• Title, Summary, Keyword: 현상학적 방법

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Retrospective Inertia of Historic Spots and Spectacles of Baekje's Sabi Period, Represented in Buyeo's Palkyung (부여 팔경으로 본 백제 사비시대 장소와 경물의 회고(懷古) 관성(慣性))

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Lee, Kyu-Wan
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.14-28
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    • 2010
  • By philological geography method for dismantling and reconstituting Buyeo's Palkyung(扶餘 八景), which best signify the image of ancient city Buyeo's landscape, this research is to demonstrate the fact that the place's inertia of certain historic sites has been passed down as a type of geographic code. Titled poems and retrospective poems about Buyeo's Palkyung and its spectacles and landscapes reveal the fact that the splendid and glorious cultural heritage of Baekje had faded but its traces have remained in the each eight views including Nakhwa-am(落花巖), Goran-sa(皐蘭寺), and Jayong-dae(釣龍臺). In addtion, the spectacles and historic sites of Buyeo's Palkyung appear as the symbol of Baekje's fall and loss in the poems. Thus, it can be said that Buyeo's culture and civilization have never escaped from the cultural and historical scars of Baekhe's fall, being dominated by the place's inertia originated from the identity as "Baekje'slastcapital". It is ironical that Buyeo's future development and prosperity are not free from its cultural and historical spectacles which bear the image of the fall of Baekje. 'Older Buyeos' Palkyung(扶餘舊八景)' and, Prior Buyeo's Palkyung(夫餘前八景), originate from nine views of an unknown builder and after the construction of pavilions and towers, 'Subuk-jeong eight views(水北亭八景)' by Heungguk Kim(金興國) and the eight poems of the, Retrospect of Buyeo(扶餘懷古八景), were created. 'Buyeo's later Palkyung(扶餘後八景), which are especially free from the site's inertia are known to have expanded the scope of Buyeo's landscape by deliberately demonstrating spectacles and sites different from those of existing views. Nakhwa-am, Goran-sa, Joryong-dae, Songwal-dae(送月臺), Youngwal-dae(迎月臺), and Pyungje-tap(平濟塔) are all located within a one kilometer radius of Banwol-sung(半月城), Buyeo's palace and the Baekma river(白馬江), Daewang-po(大旺浦), Busan(浮山) in a two kilometers radius. Jaon-dae(自溫臺), Subuk-jeong(水北亭), and Gyuam-jin(窺岩津) are located within a three kilometers radius. Even Chunjeong-dae(天政臺), which are located within a four kilometers radius of Banwol-sung are located alongside the Baekma river. This indicates the fact that these spectacles had not been established temporarily or impromptu but for a long period time by historic retrospect and the inertia of landscape's geographic cycle. In conclusion, the geographic phenomenon of historical and cultural inertia appeared because Buyeo had the geographic message of "fallen, ancient city". Therefore, Buyeo's Palkyung which have constant retrospective inertia is clearly an geographic code effective and helpful to understand not only the characteristics of historic sites and spectacles of Buyeo in the Sabi period but also the quality of the site itself.

The Role of Factors Controlling the Accumulation of Biogenic Amines in Various Cheeses as Milk-Based Products: A Review (낙농유제품인 치즈에 축적된 생체 아민의 다양한 영향 인자에 관한 연구: 총설)

  • Chon, Jung-Whan;Kim, Dong-Hyeon;Kim, Hyun-Sook;Song, Kwang-Young;Lim, Jong-Soo;Choi, Dasom;Kim, Young-Ji;Lee, Soo-Kyung;Seo, Kun-Ho
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.77-92
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    • 2014
  • Fermented foods have often been implicated as causative agents in poisoning due to toxic levels of biogenic amines. Cheese, a milk-based fermented food, is the product most likely to contain potentially harmful levels of biogenic amines, such as tyramine, histamine, putrescine, and so on. Recently, the risk awareness of a dietary uptake of high loads of biogenic amines has increased. Hence, we here review the published literature on several factors known to affect the biosynthesis of biogenic amines and their accumulation in milk-based foods. Furthermore, with regard to risk analysis, we discuss the control of factors related to the synthesis and accumulation of biogenic amines as a means to reduce their incidence in milk-based products, and thus to increase food safety.

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Physicochemical Characteristics and Sensory Properties of Commercial Mukeunji Products (국내 시판 묵은지의 이화학적 및 관능적 특성)

  • Hur, Sung-Won;Ko, Myeung-Sin;Kim, Mi-Ran;Lee, Hye-Ran;Chung, Seo-Jin;Cho, Mi-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.702-708
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    • 2015
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the physicochemical characteristics of commercial Mukeunji product along with its sensory properties. Six different types of commercial Mukeunji products were purchased through an on-line market, and each product had a different fermentation period. General commercial Baechu Kimchi was compared with commercial Mukeunji products in order to standardize quality properties of Mukeunji. As a result, commercial Mukeunji showed a lower pH value (pH 3.96, mean value) than commercial Baechu Kimchi (pH 5.92), whereas commercial Mukeunji samples showed higher acidity and salinity. Color values (L, a, and b) of commercial Mukeunji decreased as the storage period increased. Hardness and thickness of commercial Mukeunji showed a lower range compared to Baechu Kimchi. The reducing sugar content decreased as the storage period of commercial Mukeunji increased. Acetic, lactic, and succinic acids were detected in commercial Mukeunji samples, whereas citric acid and malic acid were additionally detected in Baechu Kimchi. Commercial Mukeunji samples showed lower contents of acetic and succinic acid and higher content of lactic acid than Baechu Kimchi. Commercial Mukeunji samples showed a significant difference in all descriptive sensory attributes except for bitterness. Overall intensity, sourness, moldy odor, redness, sour smell, saltiness, and carbonated taste increased as the storage period increased, whereas cabbage flavor, crispiness, sweetness, firmness, and savory taste decreased as the storage period increased.

Studies on the Effects of Various Methods of Rotation Irrigation System Affecting on the Growth. Yield of Rice Plants and Its Optimum Facilities. (수환관개방법과 적정시설연구 (수환관개의 방법의 차이가 수축생육 및 수량에 미치는 영향과 그 적정시설에 관한 연구))

  • 이창구
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.1534-1548
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    • 1969
  • This experiment was conducted, making use of the 'NONG-RIM6' arecommended variety of rice for the year of 1968. Main purposes of the experiment are to explore possibilities of; a) ways and means of saving irringation water and, b) overcoming drought at the same time so that an increased yield in rice could be resulted in. Specifically, it was tried to determine the effects of the Rotation irrigation method combined with differentiated thickness of lining upon the growth and yield of rice. Some of the major findings are summarized in the following. 1) The different thicknesses show a significant relationship with the weight of 1,000 grains. In the case of 9cm lined plot, the grain weight is 23.5grams, the heaviest. Next in order is 3cm lined plot, 6cm lined plot, control plot, and wheat straw lined-plot. 2) In rice yield, it is found that there is a considerably moderate significant relationship with both the different thickness of lining and the number of irrigation, as shown in the table. 3) There is little or no difference among different plots in terms of a) physical and chemical properties of soil, b) quality of irrigation water, c) climatic conditions, and rainfalls. 4) It is found that there is a significant relationship between differences in the method of rotation irrigation and the number of ears per hill. The plot irrigated at an interval of 7 days shows 17.4 ears and plot irrigated at an interval of 6 days, 16.3 5) In vinyl-treated plots, it is shown that both yield and component elements are greatest in the case of the plot ith whole of $3cm/m^2$ Next in order are the plot with a hole of $2cm/m^2$ the plot with a hole of $1cm/m^2$ In the case of the plot with no hole it is found that both yield and component elements are decreased as compared to the control plot. 6) The irrigation water reqirement is measured for the actual irrigation days of 72 which are the number subtracted the days of rainfall of 30 from the total irrigation days of 102. It is found that the irrigation water requirement for the uncontrol plot is 1,590mm as compared to 876mm(44.9% saved) for the 9cm-lined plot, 959mm(39.7% saved) for the 6cm-lined plot 1,010mm(36% saved) for the 3cm-lined plot and 1,082mm(32% saved) for the wheat straw lined plot. In the case of the Rotation irrigation method it is found that the water requirement for the plot irrigated at an interval of 8 days is 538mm(65% saved), as compared to 617mm(61.6% saved) for plot irrigated at an interval of 7 day 672mm(57.7% saved) for plot irrigated at an interval of 6day, 746mm(53.0% saved) for the plot irrigated at an interval of 5 days, 890mm 44.0% saved) for the plot irrigated at an interval of 4 days, and 975mm(38.6% saved) for the plot irrigated at an interval of 3 days. 7) The rate of evapotranspiration is found 2.8 around the end of month of July, as compared to 2.6 at the begining of August 3.4 around the end of August and 2.6 at the begining of August 3.4 around the end of August and 2.6 at the begining of September. 8) It is found that the saturation quantity of 30mm per day is decreased to 20mm per day though the use of vinyl covering. 9) The husking rate shows 75 per cent which is considered better.

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THE EFFECTS OF THE PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR-BB ON THE PERIODONTAL TISSUE REGENERATION OF THE FURCATION INVOLVEMENT OF DOGS (혈소판유래성장인자-BB가 성견 치근이개부병변의 조직재생에 미치는 효과)

  • Cho, Moo-Hyun;Park, Kwang-Beom;Park, Joon-Bong
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.535-563
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    • 1993
  • New techniques for regenerating the destructed periodontal tissue have been studied for many years. Current acceptable methods of promoting periodontal regeneration alre basis of removal of diseased soft tissue, root treatment, guided tissue regeneration, graft materials, biological mediators. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is one of polypeptide growth factor. PDGF have been reported as a biological mediator which regulate activities of wound healing progress including cell proliferation, migration, and metabolism. The purposes of this study is to evaluate the possibility of using the PDGF as a regeneration promoting agent for furcation involvement defect. Eight adult mongrel dogs were used in this experiment. The dogs were anesthetized with Pentobarbital Sodium (25-30 mg/kg of body weight, Tokyo chemical Co., Japan) and conventional periodontal prophylaxis were performed with ultrasonic scaler. With intrasulcular and crestal incision, mucoperiosteal flap was elevated. Following decortication with 1/2 high speed round bur, degree III furcation defect was made on mandibular second(P2) and fourth(P4) premolar. For the basic treatment of root surface, fully saturated citric acid was applied on the exposed root surface for 3 minutes. On the right P4 20ug of human recombinant PDGF-BB dissolved in acetic acid was applied with polypropylene autopipette. On the left P2 and right P2 PDGF-BB was applied after insertion of ${\beta}-Tricalcium$ phosphate(TCP) and collagen (Collatape) respectively. Left mandibular P4 was used as control. Systemic antibiotics (Penicillin-G benzathine and penicillin-G procaine, 1 ml per 10-25 1bs body weight) were administrated intramuscular for 2 weeks after surgery. Irrigation with 0.1% Chlorhexidine Gluconate around operated sites was performed during the whole experimental period except one day immediate after surgery. Soft diets were fed through the whole experiment period. After 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed by perfusion technique. Tissue block was excised including the tooth and prepared for light microscope with H-E staining. At 2 weeks after surgery, therer were rapid osteogenesis phenomenon on the defected area of the PDGF only treated group and early trabeculation pattern was made with new osteoid tissue produced by activated osteoblast. Bone formation was almost completed to the fornix of furcation by 8 weeks after surgery. New cementum fromation was observed from 2 weeks after surgery, and the thickness was increased until 8 weeks with typical Sharpey’s fibers reembedded into new bone and cementum. In both PDGF-BB with TCP group and PDGF-BB with Collagen group, regeneration process including new bone and new cementum formation and the group especially in the early weeks. It might be thought that the migration of actively proliferating cells was prohibited by the graft materials. In conclusion, platelet-derived growth factor can promote rapid osteogenesis during early stage of periodontal tissue regeneration.

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Studies on the Breeding of the Response to short photoperiod, Fiber weight, and Qualitative characters and of the Associations Among these characters in Kenaf (섬유용양마의 육종에 관한 연구 -단일반응성과 섬유종의 유전 및 연소)

  • Johng-Moon Park
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.115-124
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    • 1968
  • It was shown that the most desirable characters for kenaf are high-fiber weight and moderately early maturity. Therefore, the objectives of this research on this crop is to find varieties possessing these characteristics. The experiments covered in this report provided new information relative to segregation, mode of inheritance, estimate of the number of genes involved in fiber weight and their response to short day length of 10 hours and the qualitative characters, such as, color of stem, capsule, petiole and shape of leaves. The associations which exist among these characters are also indicated. Fiber weight per plant, days to flowering, Stem color, Petiole color, Capsule color, and shape of leaves were studied in parental, $F_1$.$F_2$and backcross populations of a cross between Dashkent, a low-fiber weight but early maturing kenaf variety, and G 38 F-1, a high-fiber weight but late maturing kenaf variety. Crosses were made using the varieties, Dashkent and G 38 F-1 as parents. The Dashkent parent had the following characteristics: green stems, capsules and petioles and lobed shaped leaves; 105.8234 mean-days to flowering in the field, and 106.9222 mean-days under 10 hours short day treatment. The other parent, G 38 F-1 had red stems yellow capsules and red petioles and unlobed shaped leaves; 149.8921 mean-days to flowering in the field, and 62.3684 mean-days under 10 hours short day treatment. Both of the parents, $F_1$, $F_2$, $BC_1$ ($F_1$ X Dashkent, ) and $BC_2$($F_1$ ${\times}$ G38F-1) of the kenaf cross were grown at the Crops Experiment Station, Suwon, Korea in 1965. Color of stems, petioles and capsules, and shape of leaves were noted to be simply inherited as a single factor. Red stem color was dominant over green stem color, red petiole color was dominant over green petiole, lobed shaped leaves were dominant over unlobed shaped leaves and yellow capsules were dominant over green capsule. It was, also, noted that the factor for color of petiole was linked with the factor for shape of leaf with a 11.9587 percent recombination value, however no interaction or linkage were found among the color of stem and capsule color. Using Powers partitioning method, theoretical means and frequency distributions for each population, the days to flowering were calculated with the assumption that two gene pairs were involved. The values obtained fitted the theoretical values. In general this would indicate that Dashkent and G 38 F -1 were differentiated by two gene pairs. Heritability values were calculated as the percent of additive genetic variance. Heritability value of days to flowering, 89.5% in the broad sense and 79.91% in the narrow sense, indicated that the selection for this character would be effective in relatively early generations. Particularly, high positive correlations were found between days to flowering and the color of petioles and shape of leaves. However, there was no relation between days to flowering and capsule color nor between these and stem color. On the basis of the results of this experiment there is evidence that the hereditary factor for shape of leaves and the color of petioles is linked with an effective factor or factors for the characters of days to flowering. The association was sufficiently close to offer a possible simple and efficient means of selection for moderately early mat. uring plants by leaf shape and petiole color selection. Again using Powers partitioning method the frequency distribution for each population to the fiber weight were calculated with the assumption that two gene pairs, AaBb, were involved. Both phenotypic and genotypic dominance were complete. The obtained value did not agree with the theoretical value for $F_2$ and $BC_1$ ($F_1$ ${\times}$ Dashkent.) It seems that Dashkent and G 38 F-1 were differentiated by two major gene pairs but some the other minor genes are necessary. It is certain that the hereditary factor for shape of leaves and color of petioles is linked with an effective factor or factors for fiber weight. Also, high. yielding plants with moderately early maturity were found in the $F_2$ population. Thus, simultaneous selection for high-fiber yield and moderately early maturing plants should be possible in these populations. Phenotypic and genotypic correlation coefficients between fiber weight per plant and days to flowering, stem height and stem diameter were calculated. In general, genotypic correlations are higher than the phenotypic correlation. The highest correlation is found between stem height and fiber weight per plant (0.7852 in genotypic and 0.4103 in phenotypic) and between days to flowering and fiber weight per plant (0.7398 in genotypic and 0.3983 in phenotypic.) It was also expected that the selection of high stem height and moderately early maturing plants were given the efficient means of selection for high fiber weight.

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The Mechanism of Interferon-$\gamma$ Induced Cytotoxicity on the Lung Cancer Cell Line, A549 (인터페론감마에 의한 A549 폐암세포주 세포독성의 기전)

  • Oh, Yeon-Mok;Yoo, Chul-Gyu;Chung, Hee-Soon;Kim, Young-Whan;Han, Sung-Koo;Shim, Young-Soo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.63-68
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    • 1996
  • Background: Interferon-$\gamma$ has various biologic effects, including antiviral effect, antitumor proliferative effect, activation of macrophage and B lymphocyte, and increased expression of major histocompatibility complex. Especially, antitumor proliferative effect of interferon-$\gamma$ has already been proved to be important in vivo as well as in vitro. And, clinical studies of interferon-$\gamma$ have been tried in lung cancer patients. However, the mechanism of antitumor effect of interferon-$\gamma$ has not yet been established despite of many hypotheses. "Necrosis" is a type of cell death which is well known to occur in the circumstances of severe stresses. In contrast, "apoptosis" is another type of cell death which occurs in such biological circumstances as embryonic development, regression of organs, and self-tolerance of lymphocytes. And, apoptosis is an active process of cell death in which cells are dying with fragmentations of their cytoplasms and nuclei. And, in the process of apoptosis the DNAs of cells are cleaved between nucleosomes by unidentified endonuclease and therefore DNAs of apoptotic cells result in a typical electrophoresis pattern known as DNA ladder pattern. Recently it has been suggested that cytotoxic effect of interferon-$\gamma$ occurs via apoptosis. To elucidate the mechanism of antitumor cytotoxic effect of interferon-$\gamma$, we microscopically observed a lung cancer cell line, A549 which was treated with interferon-$\gamma$. We observed A545 treated with interferon-$\gamma$ was dying fragmented. And so, we performed this study to find out that the mechanism of antitumor cytotoxic effect of interferon-$\gamma$ be apoptosis. Method: We treated A549, human lung cancer cell line with various concentration of interferon-$\gamma$ and quantified its cytotoxic effect of various periods, 24 hours, 72 hours and, 120 hours by MTT(dimethylthiazolyl diphenyltetrazolium bromide) bioassay. Also, after we treated A549 with 100 units/mi of interferon-$\gamma$ for 120 hours, we observed the pattern of cell death with inverted microscope and we extracted DNAs from the dead A549 cells and observed the pattern of 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis with ethidium bromide staining. Result: 1) Cytotoxic effect of interferon-$\gamma$ on A549: For the first 24 hours, threre was little cytotoxic effect and for between 24 hours and 72 hours, there was the beginning of cytotoxic effect and for 120 hours there was increased cytotoxic effect. 2) Pattern of A549 cell death by interferon-$\gamma$: We observed with inverted microscope that A549 cells were dying fragmented. 3) DNA ladder pattern of gel electrophoresis: We observed DNA ladder pattern of gel electrophoresis of extracted DNAs from dead A549 cells. Conclusion: We concluded that the mechanism of interferon-$\gamma$induced cytotoxicity on lung cancer cell line, A549 be via apoptosis.

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The Evaluation of Attenuation Difference and SUV According to Arm Position in Whole Body PET/CT (전신 PET/CT 검사에서 팔의 위치에 따른 감약 정도와 SUV 변화 평가)

  • Kwak, In-Suk;Lee, Hyuk;Choi, Sung-Wook;Suk, Jae-Dong
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.21-25
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: For better PET imaging with accuracy the transmission scanning is inevitably required for attenuation correction. The attenuation is affected by condition of acquisition and patient position, consequently quantitative accuracy may be decreased in emission scan imaging. In this paper, the present study aims at providing the measurement for attenuation varying with the positions of the patient's arm in whole body PET/CT, further performing the comparative analysis over its SUV changes. Materials and Methods: NEMA 1994 PET phantom was filled with $^{18}F$-FDG and the concentration ratio of insert cylinder and background water fit to 4:1. Phantom images were acquired through emission scanning for 4min after conducting transmission scanning by using CT. In an attempt to acquire image at the state that the arm of the patient was positioned at the lower of ahead, image was acquired in away that two pieces of Teflon inserts were used additionally by fixing phantoms at both sides of phantom. The acquired imaged at a were reconstructed by applying the iterative reconstruction method (iteration: 2, subset: 28) as well as attenuation correction using the CT, and then VOI was drawn on each image plane so as to measure CT number and SUV and comparatively analyze axial uniformity (A.U=Standard deviation/Average SUV) of PET images. Results: It was found from the above phantom test that, when comparing two cases of whether Teflon insert was fixed or removed, the CT number of cylinder increased from -5.76 HU to 0 HU, while SUV decreased from 24.64 to 24.29 and A.U from 0.064 to 0.052. And the CT number of background water was identified to increase from -6.14 HU to -0.43 HU, whereas SUV decreased from 6.3 to 5.6 and A.U also decreased from 0.12 to 0.10. In addition, as for the patient image, CT number was verified to increase from 53.09 HU to 58.31 HU and SUV decreased from 24.96 to 21.81 when the patient's arm was positioned over the head rather than when it was lowered. Conclusion: When arms up protocol was applied, the SUV of phantom and patient image was decreased by 1.4% and 9.2% respectively. With the present study it was concluded that in case of PET/CT scanning against the whole body of a patient the position of patient's arm was not so much significant. Especially, the scanning under the condition that the arm is raised over to the head gives rise to more probability that the patient is likely to move due to long scanning time that causes the increase of uptake of $^{18}F$-FDG of brown fat at the shoulder part together with increased pain imposing to the shoulder and discomfort to a patient. As regarding consideration all of such factors, it could be rationally drawn that PET/CT scanning could be made with the arm of the subject lowered.

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A Study on Recent Research Trend in Management of Technology Using Keywords Network Analysis (키워드 네트워크 분석을 통해 살펴본 기술경영의 최근 연구동향)

  • Kho, Jaechang;Cho, Kuentae;Cho, Yoonho
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.101-123
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    • 2013
  • Recently due to the advancements of science and information technology, the socio-economic business areas are changing from the industrial economy to a knowledge economy. Furthermore, companies need to do creation of new value through continuous innovation, development of core competencies and technologies, and technological convergence. Therefore, the identification of major trends in technology research and the interdisciplinary knowledge-based prediction of integrated technologies and promising techniques are required for firms to gain and sustain competitive advantage and future growth engines. The aim of this paper is to understand the recent research trend in management of technology (MOT) and to foresee promising technologies with deep knowledge for both technology and business. Furthermore, this study intends to give a clear way to find new technical value for constant innovation and to capture core technology and technology convergence. Bibliometrics is a metrical analysis to understand literature's characteristics. Traditional bibliometrics has its limitation not to understand relationship between trend in technology management and technology itself, since it focuses on quantitative indices such as quotation frequency. To overcome this issue, the network focused bibliometrics has been used instead of traditional one. The network focused bibliometrics mainly uses "Co-citation" and "Co-word" analysis. In this study, a keywords network analysis, one of social network analysis, is performed to analyze recent research trend in MOT. For the analysis, we collected keywords from research papers published in international journals related MOT between 2002 and 2011, constructed a keyword network, and then conducted the keywords network analysis. Over the past 40 years, the studies in social network have attempted to understand the social interactions through the network structure represented by connection patterns. In other words, social network analysis has been used to explain the structures and behaviors of various social formations such as teams, organizations, and industries. In general, the social network analysis uses data as a form of matrix. In our context, the matrix depicts the relations between rows as papers and columns as keywords, where the relations are represented as binary. Even though there are no direct relations between papers who have been published, the relations between papers can be derived artificially as in the paper-keyword matrix, in which each cell has 1 for including or 0 for not including. For example, a keywords network can be configured in a way to connect the papers which have included one or more same keywords. After constructing a keywords network, we analyzed frequency of keywords, structural characteristics of keywords network, preferential attachment and growth of new keywords, component, and centrality. The results of this study are as follows. First, a paper has 4.574 keywords on the average. 90% of keywords were used three or less times for past 10 years and about 75% of keywords appeared only one time. Second, the keyword network in MOT is a small world network and a scale free network in which a small number of keywords have a tendency to become a monopoly. Third, the gap between the rich (with more edges) and the poor (with fewer edges) in the network is getting bigger as time goes on. Fourth, most of newly entering keywords become poor nodes within about 2~3 years. Finally, keywords with high degree centrality, betweenness centrality, and closeness centrality are "Innovation," "R&D," "Patent," "Forecast," "Technology transfer," "Technology," and "SME". The results of analysis will help researchers identify major trends in MOT research and then seek a new research topic. We hope that the result of the analysis will help researchers of MOT identify major trends in technology research, and utilize as useful reference information when they seek consilience with other fields of study and select a new research topic.

A study on the case of education to train an archivist - Focus on archival training courses and the tradition of archival science in Italiy - (기록관리전문가의 양성교육에 관한 사례연구 -이탈리아의 기록관리학 전통과 교육과정을 중심으로-)

  • Kim, Jung-Ha
    • Journal of Korean Society of Archives and Records Management
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.201-230
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    • 2001
  • Conserving the recored cultural inheritance is actually the duty of all of us. Above all, the management and conservation of archives and documents is up to archivists who have technical knowledge about archival science. Archivists have to not only conserve archives and documents but also carry out classifying and appraising them in order to define them as current historic ones. The fundamental education about archival science is made up of history and law. Because Archive is the organisation which manage archives and documents produced by legal and administrative actions. Although there are still arguments about technical knowledge and degree archivists have to acquire, most of them prefer the studies related with history and emphasize legal studies to be the general boundary of archivits' ideology and trust. The training course about conservation of archives is conducted in about 9 National Archives of Torino, Milano, Venezia, Genova, Bologna, Parma, Roma, Napoli, Palermo. The training course in 19th was mostly based on the lectures of Phaleography, Diplomatics. There were not the education about archival science yet. Toward the end of 19th and 20th, people stressed the most basic subject in the training course of National Archive was not Phaleography and Diplomatics but archival science. The goal of archival science is to study the institution and organisation transferring archives and documents to Archive. And also it help archivists not wander about with ignorance of organisational and original procedures and divisions but know exactly theirs works. Like this, the studies on institution and organisation have got in the saddle as a branch of archival science since a few ten years. While archival science didn't evoke sympathy among people and experienced the tedious and difficult path in italy and other countries, Archive was managed by experts of other branches. As a result, there were a lot of faults in Archival Science. Specializing training course for Italian archivists came into being under the backdrop of Social Science Institute of Roma National University in 1925. The archival course of universities accomplished by the studies of history, law and economy. And such as Eugenio Casanova and Giorgio Cencetti were devoted archival science was abled to settle down in national archive. The training course for experts of 'archival science, 'Phaleography and Diplomatics' in National Archive of Bologna(Archivio di Stato di Bologna) is one of courses conducted in 17 National Archives in italy. This course is gratuitous and made up of 8 subjects(Archivistica, Paleografia, Diplomatica, Storia dell' Archivio, Notariato e documenti privati, istituzione medievale, istituzione moderna, istituzione contemporanea) students have to complete for two years. Students can receive the degree through passing twice written exam and once oral test. After department of Culture and education finally puts the marks of students, the chief Nationa Archive of Bologna confer the degree of 'archival science Phaleography and Diplomatics' on students passing the exams. This degree authenticates trainees' qualification which enables him to work at the archive in province, district and administrative capital city and archive of comunity and so on. Italian training course naturally leads archivists to keep in contact with valuable cultural inheritance through training in Archive. And it shows the intention to strengthen the affinity with each documents in the spot of archival management before training archivists. Also this is appraised as one of positive policies to conserve the local cultual inheritante in connection with the original qualitity of national archive with testify the history of each region. Traning course for archivist in Italy shows us the way how we have to prepare and proceed it. First, from producing documents to conserving than forever there has introduced 'original order that is to say a general rule to respect the first order given at the time producing documents'. Management of administrative documents is related consistently with one of historical documents. Second, the traning course for archivist is managing around 17 national archives. because italian national archive lay stress not or rducation of theory bus on train for archivest working in the first time of archival science. Third, diplomatics and phaleography for studies about historical document support archives. Forth, the studies on history id proceeding by cooperation between archivist and historian around archive. How our duties is non continuinf disputer who has to conserve and manage document and archives, but traing experts who having ability, vision and flexible thought, responsibility about archivals.