• Title, Summary, Keyword: 해양경찰

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Analysis of Long-Term Variation in Marine Traffic Volume and Characteristics of Ship Traffic Routes in Yeosu Gwangyang Port (여수광양항 해상교통량의 장기변동 및 통항 특성)

  • Kim, Dae-Jin;Shin, Hyeong-Ho;Jang, Duck-Jong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 2020
  • The characteristics of ship traffic routes and the long term fluctuation in marine traf ic volume of the incoming and outgoing routes of the Yeosu Gwangyang Port were analyzed using vessel traffic data from the past 22 years and a real-time vessel traffic volume survey performed for 72 hours per year, for three years, between 2015 and 2017. As of 2017, the number of vessels passing through Yeosu Gwangyang Port was about 66,000 and the total tonnage of these ships was about 804,564 thousand tons, which is a 400 % increase from the 189,906 thousand tons shipped in 1996. Specifically, the dangerous cargo volume was 140,000 thousand tons, which is a 250 % increase compared to 1996. According to the real-time vessel traffic volume survey, the average daily number of vessels was 357, and traf ic route utilization rates were 28.1 % in the Nakpo sea area, 43.8 % in the specified sea area, and the coastal area traf ic route, Dolsan coastal area, and Kumhodo sea area showed the same rate of 6.8 %. Many routes meet in the Nakpo sea area and, parallel and cross passing were frequent. Many small work vessels entered the specific sea area from the neighboring coastal area traffic route and frequently intersected the path of larger vessels. The anchorage waiting rate for cargo ships was about 24 %, and the nightly passing rate for dangerous cargo ships such as chemical vessels and tankers was about 20 %. Although the vessel traffic volume of Yeosu Gwangyang Port increases every year, the vessel traffic routes remain the same. Therefore, the risk of accidents is constantly increasing. The route conditions must be improved by dredging and expanding the available routes to reduce the high risk of ship accidents due to overlapping routes, by removing reefs, and by reinforcing navigational aids. In addition, the entry and exit time for dangerous cargo ships at high-risk ports must be strictly regulated. Advancements in the VTS system can help to actively manage the traffic of small vessels using the coastal area traffic route.

Effect of Crude Oil on Early Life Stage of the Flounder, Paralicthys olivaceus (원유의 WSF (Water Soluble Fraction)가 넙치, Paralicthys olivaceus의 초기생활사에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Yun-Kyung;Cho, Kee-Chae;Jang, Deg-Jong;Jin, Young-Guk
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.119-125
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to investigate the toxic effect of WSF (water soluble fraction) in crude oil on the hatch, survival rate, abnormality and physiological activity of fertilized eggs and early larvae in Paralicthys olivaceus. The time required in hatching the fertilized eggs exposure to crude oil was 50.8${\sim}$53.2 hours both in control group and experimental group, showing no significant difference(p>0.05). The hatching rate in the control group was more than 80% in 1.9 ${\mu}g/mL$ WSF concentration, but hatching rate was less than 55.7% in below of 3.9 ${\mu}g/mL$ WSF concentration, showing significant difference (p<0.05). The survival rate on the 3rd day of early larval stage was 61.96% with 1.9 ${\mu}g/mL$ WSF, 11.1% with 3.9 ${\mu}g/mL$ WSF, and they all died with other concentration levels. The oxygen consumption rate in experimental groups was lower than control group. The heart rate (no./min) was 47.4${\sim}$52.8 before hatching and there was no significant difference between control group and experimental group, but heart rate reduced with the decrease of WSF concentration after hatching. The abnormality was 1.1% in the control group whereas 36.7% with 3.9${\mu}g/mL$ WSF, and abnormality was mostly comprised of incomplete spinal formation and spinal curvature. The results of this study suggest that even low concentration to WSF affects the early development of the flounder, Paralicthys olivaceus.

틸트로터 비행체 개발추세와 고속 VTOL기 개발경쟁

  • An, Oh-Sung
    • Current Industrial and Technological Trends in Aerospace
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.75-92
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    • 2007
  • 2002년 프론티어사업의 일환으로서, 10년간 1200억의 예산으로 미래형 신개념비행체 기술개발사업을 시작한 스마트무인기사업은, $2002{\sim}2003$년 수행한 개념연구를 통해 미래형 신개념 고속 수직이착륙 항공기 개념으로서 틸트로터 개념을 선정하고 이의 개발에 매진하고 있다. 사업단에서는 우선, 항공 선진국에서 지난 반세기 동안 시행한 다양한 비행체 개념연구결과에 대해 자체적인 비교 분석 및 국제공동 연구를 근간으로하여, 당시 틸트로터에 필적하는 가능성을 보였던 스탑트로터(보잉사), 복합자이로콥터(카터콥터사) 개념이 아닌, 틸트로터 비행체의 기술개발을 결정하게 되었다. 각각의 비행체 개념이 갖는 위험성과 도전성, 그리고 소요기술, 설계특성, 개발 위험도 등에 대한 면밀한 분석을 기초로 한 사업단의 체계적 의사결정은 주효했다. 스탑트로터개념은 비행시험의 잇단 실패와 지연/잠정 중단사태가 이어졌고, 복합자이로콥터 또한 잇단 비행사고로 2002년 기록한 148kts를 능가하는 고속성능 시현에 지금까지 실패함으로써, 실용화 가능한 고속수직이착륙기로서의 검증을 위해서는 해결해야할 기술적 과제가 많이 남아있음을 보여주고 있다. 반면, 틸트로터 개념의 경우 V-22의 설계 수정형에 대한 성공적인 비행시험완료 및 인증획득으로 전면양산승인이 2005년 결정되어 458대가 (미해병대(360), 해군(48), 공군(50)) 납품될 예정이고, 2010년 인증획득을 목표로 민수용으로 개발중인 BA609의 순조로운 비행시험진행, 무인기로 개발된 Eagle Eye 기술시현기의 비행 시험성공과 2003년 미 해양경찰청으로부터 Deep Water 프로그램의 장거리 순찰임무 주력기종 선정과 같이 군용, 상용, 무인용 고속 수직이착륙 시장의 전 방위적 진입이 현실화되고 있다. 이에 따라 항공업계의 반응은 2가지 방향으로 나뉘고 있다. 하나는 유럽의 ERICA 프로그램과 같이 틸트로터 기술 개발을 서두르자고 주장하는 방향이고, 다른 하나는 시콜스키의 X2 프로그램과 같이 틸트로터와는 차별화된 독자적인 고속 수 직이착륙 비행체 개념 개발을 시도하는 것이다. 이러한 배경으로 국내 독자적인 기술력으로 지난해까지 일구어낸 성공적인 스마트무인기 상세설계 종료 및 축소형 비행체 전환비행성공은 그 의의가 매우 크다고 할 수 있다. 본 논문은 틸트로터 개발사를 통해, 신개념 비행체 개발의 어려움과 교훈을 알아보고, 세계에서 2번째로 틸트로터 기술을 개발하고 있는 스마트무인기 사업의 현황과 기술적 특징 및 의의의 정리, 그리고 틸트로터의 대안으로 진행중인 새로운 고속 VTOL 비행체 연구현황에 대한 소개 와 간단한 기술적 평가를 포함시켰다.

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Preparation and Cleaning Properties of Environmental Friendly Semi-Solvent Cleaning Agents (친환경 준용매계 세정제의 제조와 그 세정 특성)

  • Kang, Doo Whan;Ha, Soonhyo;Han, Jongpil;Lee, Byoung Chul;Yeo, Hak Gue;Bae, Jang Soon;Yeum, Kou-Sul
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.188-193
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    • 2007
  • Semi-solvent type cleaning agents were prepared by mixing naphthenes, natural terpene oil, surfactant and water, and measured their physical properties. And also, cleaning efficiency for flux and grease was measured by gravimetric method. By measuring the physical properties, pH for cleaning agents were 6.0~6.7, surface tension, 27.4~28.4 dyne/cm, and wetting index, 8.65~12.46 (with water), 11.99~17.43 (without water). The cleaning agent composed of naphthene, 30 wt%, natural terpene oil, 45 wt%, surfactant, 13 wt%, co-surfactant, 12 wt%, and water, 0 wt% had the largest wetting index, and shown the most effective cleaning properties for flux (98.66%) and grease (93.44%). The conductivity with $0.5{\sim}0.9{\mu}s/cm$ to the cleaning agent containing small amount of water was found to form W/O type microemulsion.

A Critical Review and Legislative Direction for Criminal Constitution of Piracy (해적행위의 범죄구성요건에 대한 비판적 고찰과 입법 방향)

  • Baeg, Sang-Jin
    • Journal of Legislation Research
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    • no.55
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    • pp.167-191
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    • 2018
  • Despite international cooperation, piracy has not yet been eradicated in major waters around the world. From the perspective of South Korea, which is absolutely dependent on exporting and importing, it's a lifeline for us to secure safe maritime traffic so it is a situation we have to be vigilant about maritime safety and security. However, criminal law on punishment of piracy is still insufficient and legislative consideration is needed. Since pirates are regarded as enemies of humankind, all nations can punish pirates regardless of their damage. The international community has done its best in cooperation from hundreds of years ago to secure maritime trade through this universal jurisdiction and marine transportation in international waters which is an essential space for military activities, particularly in the Gulf of Aden, the advanced nations have dispatched fleets to combat maritime security threats through joint operations to crack down on Somali pirates. Even if universal jurisdiction is allowed for piracy in accordance with the International Convention on Human Rights and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, it is difficult to effectively deal with piracy if it not fully complied with a domestic legal system for this purpose or is stipulated as different from international regulations. In other words, universal jurisdiction corresponding to international norms and constitution of piracy should be defined in criminal law in accordance with criminal statutory law. If the punishment of pirates by unreasonably applying our criminal law without prejudice to such work can lead to diplomatic disputes in violation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights or other international norms. In South Korea, there is no provision to explicitly prescribe piracy as a crime, but punish similar acts like piracy in criminal law and maritime safety law. However, there is a limit to effective piracy punishment because we are not fully involved in internationally accepted piracy. In this study, we critically examine the proposals of the constitutional elements of piracy, propose the legislative direction, and insist on the introduction of globalism to pirate sins.

Study on the Patterns of Helicopter Emergency Medical Services in Ullung Island (울릉도 지역의 헬리콥터를 이용한 응급환자 후송 실태)

  • Kim, Tae-Hun;Lim, Hyun-Sul;Lee, Kwan
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.115-123
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    • 2002
  • Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the patterns of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in Ullung Island. Methods : The authors reviewed the records from emergency room diaries and the lists of helicopter transfers in the Ullung Public Health Medical Center over the 5-year period from Jan 1, 1997 to Dec 31, 2001. Results : One hundred thirteen cases were transferred by helicopters in 88 flights. According to year, the number of flights was 13(14.8%) and the number of cases was 15(13.3%) in 1997; 17(19.3%) and 21(18.6%) in 1998; 18(20.5%) and 20(17.7%) in 1999; 17(19.3%) and 20(17.7%) in 2000; and 23(26.1%) and 37(32.7%) in 2001. According to the kind of helicopter, the number of flights was 46(52.3%) and the number of cases was 60(53.1%) by Maritime police; and 19(21.6%) and 28(25.1%) by 119 rescue. According to time zone, there were no night flights. According to sex and age, there were 75 male cases(66.4%) and 28 cases(28.3%) of patients aged sixty years and over. The number of flights was 11(12.5%) and the number of cases was 15(13.3%) in November; 10 flights(11.4%) and 14 cases(12.4%) in March; and 7 cases(8.0%) in each of September, October and April. The most common season of helicopter transfer cases was autumn. According to transfer area, there were 48 cases (42.5%) in Pohang city, Gyeonsangbukdo; 35(31.0%) in Gangnung city, Gangwondo; and 17(15.0%) in Daegu metropolitan city. According to condition, there were 27 cases(23.9%) of cerebro-vascular accident, 13(11.5%) of fracture and 11(9.7%) of head injury. According to admission department, there were 42 cases(37.2%) in Neurosurgery, 21(18.6%) in Internal Medicine and 13(11.5%) in Orthopedic Surgery. According tothe Korea Standard Classification of Disease(3-KSCD), circulatory systemic disease(IX) and injury, intoxication and others (XIX) were the two most frequent categories with 34 cases(30.1%) each, followed by digestive system disease (XI) with 23 cases(20.4%). Conclusions : HEMS in Ullung Island leave much to be desired. Helicopters cannot make a night flight and are not equipped with medical facilities. HEMS in islands such as Ullung Island are essential. We hope that night flights, equipment-monitoring systems for emergency patients in the helicopters, and a law related to HEMS in the island will all be established.

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Learning from the USA's Single Emergency Number 911: Policy Implications for Korea (미국 긴급번호 911 운영시스템에 관한 연구: 긴급번호 실질적 통합을 위한 정책 시사점 제시 중심으로)

  • Kim, Hak-Kyong;Lee, Sung-Yong
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.43
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    • pp.67-97
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    • 2015
  • In Korea, a single emergency number, such as 911 of the USA and 999 of the UK, does not exist. This issue became highly controversial, when the Sewol Ferry Sinking disaster occurred last year. So, the Korean government has planned to adopt a single emergency number, integrating 112 of the Police, 119 of the Fire and Ambulance, 122 of the Korean Coast Guard, and many other emergency numbers. However, the integration plan recently proposed by the Ministry of Public Safety Security seems to be, what is called, a "partial integration model" which repeals the 122 number, but still maintains 112, 119, and 110 respectively. In this context, the study looks into USA's (diverse) 911 operating system, and subsequently tries to draw general features or characteristics. Further, the research attempts to derive policy implication from the general features. If the proposed partial integration model reflects the policy implications, the model can virtually operate like the 911 system -i.e. a single emergency number system - creating inter-operability between responding agencies such as police, fire, and ambulance, even though it is not a perfect integration model. The features drawn are (1) integration of emergency call-taking, (2) functional separation of call-taking and dispatching, (3) integration of physical facilities for call-taking and dispatching, and (4) professional call-takers and dispatchers. Moreover, the policy implications derived from the characteristics are (1) a user-friendly system - fast but accurate responses, (2) integrated responses to accidents, (3) professional call-taking and dispatching & objective and comprehensive risk assessment, and finally (4) active organizational learning in emergency call centers. Considering the policy implications, the following suggestions need to be applied to the current proposed plan: 1. Emergency services' systems should be tightly linked and connected in a systemic way so that they can communicate and exchange intelligence with one another. 2. Public safety answering points (call centers) of each emergency service should share their education and training modules, manuals, etc. Common training and manuals are also needed for inter-operability. 3. Personal management to enable-long term service in public safety answering points (call centers) should be established as one of the ways to promote professionalism.

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Privacy protection of seizure and search system (압수수색과 개인정보 보호의 문제)

  • Kim, Woon-Gon
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.123-131
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    • 2015
  • Bright development of information communication is caused by usabilities and another case to our society. That is, the surveillance which is unlimited to electronic equipment is becoming a transfiguration to a possible society, and there is case that was able to lay in another disasters if manage early error. Be what is living on at traps of surveillance through the Smart phones which a door of domicile is built, and the plane western part chaps, and we who live on in these societies are installed to several places, and closed-circuit cameras (CCTV-Closed Circuit Television) and individual use. On one hand, while the asset value which was special of enterprise for marketing to enterprise became while a collection was easily stored development of information communication and individual information, the early body which would collect illegally was increased, and affair actually very occurred related to this. An investigation agency is endeavored to be considered the digital trace that inquiry is happened by commission act to the how small extent which can take aim at a duty successful of the inquiry whether you can detect in this information society in order to look this up. Therefore, procedures to be essential now became while investigating affair that confiscation search regarding employment trace of a computer or the telephone which delinquent used was procedural, and decisive element became that dividing did success or failure of inquiry whether you can collect the act and deed which was these electronic enemy. By the way, at this time a lot of, in the investigation agencies the case which is performed comprehensively blooms attachment while rummaging, and attachment is trend apprehension to infringe discretion own arbitrary information rising. Therefore, a lot of nation is letting you come into being until language called exile 'cyber' while anxiety is exposed about comprehensive confiscation search of the former information which an investigation agency does. Will review whether or not there is to have to set up confiscation search ambit of electronic information at this respect how.