• Title, Summary, Keyword: 해양경찰

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Growth Characteristics on the Water Temperature, Salinity and Irradiance of the harmful Algae Chattonella ovata Y. Hara et Chihara(Raphidophyceae) Isolated from South Sea, Korea (한국 남해에서 분리한 유해 침편모조류 Chattonella ovata Y. Hara et Chihara의 수온, 염분 및 광량에 대한 성장특성)

  • Noh, Il-Hyeon;Yoon, Yang-Ho;Kim, Dae-Il;Oh, Seok-Jin;Kim, Jong-Deok
    • The Sea
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.140-147
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    • 2010
  • We investigated the effects of water temperature, salinity and irradiance on the growth of the harmful algae Chattonella ovata isolated from South Sea, Korea. C. ovata grew under all combinations of water temperatures and salinity, except for all the salinity conditions at the water temperature of $10^{\circ}C$, with the salinity of 7.5 psu and 10 psu at $15^{\circ}C$, and 7.5 psu at $20^{\circ}C$ and $30^{\circ}C$. The maximum specific growth rate was $0.62\;day^{-1}$ at the combination of $30^{\circ}C$ and 30 psu. The results of two-way ANOVA indicated that growth rate depended greatly on the water temperatures while not being affected by interactions with the salinity. This indicates that C. ovata is a stenothermal and euryhaline organism, preferring high water temperatures. C. ovata did not grow at irradiance ${\leq}30\;{\mu}mol$ photons $m^{-2}s^{-1}$. Photoinhibition did not occur at $800\;{\mu}mol$ photons $m^{-2}s^{-1}$, which was the maximum irradiance used in this study. The irradiance-growth curve was described as $\mu$ = 0.74(I-16.0)/(I+43.9) at $30^{\circ}C$ and 30 psu. The half-saturation light intensity ($K_s$) was $75.9\;{\mu}mol$ photons $m^{-2}s^{-1}$ and compensation photon flux density ($I_c$) was $16.0\;{\mu}mol$ photons $m^{-2}s^{-1}$, especially this value was comparatively lower than those of Skeletonema costatum and other flagellates previously reported. Therefore, our results indicate that C. ovata has advantageous physiological characteristics for interspecific competition at the embayment and coastal areas of Korea in summer.

Effect of Vibroacoustic Stimulation to Electroencephalogram (음향진동자극이 뇌파에 미치는 영향)

  • Moon, D.H.;Choi, M.S.
    • Journal of the Korea Society For Power System Engineering
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.29-36
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    • 2010
  • This study was performed with 5 subjects and used three kinds of music and vibroacoustic stimuli wave based upon each kinds of music. Executing music stimulation, vibro tactile and acoustic wave stimulation to human body were performed. Then measured brain waves were analyzed under each condition including before stimulation, stimulation 1, and stimulation 2. Effects by stimulation results could be studied with experiments and summarized results are followings. 1. It may be concluded that effects on brain waves by music and vibroacoustic stimulation might differ under different situations such as stimulation types with vibroacoustic equipment, human body and mental conditions when measuring, etc.. 2. During stimuli by using music A, B, and C, the effect of $\alpha$ wave, $\beta$ wave, and SMR wave power values show same tendency to the subject c but music C had very different tendency during vibroacoustic stimuli. 3. During vibroacoustic stimuli by applying the signals of music C, because SMR wave power value was continually increased with consistency comparing to Bst, this can be estimated that an application of inducing mind concentration condition would be possible under relaxed body and mind conditions. 4. To secure data significance, all measured data need to be tested statistically whether data would be interrelated or not.

Relation of Eating Speed and Metabolic syndrome in Fire fighters (소방공무원의 식사속도와 대사증후군에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Chang-Sub;Kim, Jee-Hee;Bang, Sung-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korea Convergence Society
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.113-119
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    • 2014
  • Fire fighters should eat their meal very fast in order to arrive in the emergency scene on time. The purpose of the study is to investigate the influence of eating speed on the health of the fire fighters. The subjects were fire fighters, National maritime police, soldiers, public officials, university students, and company employees. The fire fighters had the shortest eating time of 8 minutes 29 seconds, and eating speed of National maritime police was 8 minutes 33.17 seconds, and public officials had 12 minutes 49.33 seconds. Soldiers had 10 minutes 15 seconds, university students had 14 minutes 15 seconds, and company employees had 16 minutes 51 seconds in eating their meals. The previous studies said that eating speed had influenced on the metabolic syndrome and the survey on the American fire fighters showed that the fire fighters gained 7.7 pounds during the past 8 years. Through this study, it is necessary to implement the right eating habit that is able to slow down the eating speed in the Korean fire fighters. The Fire Academy should provide the right eating habit education program to the fire fighters.

Effectiveness Analysis of Transforming Many-Legs Type Intersection into Roundabout in Jeju (제주지역 다지교차로의 회전교차로 교통시스템 변환에 따른 효과분석)

  • Lee, Dong Weon;Ko, Sang Ick;Lee, Dong Wook
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.32 no.6D
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    • pp.623-636
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    • 2012
  • Roundabout is an intersection that allows vehicles to pass through the intersection by circulating the circular traffic island at the center of the intersection. In this study, a comparative analysis was conducted on roundabout at five locations in order to deduce the operational result and financial effect of roundabout and signal intersection. As for the operational result, it was found that roundabout showed improvement effect in the average delay per vehicle compared to that of signal intersection by minimum of 65.6% and maximum of 91.77%. it was found that roundabout showed financial cost-saving effect in the traffic congestion cost compared to that of signal operation by minimum of 58.59% and maximum of 81.69% per year. It can be known from these analysis results that roundabout has significant operational effects under certain amount of traffic volume by allowing vehicles to pass through the intersection in a continuous way without much waiting time and stoppage from signal control.

Utilization Policy of the Private Security against Acts of Piracy (해적행위에 대한 민간경비의 활용방안)

  • Kim, Il-Gon;Ahn, Hwang-Kwon
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.9 no.12
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    • pp.777-786
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    • 2009
  • In recent, the ships of the Republic of Korea have been suffered from acts of piracy at the seas. With the increase of the threats from the acts of piracy and armed robbery against ships, some of the countries have dispatched their navy warships to the international waters and to carry out military operation against the pirates. However, the total eradication of the piracy has not been achieved due to the lack of international cooperation and the limitation of the international maritime convention itself. In addition, the absence of counter-measures to be taken by the ships itself including the employment of the professional maritime security forces should not be overlooked. In this connection, this paper examined the reality of the piracy together with armed robberies at the seas and the problems in the response were also analyzed. Based on the research, it suggested some possible measures with special reference to the private security. The limitation of this paper is that it only focus on the aspect of the private security. In this paper, the cooperation among the countries according to the maritime convention and internationally accepted norms and practices. To achieve the goals of this paper, through the comparative review of the related literatures, the practical measures applicable to the prevention of the piracy were suggested.

A Study on the Improvement of Recommended Route in the Vicinity of Wando Island using Support Vector Machine (서포트 벡터 머신을 이용한 완도 인근해역 추천항로 개선안에 관한 연구)

  • Yoo, Sang-Lok;Jung, Cho-Young
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
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    • v.41 no.6
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    • pp.445-450
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    • 2017
  • It is necessary to set a route to reflect the traffic flow for the safety of the traffic vessels. This ongoing analysis is needed to ensure that the vessels comply with a route. The purpose of this study is to discover the problems of the recommended route vicinity for Wando Harbor and suggest an improvement plan. We used a support vector machine based on the ship's trajectory to establish an efficient route center line. Since the vessels should navigate to the starboard side, with reference to the center line of the recommended route, the trajectories of the vessels were divided into two clusters. The support vector machine is being used in many fields such as pattern recognition, and it is effective for this binary classification. As a result of this study, about 79.5 % of the merchant eastbound ships in a 2.4 NM distance to Jangjuk Sudo did not observe the recommended route, so the risk of collision always existed. The contraflow traffic rate of the route of the eastbound ships decreased from 79.5 % to 30.9 % when the recommended route was reset about 300 meters to the north, from its present position. The support vector machine applied in this study is expected to be applicable, to effectively set the route center line because the ship trajectories can be classified into two clusters.

Monetary Penalty System and Privacy (벌금형 제도의 현대적 가치와 개인정보문제)

  • Kim, Woon-Gon
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.107-115
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    • 2015
  • A fine is defined to the criminal penalty which is slighter than imprisonment on a system of criminal penalty, but put practically a seat to imprisonment and similar strong discipline contrivance to commission agent in capitalism societies be doing. Also, did heavy commission, but the corporation time, a fine to consider the respect which cannot impose other criminal penalty, and cannot but impose fine penalty only to this corporation carries out art as important criminal penalty than the commission which a person does. But fine drawing of our country cannot carry out art scaring to criminal penalty to rich body as aggregate fine drawing, and a lot of, but do abatement duration of a fine so as same, and be most in spite of adjudication criminal sentence occupying at criminal case adjudication, and difference cannot do to an amount of a fine that is carrying well out the art. Therefore, and have to change to the daily fine systemdm which gained because of total fine system in order to carry out value as modern criminal penalty, and a few fines shall exchange to penalty payment system according to complement department canon of Penal Code, and social accusation protects individual information of low commission agent if so, can normally do art accomplishment of criminal penalty. The system that the maximum can guarantee right of defence of accused has to have to be introduced in procedural a few aspect to pronounce this and a fine. Specially, let explain necessary fact to be related to, and informal procedures understand, and introduction of drawing to be able to get from accord of accused is necessary for accused before charging to informal decree in order cannot be guaranteed right of defence this of accused while consisting in writing of whether accusation and adjudication are procedural at informal procedures, and to supplement respect.

Supercargo and Temporary Passengers (화물관리인과 임시승선자)

  • Choi, Suk-Yoon;Hong, Sung-Hwa;Ha, Chang-Woo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Navigation and Port Research Conference
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    • pp.225-227
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    • 2018
  • This research paper examines the history and present of 'temporary passengers' prescribed in Paragraph 9 of Article 5 of the Ships Safety Act Enforcement Regulations and suggests improvement plans referring to the examples of legislation of other countries. In 2015, Ministry of Ocean and Fisheries made authoritative interpretation that Paragraph 9 of Article 5 of the Ships Safety Act Enforcement Regulations, which prescribes special cargo drivers such as agricultural, marine or livestock vehicles as temporary passengers, is applied only to passenger ships and not to cargo ships such including Ro-Ro cargo ships. As the authoritative interpretation of the Ministry does not agree with not only the traditional interpretational methodology but also the interpretational methodology that are commonly used today, it lacks logical basis and looks unpersuasive. Paragraph 9 of Article 5 of the Ships Safety Act Enforcement Regulations can be applied not only on passenger ships but also on cargo ships. Also in case of Ro-Ro cargo ships, it is logically contradictory and against fairness not to acknowledge special cargo vehicle drivers as temporary passengers when there is no problem with safe navigation and safety of passengers on board even when the sailor, the sailor's family and the ship owner may be acknowledged as temporary passengers. To avoid unnecessary disputes and lawsuits, improvement plans using theory of legislation through statutory reform is more desirable. Therefore, the P aragraph should be amended to "Supercargo who deals with cargo that requires special care due to the characteristics of the cargo, such as transportation vehicles for agricultural products, marine products, livestock, explosives or flammable materials (drivers can serve as supercargos)" to reflect the distinct characteristics of cargo and ship navigation in Korea including the current distribution system, while setting an objective standard based on common sense of ordinary people and not on arbitrary interpretation.

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An Experimental Study on Development of the Opening Apparatus for Oil Boom (오일펜스 전개장치 개발에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Jang Duck-Jong;Na Sun-Chol
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.45-54
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    • 2006
  • The study was to review methods by which a ship can unfold and tow an oil boom by attaching the opening apparatus to an oil boom through experiments. The shape and dimension of the opening apparatus were designed with the measurement value of the towing tension load of the oil boom and the dimension of winch drum of the oil boom installed in the ship considered. For the field experiment to identify the performance of the opening apparatus, opening apparatuses were prepared to have the dimension of $3.0m^2$ and $6.0m^2$ which is 91% and 75% of the calculation value for type B and C respectively. As a result, T(kg), the value of tension in type B oil boom according to the towing speed(v) change when two ships are towed together were proved to be $T=920v^{1.1}\;and\;T=500v^{0.9}$ in case the distance is 100 m and 50 m. Based on the result, the dimension of the opening apparatus for type B and C oil boom was calculated as $3.3m^2$ and $8.0m^2$ respectively. When unfolding and towing by attaching the opening apparatus and 200 m of towing line at both ends of type B and type C oil boom, the maximum width of the opening apparatus was shown as 114 m and 95 m in average(width of opening/total length of oil boom: 33% and 57%) in the towing speed of 1.5 kt. It was evaluated that the opening apparatus could concentrate the spilled oil in a good performance. However as far as the increase rate of oil boom opening width according to the length of the towing line is debatable, the increase rate is remarkably reduced when it is lengthened from 100 m to 150 m and to 200 m although it showed extreme increase of 31% and 40% when the length of the towing line was changed from 50 m to 100 m. Therefore, it is inferred that the towing line should be maintained more or less 100 m to get good spread efficiency of the opening apparatus. Additionally, if the towing speed is faster than 1.5 kt, the opening width was narrowed because of the reduced spread efficiency and the shape of the oil boom can be unstable because of the partial sinking of the oil boom, run over waves, or flap of skirt. Thus the reasonable towing speed can be within 1.5 kt for the operation of the opening apparatus.

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The Legal Status of Military Aircraft in the High Seas

  • Kim, Han Taek
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.201-224
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    • 2017
  • The main subject of this article focused on the legal status of the military aircraft in the high seas. For this the legal status of the military aircraft, the freedom of overflight, the right of hot pursuit, the right of visit and Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ) were dealt. The 1944 Chicago Convention neither explicitly nor implicitly negated the customary norms affecting the legal status of military aircraft as initially codified within the 1919 Paris Convention. So the status of military aircraft was not redefined with the Chicago Convention and remains, as stated in the 1919 Paris Convention, as a norm of customary international law. The analyses on the legal status of the military aircraft in the high seas are found as follows; According to the Article 95 of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) warships on the high seas have complete immunity from the jurisdiction of any State other than the flag State. We can suppose that the military aircraft in the high seas have also complete immunity from the jurisdiction of any State other than the flag State. According to the Article 111 (5) of the UNCLOS the right of hot pursuit may be exercised only by warships or military aircraft, or other ships or aircraft clearly marked and identifiable as being on government service and authorized to that effect. We can conclude that the right of hot pursuit may be exercised by military aircraft. According to the Article 110 of the UNCLOS a warship which encounters on the high seas a foreign ship, is not justified in boarding it unless there is reasonable ground for suspecting that: (a) the ship is engaged in piracy, (b) the ship is engaged in the slave trade, (c) the ship is engaged in an unauthorized broadcasting and the flag State of the warship has jurisdiction under article 109, (d) the ship is without nationality, or (e) though flying a foreign flag or refusing to show its flag, the ship is, in reality, of the same nationality as the warship. These provisions apply mutatis mutandis to military aircraft. As for Air Defence Identification Zone (ADIZ) it is established and declared unilaterally by the air force of a state for the national security. However, there are no articles dealing with it in the 1944 Chicago Convention and there are no international standards to recognize or prohibit the establishment of ADIZs. ADIZ is not interpreted as the expansion of territorial airspace.

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