 일광표백을 한 경우 먹퍼짐성이 약품사용 한지보다 크지 않음을 볼 수 있었다. 한국의 전통적인 외발뜨기 초지방식은 일본의 쌍발뜨기 방식에 비해 많은 물리적 우수성 을 보이고 있다. 외발뜨기가 쌍발뜨기에 비해 열단장, 신장율, 인열지수 및 내절도 모두가 우수함을 잘 보이고 있다. 섬유의 성질과 관련하여 전체적으로 조명해 보면, 열단장, 인열 지수는 국산닥이 가장 높으며, 내절도는 태국닥이 우수하였고, 중국닥의 경우 모두 매우 불 량함을 알 수 있다. 이것은 아마도 처리중에 과도한 표백을 실시하지 아니하였는가 하는 의구심을 들게한다. 열단장과 신장율 역시 국산닥이 우수하였다. 글씨를 쓸 때, 붓이 나가 는 정도를 마찰게수로 짐작해 보았다. 동 마찰계수와 정 마찰계수는 국산닥이 낮은 편이였 다. 마찰계수가 낮다는 사실은 한지의 표면이 더 매끄럽다고 표현될 수 있는데, 역시 국산닥 으로 제조한 한지가 붓이 나가는데 유리하지 않을까 하는 추측을 할 수 있다. 본 실험결과 는 한지 사용자들의 느낌과 상관관계를 얻어내어서 확인해야 할 것이다. 닥방망이로의 고해나 칼비터에 의한 고해나 큰 물성적으로 큰 차이를 보이지는 않고 있 었다. 단지 섬유의 차이가 고해방식의 차이보다 월등히 크다는 사실을 보이고 있다 이러한 점은 섬유장의 길이에서도 볼 수 있다. 칼비터가 섬유를 절단하기만 하고 닥방망이 고해가 섬유장의 변화를 일으키지 않는다면 틀림없이 평균 섬유장의 차이가 생길것이다.

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A study on manufacturing technologies and excellence of Korean traditional paper (전통한지의 제조 기술 및 우수성에 관한 논고(論考))

  • Jeong, Seon Hwa
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.96-131
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    • 2015
  • Hanji(Korean traditional paper) is a valuable cultural heritage highly praised, even to this date, for its importance and technology by craftsmanship of our ancestors; it is a product of a combination of craftsmanship, well-established technologies, natural paper mulberry fiber and eco-friendly and durable natural materials and mucilages. Origin of the word 'Hanji(Korean traditional paper)' is from handmade paper made of bast part of the paper mulberry; as paper manufacturing with paper machines introduced in Japan was adopted in late Joseon, paper produced previously was called 'Hanji' and paper produced with western machines was called 'Yangji(machine made paper)'. Hanji has been called by many different names and used in various ways according to materials and production methods; and the functions varied. Hanji, from the era of three states to Joseon era, has been praised for its unique and excellent quality in three Asian countries(Korea, China and Japan); its unique excellence continues to this date in many paper-related national cultural heritages. Also total of 11 cases are registered to UNESCO Memory of the World for its importance, 8 of which are associated with traditional Korean paper: Hunminjeongeum, the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty, Jikjisimcheyojeol, Seungjeongwon Ilgi, the Royal Protocols of the Joseon Dynasty, Donguibogam, Ilseongnok and A War Diary. To examine excellent characteristics of conservation science in Hanji, many studies have been developed. By developing analysis and manufacturing technologies, the excellence of our Hanji should be re-verified scientifically and the tradition should continue as one of the representative Korean cultural heritages.

Manufacturing of Korean Paper (Hanji) with Indian Mallow (Abutilon avicennae Gaertner) as the Alternative Fiber Resources (III) - Characteristics of Chinese Ink Spreading Distance by Korean Paper with Indian Mallow - (대용섬유자원으로써 어저귀를 이용한 한지제조(제3보) - 어저귀 한지의 발묵 특성 -)

  • Jeong, Seon-Hwa;Cho, Nam-Seok;Choi, Tae-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.60-65
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    • 2005
  • This study was carried out to investigate the sheet properties of Indian mallow Hanji, made by different pulping methods, such as alkali and sulfomethylated pulpings, and different stock compositions, various mixing ratios of bast fiber and wood core fibers. Indian mallow Hanjis made with 60% of woody core pulps were shown better Chinese ink spreading distance than those of the others. The Chinese ink spreading distance of the Indian mallow Hanjis made from bast fiber pulp only were unsuitable for Hwaseonji. The Chinese ink spreading distance of Indian mallow Hanji was closely related to the mixing ratio of long fiber and short fiber. Especially sulfomethylated pulping method was superior to alkali pulping method.

The Study of the Use of 'Korean Traditional Paper' as An Object in Korean Ink Painting (한국화의 '한지(韓紙)' 오브제 사용에 대한 연구)

  • Oh Se-Kwon
    • Journal of Science of Art and Design
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    • v.8
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    • pp.161-184
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    • 2005
  • Traditionally, Korean ink painting used paper as a background medium. This tradition has sought a new attempt to meet today's demands while its expressive techniques and mediums become more diverse. The attempt of Korean ink painting to explore new mediums could change both its structure and style when considering the significance of the medium in the work. These new attempts have encouraged a further study of 'Korean Traditional Paper'. Today, 'Korean Traditional Paper' is considered to be an object itself rather than just being a background. In other words, there is no implication of a separation between the medium 'Korean Traditional Paper' and the work. Instead, the medium itself becomes the work. Therefore, 'Korean Traditional Paper' is not only a 'background' that contains the artist's desire to express, but at the same time also an 'object'. This study focuses on the attributes of 'Korean Traditional Paper' as an object, examines how this is visually applied in contemporary Korean ink painting in the relation to 'Korean Beauty', and reviews the work of some artists that use Korean Traditional Paper. The use of Korean Traditional Paper as an object first began with the experimental techniques of Lee , Eung-Noh and Kwon, Young-Woo in the 1960s, Then it seemed to stop for a while in the 1970s and 1980s until there was a renewed interest in the material personality of Korean Traditional Paper with the birth of the 'Korean Traditional Paper Artists Association' in the 1990s. This interest increased and Korean Traditional Paper was earnestly adopted by artists like Yim, Hyo Lee, Ki-Sook Won, Moon-Ja and Choi, Moo-Young, who used the paper in Broussonetia, the previous fibered state of rice paper. Here, the expression of the object through the characteristics of Korean Traditional Paper is a visual experiment to discover Korea's traditional art mediums that were forgotten once, focusing on the manifestation of Korean Beauty through Korean Traditional Paper. In this respect, this attempt has a valuable meaning in its use with a contemporary visual sense , based on the Korean sense of beauty.

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A Study of the Fashion Accessory Product Development by Use of Korean Traditional Hanji (Part III) -Dyeing of Hanji with Direct Dye- (전통한지를 활용한 패션 악세서리 상품개발 (제3보) -직접염료를 이용한 한지의 염색-)

  • Kim, Eun-Ah;Ryu, Hyo-Seon;Kim, Yong-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.30 no.12
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    • pp.1730-1736
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    • 2006
  • To utilize hanji for fashion accessory efficiently, dyeability of Hanji should be improved. Though Hanji mostly consists of cellulose such as cotton and ramie, also has various impurities, and has the different internal and surface structure from textile materials. Because of them, Hanji might show different dyeing behavior. As physical properties of Hanji are reduced in wet condition, dyeing process would damage the physical properties of Hanji Therefore, in this study, dyeing properties of Hanji using direct dye were examined in comparison with cotton and ramie. Effect of dyeing on tensile strength, and bleeding of direct dye by water from Hanji, colorfastness to light were also estimated. While Hanji showed the maximun dye exhaustion at $25^{\circ}C$, cotton and ramie showed those at $60^{\circ}C$. Tensile strength of Hanji reduced after Hanji was dyed. When Hanji was dyed at $25^{\circ}C$, the more bleeding occurred than at higher dyeing temperature. Hanji which had higher K/S values were bled more than those had lower K/S value. Colorfastness to light of Hanji dyed with direct dye was not inferior to those of cotton and ramie.

Ecological Studies on the Warm-Season Turfgrass and Cool-Season Turfgrass Mixtures (난지형 잔디와 한지형 잔디의 혼식에 관한 생태학적 연구)

  • Park, Bong-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.6 no.5
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    • pp.21-27
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    • 2003
  • Five warm-season turfgrass [Zoysia japonica Steud., Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze, Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm., Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro.) Hack. and Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] were overseeded with 2 cool-season turfgrasses [Poa pratensis L. and Festuca arundinacea Schreb.] to examine suitability of these species for planting in mixture for producing a year-round turf. Percent of warm-season and cool-season turfgrasses in the mixture were estimated for 5 years. Also, to evaluate the fertilization times of the warm-season and cool-season turrfgras mixtures. Eremochloa ophiuroides and Buchloe dactyloides were not suitable for warm-season and cool-season turfgrass mixtures. However, Zoysia japonica, Stenotaphrum secundatum and Cynodon dactylon were suitable for warm-season and cool-season turfgrass mixtures. Zoysia japonica, Stenotaphrum secundatum and Cynodon dactylon were showed approximately 50% botanical composition five years after cool-season turfgrass overseeding. And, those three warm-season turfgrass mixtures showed approximately 20% visual ratings in winter period. Fertilization in early spring and late autumn had made cool-season turfgrass dominated in mixtures. Therefore, fertilization times in warm-season and cool-season turfgrass mixtures was desirable in summer period.

우리 문화유산속의 과학(6) - 한지, 천년세월 견뎌내는 '살아있는 종이'

  • Lee, Jong-Ho
    • The Science & Technology
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    • v.35 no.7
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    • pp.38-39
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    • 2002
  • 우리나라의 한지는 세계에서 가장 우수한 종이요 천년 세월을 견뎌내는 것은 물론 썩지도 않는다. 2~7세기 사이에 전래된 것으로 추측되는 우리의 한지는 닥나무를 재료로 하고 있는데 창문용으로 사용되는 창호지는 바람과 빛을 통과시키고 습도까지 조절하는 기능까지 갖추고 있어 '살아있는 종이'라고도 한다.

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Making of Cultural Products Using Hanji-Fabric Naturally Dyed(II) (천연염색 한지직물을 활용한 문화상품 제작(II))

  • Jung, Jin Soun
    • The Journal of the Convergence on Culture Technology
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.105-110
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    • 2020
  • In this study, two hats and a laptop bag were developed and produced as cultural products by using Hanji-fabrics dyed with various natural dyeing materials. First of all, for the cultural product development, I selected Hanji-fabric which made with traditional Korean paper with excellent durability and functionality. Secondly, it was dyed blue with indigo, brown with green persimmon juice, red by safflower, yellow by amur cork and purple by gromwell root. Third, two hats and a laptop bag were designed. Fourth, according to the designs, patterns of two hats and a laptop bag were made. And then two hats and a laptop bag were finished by cutting and sewing Hanji-fabrics dyed in various colors.