• Title, Summary, Keyword: 해양환경

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Exocyclic GpC DNA methyltransferase from Celeribacter marinus IMCC12053 (Celeribacter marinus IMCC12053의 외향고리 GpC DNA 메틸트랜스퍼라아제)

  • Kim, Junghee;Oh, Hyun-Myung
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.55 no.2
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    • pp.103-111
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    • 2019
  • DNA methylation is involved in diverse processes in bacteria, including maintenance of genome integrity and regulation of gene expression. CcrM, the DNA methyltransferase conserved in Alphaproteobacterial species, carries out $N^6$-adenine or $N^4$-cytosine methyltransferase activities using S-adenosyl methionine as a co-substrate. Celeribacter marinus IMCC12053 from the Alphaproteobacterial group was isolated from a marine environment. Single molecule real-time sequencing method (SMRT) was used to detect the methylation patterns of C. marinus IMCC12053. Gibbs motif sampler program was used to observe the conversion of adenosine of 5'-GANTC-3' to $N^6$-methyladenosine and conversion of $N^4$-cytosine of 5'-GpC-3' to $N^4$-methylcytosine. Exocyclic DNA methyltransferase from the genome of strain IMCC12053 was chosen using phylogenetic analysis and $N^4$-cytosine methyltransferase was cloned. IPTG inducer was used to confirm the methylation activity of DNA methylase, and cloned into a pQE30 vector using dam-/dcm- E. coli as the expression host. The genomic DNA and the plasmid carrying methylase-encoding sequences were extracted and cleaved with restriction enzymes that were sensitive to methylation, to confirm the methylation activity. These methylases protected the restriction enzyme site once IPTG-induced methylases methylated the chromosome and plasmid, harboring the DNA methylase. In this study, cloned exocyclic DNA methylases were investigated for potential use as a novel type of GpC methylase for molecular biology and epigenetics.

An Application of Statistical Downscaling Method for Construction of High-Resolution Coastal Wave Prediction System in East Sea (고해상도 동해 연안 파랑예측모델 구축을 위한 통계적 규모축소화 방법 적용)

  • Jee, Joon-Bum;Zo, Il-Sung;Lee, Kyu-Tae;Lee, Won-Hak
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.259-271
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    • 2019
  • A statistical downscaling method was adopted in order to establish the high-resolution wave prediction system in the East Sea coastal area. This system used forecast data from the Global Wave Watch (GWW) model, and the East Sea and Busan Coastal Wave Watch (CWW) model operated by the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). We used the CWW forecast data until three days and the GWW forecast data from three to seven days to implement the statistical downscaling method (inverse distance weight interpolation and conditional merge). The two-dimensional and station wave heights as well as sea surface wind speed from the high-resolution coastal prediction system were verified with statistical analysis, using an initial analysis field and oceanic observation with buoys carried out by the KMA and the Korea Hydrographic and Oceanographic Agency (KHOA). Similar to the predictive performance of the GWW and the CWW data, the system has a high predictive performance at the initial stages that decreased gradually with forecast time. As a result, during the entire prediction period, the correlation coefficient and root mean square error of the predicted wave heights improved from 0.46 and 0.34 m to 0.6 and 0.28 m before and after applying the statistical downscaling method.

Optimal Management of Mackerel in Korea: A Maximum Entropy Approach (최대 엔트로피 기법을 이용한 한국 연근해 고등어 최적 관리에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Yunsun;Kwon, Oh-Sang
    • Environmental and Resource Economics Review
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.277-306
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    • 2019
  • Mackerel is one of the most widely consumed aquatic products in Korea. Concerns about the depletion of stocks have also arisen as the catch has decreased. The primary purpose of this study is to estimate the mackerel stock and derive the optimal level of catch in Korea. We apply a generalized maximum entropy econometric method to estimate the mackerel growth function, which does not require the steady state assumption. We incorporate a bootstrapping approach to derive the significance levels of parameter estimates. We found that the average ratio of catch to the estimated total stock was less than 30% before the 1990s but exceeded 40% in the 1990s. After 2000, it dropped back to about 36%. This finding indicates that mackerel may have been over-fished in the 1990s, but the government regulations introduced in the 2000s alleviated over-fishing problems. Nevertheless, our dynamic optimization analysis suggests that the total allowable catch may need to be carefully controlled to achieve socially optimal management of resources.

Identifying Factors Influencing Fish Production of Shallow-sea Aquaculture Based on the Dynamic Panel Model (동적패널모형을 이용한 천해어류양식 생산에 영향을 미치는 요인 분석)

  • Sim, Seonghyun;Nam, Jongoh
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.35-46
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study is to identify factors influencing fish production of shallow-sea aquaculture in South Korea. This study employed the two-way fixed effect and random effect models based on the panel models and also the difference between GMM and system GMM models based on the dynamic panel models using the amount of fish farming production, the number of stocked fry, the number of cultured fish, the amount of inputted feed, the farming area, the number of workers, and the sales price data from 2010 to 2017. First, the two-way fixed effect model of the panel models was selected by panel characteristics, time characteristics and Hausman tests and also the model was statistically significant. As a result of the two-way fixed effect model, the number of stocked fry, the amount of inputted feed, and the number of workers were identified as factors that increase the fish production of shallow-sea aquaculture. However, the number of cultured fish and the sales price were analyzed as factors that reduce the fish production of shallow-sea aquaculture. Second, the system GMM model of the dynamic panel models was selected by Hansen test and Arellano-Bond test in order to identify whether or not the over-discrimination condition is appropriate. Based on the system GMM model, the number of stocked fry, the amount of inputted feed, the number of workers in this year and 1 year ago, the number of cultured fish 2 years ago, and the sale price 3 years ago were analyzed as factors that increase the fish production of shallow-sea aquaculture. However, the amount of fish farming production 1, 2, 3 years ago, the farming area in this year, and the number of cultured fish in this year and 1 year ago were identified as factors that reduce the fish production of shallow-sea aquaculture. In conclusion, this study suggests that it is desirable to control the amount of stocked fry rather than to expand the farming area for fish farming in shallow-sea aquaculture, so as to keep the sale price at a certain level by maintaining the appropriate amount of fish production.

Comparative Analysis of Algorithm for Calculation of Absorbed Shortwave Radiation at Surface Using Satellite Date (위성 자료를 이용한 지표면 흡수단파복사 산출 알고리즘들의 비교 분석)

  • Park, Hye-In;Lee, Kyu-Tae;Zo, Il-Sung;Kim, Bu-Yo
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.34 no.6_1
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    • pp.925-939
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    • 2018
  • Absorbed shortwave radiation at the surface is an important component of energy analysis among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. In this study, the absorbed shortwave radiation was calculated using a radiation model and surface broadband albedo data for application to Geostationary Earth Orbit Korea Multi-Purpose SATellite (GEO-KOMPSAT-2A; GK-2A). And the results (GWNU algorithm) were compared with CERES data and calculation results using pyranometer and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data to be selected as the reference absorbed shortwave radiation. This GWNU algorithm was also compared with the physical and statistical algorithms of GOSE-R ABI and two algorithms (Li et al., 1993; Kim and Jeong, 2016) using regression equation. As a result, the absorbed shortwave radiation calculated by GWNU algorithm was more accurate than the values calculated by the other algorithms. However, if the problem about computing time and accuracy of albedo data arise when absorbed shortwave radiation is calculated by GWNU algorithm, then the empirical algorithms explained above should be used with GWNU algorithm.

Evaluation of Soil Disturbance Due to Bucket Installation in Sand (모래지반에서 버켓기초 설치에 의한 지반교란 평가)

  • Kim, Jae-Hyun;Lee, Seung-Tae;Kim, Dong-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.34 no.11
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    • pp.21-31
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    • 2018
  • Bucket foundations are widely used in offshore areas due to their various benefits such as easy and fast installations. A bucket is installed using self-weight and the hydraulic pressure difference across the lid generated by pumping out water from inside the bucket. When buckets are installed in high permeable soil such as sands, upward seepage flow occurs around the bucket tip and interior, leading to a decrease in the effective stress in the soil inside the buckets. This process reduces the penetration resistance of buckets. However, the soil inside and outside the bucket can be disturbed due to the upward seepage flow and this can change the soil properties around the bucket. Moreover, upward seepage flow can create significant soil plug heave, thereby hindering the penetration of the bucket to the target depth. Despite of these problems, soil disturbance and soil plug heave created by suction installation are not well understood. This study aims to investigate the behavior of soil during suction installation. To comprehend the phenomena of soil plug heave during installation, a series of small-scale model tests were conducted with different testing conditions. From a series of tests, the effects of tip thickness of bucket, penetration rate, and self-weight were identified. Finally, soil properties inside the bucket after installation were approximated from the measured soil plug heave.

Variations of Size and Density of Sea Cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) Released to the Habitat Conditions (서식 환경에 따른 방류 돌기해삼(Stichopus japonicus)의 크기 및 서식밀도 변화)

  • Lee, Jin Wang;Gil, Hyun Woo;Lee, Do Hyeon;Kim, Ju Kyeong;Hur, Jun Wook
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.69-75
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    • 2018
  • We investigated the effects of environmental variations on the growth and survival rate of Stichopus japonicus to determine the optimum environmental conditions for its growth. Literature studies and a 12 month-long diver survey were carried out to understand the habitat, ecology and size of the surveyed area. Based on the collected data, we suggested optimum habitat conditions for releasing S. japonicus. Experiments on releasing S. japonicus were conducted in the breakwater of the Hwagye fishing cooperative in Hwagey-ri, Namhae-un, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea. To implement the experiments, we divided the surveyed area into 4 sub-areas with different characteristics: (1) sand and silt zone; (2) artificial sea cucumber bank zone; (3) artificial rock bank zone; and (4) marine algae zone. The experiment lasted for 12 months. We released 32,000 sea cucumbers over $120m^2$ of each of the sand and silt zone, artificial rock bank zone and marine algae zone and released 6,000 sea cucumbers over $120m^2$ of the artificial sea cucumber bank zone. The average density of the released sea cucumbers from day 30 to day 360 after the releasing was conducted was the highest in the artificial sea cucumber bank zone ($23.7animal/m^2$), which was followed by artificial rock bank zone ($2.0animal/m^2$), marine algae zone ($1.9animal/m^2$) and sand and silt zone ($0.8animal/m^2$). The analysis on growth showed that the initial average weight of 2.3 g increased on day 360 after the releasing to 12.5 g in the artificial sea cucumber rank zone, 20.2 g in the sand and silt zone, 23.3 g in the artificial rock bank zone and 22.9 g in the marine algae zone. Results from the experiment along with the literature analysis suggest the following optimum habitat conditions: $10-15^{\circ}C$ water temperature; 28-34 psu salinity; 5-10 m water depth; 0.2-0.5 m/s velocity; rock, stone and muddy sand as substrate; and less than 20% mud in the substrate.

Quantitative Cell Count of Vibrio vulnificus Cells Based on MPN-PCR Method (MPN-PCR 방법을 이용한 Vibrio vulnificus 균수 정량분석)

  • Jang, Yu-Mi;Park, Seul-Ki;Jeong, Hee-Jin;Lee, Jang-Won;Yoon, Yohan;Park, Kwon-Sam;Shin, Il-Shik;Kim, Young-Mog
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.412-415
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    • 2018
  • The objective of this study was to establish a quantitative count method of Vibrio vulnificus cells. Plate count method is often used to count the number of V. vulnificus cells using thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose (TCBS) agar plate. However, this method is unsuitable for counting V. vulnificus cells due to growth inhibition and cell injuries in TCBS medium. In this study, we suggested a most probable number-polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR) method using alkaline peptone water medium for the quantification of V. vulnificus. This MPN-PCR method showed 2 log higher cell number than TCBS agar plate method. Similar results were also found in the control using, Luria-Bertani agar containing 2% NaCl. Thus, this MPN-PCR method can be used a sensitive method for quantitative count of viable V. vulnificus cells in fish and shellfish samples.

Analysis of Overseas LNG Bunkering Business Model (해외 LNG벙커링 비즈니스 모델 분석)

  • Kim, Ki-Dong;Park, So-Jin;Choi, Kyoung-Sik;Cho, Byung-Hak;Oh, Yong-Sam;Cho, Sang-Hoon;Cha, Keunng-Jong;Cho, Won-Jun;Seong, Hong-Gun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.37-44
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    • 2018
  • As the international Maritime Organization is tightening up the emission regulation vessel, many countries and companies are pushing ahead the LNG fuel as one of long term solution for emission problems of ship. as a study on the way to conduct business for LNG bunkering around the world, this study was analyzed in view-point of business models focused on major countries such as Japan, China, Singapore, Europe and United States. The results of this study are as follows. China first established a nation-centered LNG bunkering policy. And then, the state and the energy company have been cooperating and carrying on LNG bunkering business for LNG fueled ships. Some countries in Europe and United States are in the process of LNG bunkering business mainly with private company. To obtain cheaper LNG fuel than bunker-C, the private company has a business model of LNG bunkering on their own LNG fueled ships, while securing LNG with high price competitiveness through partnership with middle class operators such us LNG terminal and natural gas liquefaction plant. Also, the LNG bunkering business around the world is focused on private companies rather than public corporations, but it was going to be focused on large energy companies because the initial cost required to build LNG bunkering infrastructure. Three models (TOTE model, Shell model, ENGIE model) of LNG bun kering business are currently being developed. It has been found that the way in which LNG bunkering business is implemented by different countries is applied differently according to the enterprise and national policy.

A Study on Data Acquisition in the Invisible Zone of UAV through LTE Remote Control (LTE 원격관제를 통한 UAV의 비가시권 데이터 취득방안)

  • Jeong, HoHyun;Lee, Jaehee;Park, Seongjin
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.35 no.6_1
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    • pp.987-997
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    • 2019
  • Recently the demand for drones is rapidly increasing, as developing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and growing interest in them. Compared to traditional satellite and aerial imagery, it can be used for various researches (environment, geographic information, ocean observation, and remote sensing) because it can be managed with low operating costs and effective data acquisition. However, there is a disadvantage in that only a small area is acquired compared to the satellite and an aircraft, which is a traditional remote sensing method, depending on the battery capacity of the UAV, and the distance limit between Ground Control System (GCS) and UAV. If remote control at long range is possible, the possibility of using UAV in the field of remote sensing can be increased. Therefore, there is a need for a communication network system capable of controlling regardless of the distance between the UAV and the GCS. The distance between UAV and GCS can be transmitted and received using simple radio devices (RF 2.4 GHz, 915 MHz, 433 MHz), which is limited to around 2 km. If the UAV can be managed simultaneously by improving the operating environment of the UAV using a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) communication network, it can make greater effects by converging with the existing industries. In this study, we performed the maximum straight-line distance 6.1 km, the test area 2.2 ㎢, and the total flight distance 41.75 km based on GCS through LTE communication. In addition, we analyzed the possibility of disconnected communication through the base station of LTE communication.