• Title, Summary, Keyword: 해양경찰

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Monetary Penalty System and Privacy (벌금형 제도의 현대적 가치와 개인정보문제)

  • Kim, Woon-Gon
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.107-115
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    • 2015
  • A fine is defined to the criminal penalty which is slighter than imprisonment on a system of criminal penalty, but put practically a seat to imprisonment and similar strong discipline contrivance to commission agent in capitalism societies be doing. Also, did heavy commission, but the corporation time, a fine to consider the respect which cannot impose other criminal penalty, and cannot but impose fine penalty only to this corporation carries out art as important criminal penalty than the commission which a person does. But fine drawing of our country cannot carry out art scaring to criminal penalty to rich body as aggregate fine drawing, and a lot of, but do abatement duration of a fine so as same, and be most in spite of adjudication criminal sentence occupying at criminal case adjudication, and difference cannot do to an amount of a fine that is carrying well out the art. Therefore, and have to change to the daily fine systemdm which gained because of total fine system in order to carry out value as modern criminal penalty, and a few fines shall exchange to penalty payment system according to complement department canon of Penal Code, and social accusation protects individual information of low commission agent if so, can normally do art accomplishment of criminal penalty. The system that the maximum can guarantee right of defence of accused has to have to be introduced in procedural a few aspect to pronounce this and a fine. Specially, let explain necessary fact to be related to, and informal procedures understand, and introduction of drawing to be able to get from accord of accused is necessary for accused before charging to informal decree in order cannot be guaranteed right of defence this of accused while consisting in writing of whether accusation and adjudication are procedural at informal procedures, and to supplement respect.

Supercargo and Temporary Passengers (화물관리인과 임시승선자)

  • Choi, Suk-Yoon;Hong, Sung-Hwa;Ha, Chang-Woo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Navigation and Port Research Conference
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    • pp.225-227
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    • 2018
  • This research paper examines the history and present of 'temporary passengers' prescribed in Paragraph 9 of Article 5 of the Ships Safety Act Enforcement Regulations and suggests improvement plans referring to the examples of legislation of other countries. In 2015, Ministry of Ocean and Fisheries made authoritative interpretation that Paragraph 9 of Article 5 of the Ships Safety Act Enforcement Regulations, which prescribes special cargo drivers such as agricultural, marine or livestock vehicles as temporary passengers, is applied only to passenger ships and not to cargo ships such including Ro-Ro cargo ships. As the authoritative interpretation of the Ministry does not agree with not only the traditional interpretational methodology but also the interpretational methodology that are commonly used today, it lacks logical basis and looks unpersuasive. Paragraph 9 of Article 5 of the Ships Safety Act Enforcement Regulations can be applied not only on passenger ships but also on cargo ships. Also in case of Ro-Ro cargo ships, it is logically contradictory and against fairness not to acknowledge special cargo vehicle drivers as temporary passengers when there is no problem with safe navigation and safety of passengers on board even when the sailor, the sailor's family and the ship owner may be acknowledged as temporary passengers. To avoid unnecessary disputes and lawsuits, improvement plans using theory of legislation through statutory reform is more desirable. Therefore, the P aragraph should be amended to "Supercargo who deals with cargo that requires special care due to the characteristics of the cargo, such as transportation vehicles for agricultural products, marine products, livestock, explosives or flammable materials (drivers can serve as supercargos)" to reflect the distinct characteristics of cargo and ship navigation in Korea including the current distribution system, while setting an objective standard based on common sense of ordinary people and not on arbitrary interpretation.

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An Experimental Study on Development of the Opening Apparatus for Oil Boom (오일펜스 전개장치 개발에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Jang Duck-Jong;Na Sun-Chol
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.45-54
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    • 2006
  • The study was to review methods by which a ship can unfold and tow an oil boom by attaching the opening apparatus to an oil boom through experiments. The shape and dimension of the opening apparatus were designed with the measurement value of the towing tension load of the oil boom and the dimension of winch drum of the oil boom installed in the ship considered. For the field experiment to identify the performance of the opening apparatus, opening apparatuses were prepared to have the dimension of $3.0m^2$ and $6.0m^2$ which is 91% and 75% of the calculation value for type B and C respectively. As a result, T(kg), the value of tension in type B oil boom according to the towing speed(v) change when two ships are towed together were proved to be $T=920v^{1.1}\;and\;T=500v^{0.9}$ in case the distance is 100 m and 50 m. Based on the result, the dimension of the opening apparatus for type B and C oil boom was calculated as $3.3m^2$ and $8.0m^2$ respectively. When unfolding and towing by attaching the opening apparatus and 200 m of towing line at both ends of type B and type C oil boom, the maximum width of the opening apparatus was shown as 114 m and 95 m in average(width of opening/total length of oil boom: 33% and 57%) in the towing speed of 1.5 kt. It was evaluated that the opening apparatus could concentrate the spilled oil in a good performance. However as far as the increase rate of oil boom opening width according to the length of the towing line is debatable, the increase rate is remarkably reduced when it is lengthened from 100 m to 150 m and to 200 m although it showed extreme increase of 31% and 40% when the length of the towing line was changed from 50 m to 100 m. Therefore, it is inferred that the towing line should be maintained more or less 100 m to get good spread efficiency of the opening apparatus. Additionally, if the towing speed is faster than 1.5 kt, the opening width was narrowed because of the reduced spread efficiency and the shape of the oil boom can be unstable because of the partial sinking of the oil boom, run over waves, or flap of skirt. Thus the reasonable towing speed can be within 1.5 kt for the operation of the opening apparatus.

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The Legal Status of Military Aircraft in the High Seas

  • Kim, Han Taek
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.201-224
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    • 2017
  • The main subject of this article focused on the legal status of the military aircraft in the high seas. For this the legal status of the military aircraft, the freedom of overflight, the right of hot pursuit, the right of visit and Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ) were dealt. The 1944 Chicago Convention neither explicitly nor implicitly negated the customary norms affecting the legal status of military aircraft as initially codified within the 1919 Paris Convention. So the status of military aircraft was not redefined with the Chicago Convention and remains, as stated in the 1919 Paris Convention, as a norm of customary international law. The analyses on the legal status of the military aircraft in the high seas are found as follows; According to the Article 95 of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) warships on the high seas have complete immunity from the jurisdiction of any State other than the flag State. We can suppose that the military aircraft in the high seas have also complete immunity from the jurisdiction of any State other than the flag State. According to the Article 111 (5) of the UNCLOS the right of hot pursuit may be exercised only by warships or military aircraft, or other ships or aircraft clearly marked and identifiable as being on government service and authorized to that effect. We can conclude that the right of hot pursuit may be exercised by military aircraft. According to the Article 110 of the UNCLOS a warship which encounters on the high seas a foreign ship, is not justified in boarding it unless there is reasonable ground for suspecting that: (a) the ship is engaged in piracy, (b) the ship is engaged in the slave trade, (c) the ship is engaged in an unauthorized broadcasting and the flag State of the warship has jurisdiction under article 109, (d) the ship is without nationality, or (e) though flying a foreign flag or refusing to show its flag, the ship is, in reality, of the same nationality as the warship. These provisions apply mutatis mutandis to military aircraft. As for Air Defence Identification Zone (ADIZ) it is established and declared unilaterally by the air force of a state for the national security. However, there are no articles dealing with it in the 1944 Chicago Convention and there are no international standards to recognize or prohibit the establishment of ADIZs. ADIZ is not interpreted as the expansion of territorial airspace.

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Analysis of Long-Term Variation in Marine Traffic Volume and Characteristics of Ship Traffic Routes in Yeosu Gwangyang Port (여수광양항 해상교통량의 장기변동 및 통항 특성)

  • Kim, Dae-Jin;Shin, Hyeong-Ho;Jang, Duck-Jong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 2020
  • The characteristics of ship traffic routes and the long term fluctuation in marine traf ic volume of the incoming and outgoing routes of the Yeosu Gwangyang Port were analyzed using vessel traffic data from the past 22 years and a real-time vessel traffic volume survey performed for 72 hours per year, for three years, between 2015 and 2017. As of 2017, the number of vessels passing through Yeosu Gwangyang Port was about 66,000 and the total tonnage of these ships was about 804,564 thousand tons, which is a 400 % increase from the 189,906 thousand tons shipped in 1996. Specifically, the dangerous cargo volume was 140,000 thousand tons, which is a 250 % increase compared to 1996. According to the real-time vessel traffic volume survey, the average daily number of vessels was 357, and traf ic route utilization rates were 28.1 % in the Nakpo sea area, 43.8 % in the specified sea area, and the coastal area traf ic route, Dolsan coastal area, and Kumhodo sea area showed the same rate of 6.8 %. Many routes meet in the Nakpo sea area and, parallel and cross passing were frequent. Many small work vessels entered the specific sea area from the neighboring coastal area traffic route and frequently intersected the path of larger vessels. The anchorage waiting rate for cargo ships was about 24 %, and the nightly passing rate for dangerous cargo ships such as chemical vessels and tankers was about 20 %. Although the vessel traffic volume of Yeosu Gwangyang Port increases every year, the vessel traffic routes remain the same. Therefore, the risk of accidents is constantly increasing. The route conditions must be improved by dredging and expanding the available routes to reduce the high risk of ship accidents due to overlapping routes, by removing reefs, and by reinforcing navigational aids. In addition, the entry and exit time for dangerous cargo ships at high-risk ports must be strictly regulated. Advancements in the VTS system can help to actively manage the traffic of small vessels using the coastal area traffic route.

Effect of Crude Oil on Early Life Stage of the Flounder, Paralicthys olivaceus (원유의 WSF (Water Soluble Fraction)가 넙치, Paralicthys olivaceus의 초기생활사에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Yun-Kyung;Cho, Kee-Chae;Jang, Deg-Jong;Jin, Young-Guk
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.119-125
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to investigate the toxic effect of WSF (water soluble fraction) in crude oil on the hatch, survival rate, abnormality and physiological activity of fertilized eggs and early larvae in Paralicthys olivaceus. The time required in hatching the fertilized eggs exposure to crude oil was 50.8${\sim}$53.2 hours both in control group and experimental group, showing no significant difference(p>0.05). The hatching rate in the control group was more than 80% in 1.9 ${\mu}g/mL$ WSF concentration, but hatching rate was less than 55.7% in below of 3.9 ${\mu}g/mL$ WSF concentration, showing significant difference (p<0.05). The survival rate on the 3rd day of early larval stage was 61.96% with 1.9 ${\mu}g/mL$ WSF, 11.1% with 3.9 ${\mu}g/mL$ WSF, and they all died with other concentration levels. The oxygen consumption rate in experimental groups was lower than control group. The heart rate (no./min) was 47.4${\sim}$52.8 before hatching and there was no significant difference between control group and experimental group, but heart rate reduced with the decrease of WSF concentration after hatching. The abnormality was 1.1% in the control group whereas 36.7% with 3.9${\mu}g/mL$ WSF, and abnormality was mostly comprised of incomplete spinal formation and spinal curvature. The results of this study suggest that even low concentration to WSF affects the early development of the flounder, Paralicthys olivaceus.

틸트로터 비행체 개발추세와 고속 VTOL기 개발경쟁

  • An, Oh-Sung
    • Current Industrial and Technological Trends in Aerospace
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.75-92
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    • 2007
  • 2002년 프론티어사업의 일환으로서, 10년간 1200억의 예산으로 미래형 신개념비행체 기술개발사업을 시작한 스마트무인기사업은, $2002{\sim}2003$년 수행한 개념연구를 통해 미래형 신개념 고속 수직이착륙 항공기 개념으로서 틸트로터 개념을 선정하고 이의 개발에 매진하고 있다. 사업단에서는 우선, 항공 선진국에서 지난 반세기 동안 시행한 다양한 비행체 개념연구결과에 대해 자체적인 비교 분석 및 국제공동 연구를 근간으로하여, 당시 틸트로터에 필적하는 가능성을 보였던 스탑트로터(보잉사), 복합자이로콥터(카터콥터사) 개념이 아닌, 틸트로터 비행체의 기술개발을 결정하게 되었다. 각각의 비행체 개념이 갖는 위험성과 도전성, 그리고 소요기술, 설계특성, 개발 위험도 등에 대한 면밀한 분석을 기초로 한 사업단의 체계적 의사결정은 주효했다. 스탑트로터개념은 비행시험의 잇단 실패와 지연/잠정 중단사태가 이어졌고, 복합자이로콥터 또한 잇단 비행사고로 2002년 기록한 148kts를 능가하는 고속성능 시현에 지금까지 실패함으로써, 실용화 가능한 고속수직이착륙기로서의 검증을 위해서는 해결해야할 기술적 과제가 많이 남아있음을 보여주고 있다. 반면, 틸트로터 개념의 경우 V-22의 설계 수정형에 대한 성공적인 비행시험완료 및 인증획득으로 전면양산승인이 2005년 결정되어 458대가 (미해병대(360), 해군(48), 공군(50)) 납품될 예정이고, 2010년 인증획득을 목표로 민수용으로 개발중인 BA609의 순조로운 비행시험진행, 무인기로 개발된 Eagle Eye 기술시현기의 비행 시험성공과 2003년 미 해양경찰청으로부터 Deep Water 프로그램의 장거리 순찰임무 주력기종 선정과 같이 군용, 상용, 무인용 고속 수직이착륙 시장의 전 방위적 진입이 현실화되고 있다. 이에 따라 항공업계의 반응은 2가지 방향으로 나뉘고 있다. 하나는 유럽의 ERICA 프로그램과 같이 틸트로터 기술 개발을 서두르자고 주장하는 방향이고, 다른 하나는 시콜스키의 X2 프로그램과 같이 틸트로터와는 차별화된 독자적인 고속 수 직이착륙 비행체 개념 개발을 시도하는 것이다. 이러한 배경으로 국내 독자적인 기술력으로 지난해까지 일구어낸 성공적인 스마트무인기 상세설계 종료 및 축소형 비행체 전환비행성공은 그 의의가 매우 크다고 할 수 있다. 본 논문은 틸트로터 개발사를 통해, 신개념 비행체 개발의 어려움과 교훈을 알아보고, 세계에서 2번째로 틸트로터 기술을 개발하고 있는 스마트무인기 사업의 현황과 기술적 특징 및 의의의 정리, 그리고 틸트로터의 대안으로 진행중인 새로운 고속 VTOL 비행체 연구현황에 대한 소개 와 간단한 기술적 평가를 포함시켰다.

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Preparation and Cleaning Properties of Environmental Friendly Semi-Solvent Cleaning Agents (친환경 준용매계 세정제의 제조와 그 세정 특성)

  • Kang, Doo Whan;Ha, Soonhyo;Han, Jongpil;Lee, Byoung Chul;Yeo, Hak Gue;Bae, Jang Soon;Yeum, Kou-Sul
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.188-193
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    • 2007
  • Semi-solvent type cleaning agents were prepared by mixing naphthenes, natural terpene oil, surfactant and water, and measured their physical properties. And also, cleaning efficiency for flux and grease was measured by gravimetric method. By measuring the physical properties, pH for cleaning agents were 6.0~6.7, surface tension, 27.4~28.4 dyne/cm, and wetting index, 8.65~12.46 (with water), 11.99~17.43 (without water). The cleaning agent composed of naphthene, 30 wt%, natural terpene oil, 45 wt%, surfactant, 13 wt%, co-surfactant, 12 wt%, and water, 0 wt% had the largest wetting index, and shown the most effective cleaning properties for flux (98.66%) and grease (93.44%). The conductivity with $0.5{\sim}0.9{\mu}s/cm$ to the cleaning agent containing small amount of water was found to form W/O type microemulsion.

A Critical Review and Legislative Direction for Criminal Constitution of Piracy (해적행위의 범죄구성요건에 대한 비판적 고찰과 입법 방향)

  • Baeg, Sang-Jin
    • Journal of Legislation Research
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    • no.55
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    • pp.167-191
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    • 2018
  • Despite international cooperation, piracy has not yet been eradicated in major waters around the world. From the perspective of South Korea, which is absolutely dependent on exporting and importing, it's a lifeline for us to secure safe maritime traffic so it is a situation we have to be vigilant about maritime safety and security. However, criminal law on punishment of piracy is still insufficient and legislative consideration is needed. Since pirates are regarded as enemies of humankind, all nations can punish pirates regardless of their damage. The international community has done its best in cooperation from hundreds of years ago to secure maritime trade through this universal jurisdiction and marine transportation in international waters which is an essential space for military activities, particularly in the Gulf of Aden, the advanced nations have dispatched fleets to combat maritime security threats through joint operations to crack down on Somali pirates. Even if universal jurisdiction is allowed for piracy in accordance with the International Convention on Human Rights and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, it is difficult to effectively deal with piracy if it not fully complied with a domestic legal system for this purpose or is stipulated as different from international regulations. In other words, universal jurisdiction corresponding to international norms and constitution of piracy should be defined in criminal law in accordance with criminal statutory law. If the punishment of pirates by unreasonably applying our criminal law without prejudice to such work can lead to diplomatic disputes in violation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights or other international norms. In South Korea, there is no provision to explicitly prescribe piracy as a crime, but punish similar acts like piracy in criminal law and maritime safety law. However, there is a limit to effective piracy punishment because we are not fully involved in internationally accepted piracy. In this study, we critically examine the proposals of the constitutional elements of piracy, propose the legislative direction, and insist on the introduction of globalism to pirate sins.

Study on the Patterns of Helicopter Emergency Medical Services in Ullung Island (울릉도 지역의 헬리콥터를 이용한 응급환자 후송 실태)

  • Kim, Tae-Hun;Lim, Hyun-Sul;Lee, Kwan
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.115-123
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    • 2002
  • Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the patterns of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in Ullung Island. Methods : The authors reviewed the records from emergency room diaries and the lists of helicopter transfers in the Ullung Public Health Medical Center over the 5-year period from Jan 1, 1997 to Dec 31, 2001. Results : One hundred thirteen cases were transferred by helicopters in 88 flights. According to year, the number of flights was 13(14.8%) and the number of cases was 15(13.3%) in 1997; 17(19.3%) and 21(18.6%) in 1998; 18(20.5%) and 20(17.7%) in 1999; 17(19.3%) and 20(17.7%) in 2000; and 23(26.1%) and 37(32.7%) in 2001. According to the kind of helicopter, the number of flights was 46(52.3%) and the number of cases was 60(53.1%) by Maritime police; and 19(21.6%) and 28(25.1%) by 119 rescue. According to time zone, there were no night flights. According to sex and age, there were 75 male cases(66.4%) and 28 cases(28.3%) of patients aged sixty years and over. The number of flights was 11(12.5%) and the number of cases was 15(13.3%) in November; 10 flights(11.4%) and 14 cases(12.4%) in March; and 7 cases(8.0%) in each of September, October and April. The most common season of helicopter transfer cases was autumn. According to transfer area, there were 48 cases (42.5%) in Pohang city, Gyeonsangbukdo; 35(31.0%) in Gangnung city, Gangwondo; and 17(15.0%) in Daegu metropolitan city. According to condition, there were 27 cases(23.9%) of cerebro-vascular accident, 13(11.5%) of fracture and 11(9.7%) of head injury. According to admission department, there were 42 cases(37.2%) in Neurosurgery, 21(18.6%) in Internal Medicine and 13(11.5%) in Orthopedic Surgery. According tothe Korea Standard Classification of Disease(3-KSCD), circulatory systemic disease(IX) and injury, intoxication and others (XIX) were the two most frequent categories with 34 cases(30.1%) each, followed by digestive system disease (XI) with 23 cases(20.4%). Conclusions : HEMS in Ullung Island leave much to be desired. Helicopters cannot make a night flight and are not equipped with medical facilities. HEMS in islands such as Ullung Island are essential. We hope that night flights, equipment-monitoring systems for emergency patients in the helicopters, and a law related to HEMS in the island will all be established.

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