• Title, Summary, Keyword: 현상학적 연구

Search Result 2,503, Processing Time 0.064 seconds

Toll-like Receptor 4-mediated Apoptotic Cell Death in Primary Isolated Human Cervical Cancers (부인과질환 특이적 종양의 TLR4 매개성 apoptosis 유발에 관한 연구)

  • Won, Jinyoung;Hong, Yunkyung;Park, Sookyoung;Kim, Joo-Heon;Hong, Yonggeun
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.28 no.6
    • /
    • pp.718-725
    • /
    • 2018
  • Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been implicated in cell proliferation and apoptosis in several types of cancer. In this study, the impact of TLR4 activation on apoptotic cell death in gynecologic cancers induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was investigated. Cervical cancer cell lines were produced from isolated surgical specimens supplied by Paik Hospital. The primary cultures of normal myometrium and gynecologic cancers, including cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers, were used to examine the differences in morphological characteristics between normal and cancerous cells. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to determine the relative expression levels of TLR4 gene involved in apoptosis-associated signaling in cervical cancer cells. The cancer cell colonies showed a tendency to reach high levels of confluency compared with normal cells. In addition, an enhanced growth rate and loss of contact inhibition were observed in gynecologic cancer cells compared with normal cells (doubling times of 16.6 hr vs. 26 hr, respectively). The expression level of ITGA5, an alpha-5 integrin marker, was upregulated in normal myometrial cells, but this tendency was not exhibited in cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, p53 tumor suppressor gene expression was upregulated, whereas TLR4 and caspase-3 gene expressions were downregulated in cervical cancer cells. Notably, the expression levels of TLR4 and caspase-3 were increased significantly in LPS-treated cancer cells compared with those in non-LPS-treated cells. These results suggest that the TLR4-mediated caspase-dependent apoptotic signaling pathway could be suggested as a therapeutic target for the treatment of gynecologic cancers, including cervical cancers.

Polymorphisms of GSTM1 and CYP1A1, and Susceptibility to Primary Lung Cancer in Korean Males (한국인 남성에서 GSTM1과 CYP1A1 유전자 다형성과 원발성폐암의 유전적 감수성)

  • Bae, Nack-Cheon;Lee, Su-Yeon;Chae, Po-Hee;Kang, Kyung-Hee;Kim, Kyung-Rock;Cha, Seung-Ick;Chae, Sang-Chul;Kim, Chang-Ho;Jung, Tae-Hoon;Park, Jae-Yong
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
    • /
    • v.50 no.5
    • /
    • pp.568-578
    • /
    • 2001
  • Background : Lung cancer is frequently cited as an example of a disease caused solely by exposure to environmental carcinogens. However, there is a growing realization that the genetic constitution is also important in determining individual's susceptibility to lung cancer. This genetic susceptibility may result from functional polymorphims of the genes involved in carcinogen metabolism. In this study, the association between GSTM1 and CYP1A1 polymorphisms and the lung cancer risk in Korean males was investigated. Materials and Method : The study population consisted of 153 male lung cancer patients and 143 healthy male controls. The GSTM1 and CYP1A1 genotypes were determined by multiplex PCR and PCR-RFLP analysis. Result : There were no significant differences in the frequency of the GSTM1 null genotype between the cases and the controls. When the cases were categorized by their histologic type, the frequency of the GSTM1 null genotype in the small cell carcinoma group was higher than those of the controls(67.2% vs 55.9%), but the difference was not statistically significant(OR=1.772 ; 95% CI=0.723-4.340). The distribution of the CYP1A1 MspI genotypes among the cases were similar to those among the controls. When the cases were grouped by their histologic type, the ml/m1, ml/m2, m2/m2 genotypes frequencies among the small cell carcinomas(23.0%, 38.5%, and 38.5%, respectively) were significantly different from those of the controls(36.4%, 46.2%, and 7.4%, respectively, p<0.05). When the m1/m1 genotype was used as a reference, the ml/m2 and m2/m2 genotypes were associated with an increased risk for small cell lung cancer(ml/m2 genotype : OR=1.337, 95% CI=0.453-3.947 ; m2/m2 genotype : OR=3.374, 95% CI=1.092-10.421). Conclusion : These results suggest that the GSTM1 and CYP1A1 genotypes may be a genetic determinant of the risk for lung cancer, particlulary small cell carcinoma. Further investigation is needed to confirm these results.

  • PDF

Characteristic Trends of Vernacular Design Culture and Products in Post-industrial Society - a case of products: vernacular playing-culture of children and Infants - (후기산업사회의 버내큐러 디자인문화와 산물의 특징적 경향1 - 산물의 실례: 유소년 버내큐러 놀이문화 -)

  • 진선태
    • Archives of design research
    • /
    • v.16 no.2
    • /
    • pp.179-188
    • /
    • 2003
  • We can discover some facts that vernacular design products with a property of volunteer culture coexist with ready-made products as an useful objects in the post-industrial society. Currently, few attempts had been made at studies of the vernacular design objects with understanding cultural context in post-industrial society, it is necessary to illuminate the relationships between the user with a role of design producer and the product viewed in culturally. In chapter 2, by examining documentary, t have been understood the definition, apprehensions, attributes linking creative use's culture with vernacular design culture, and distinctions between vernacular design and main stream design system. In chapter 3, by verifying products of everyday street and construction site, have been investigated the public characters and the differences compared with the past. In chapter 4, as a subtle example, have been analyzed design feathers and cultural characters of the products which children and infants culture generates by reflecting the socio-economic backgrounds and the culture from 60c and 70c to now according to the phases of the times. In conclusion, first, it seems quite probably that all of artificial objects exist a state of ready-made but that is not appropriate to correspond with user's whole behaviors. supplementally, it causes the phenomenon of vernacular design products. Secondly, it is reasonable to suppose that such main-stream design system and vernacular design go forward continually and crossly with coexistent relationships as high culture and sub culture. Third, three concepts: long-life design, ecology design and recycling revealed in vernacular design are useful distinguishing marks for the future design directions, moreover instant-response, fast and flexible process, three distinctions have a possibility of alternative process which can overcome the control-based process such as the systematic approach and the planning MTG in present. Finally, in children and infants culture, vernacular design products have changed the pure style products in the past into the modified techno playing products in the present. These should De a substitute product that supplyes variousness to ready-made design system and a design culture that maintains continually as a independent culture.

  • PDF

STUDIES ON THE CYSTINE COMPONENT IN THE SERICULTURAL PROTEINS OF BOMBYX MORI L. (가잠사단백질의 각과정에서의 Cystine 성분에 대한 연구)

  • Choe, Byong-Hee
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
    • /
    • v.2
    • /
    • pp.1-31
    • /
    • 1962
  • The purpose of this treatise is to prove the presence of cystine in silk fiber through wide sampling throughout all the sericultural processes of Bombyx mori.; also to show that disulfide cross linkages exist in the silk fiber. The conclusions reached were as follows: 1. Crystalline cystine was obtained from silk fibroin using Folin's Method. 2. Analytical data showing the cystine content of silk fiber and its related materials were obtained using Sullvan's Method as follows: Material Percent Cystine A. Mulberry leaf protein 0.175 B. Silkworm egg 0.33 C. Silkworm Body, matured, fat extracted, without silk gland 0.41 D. Silk gland, matured 1.23 E. Silkworm feces none F. Silkworm pupa, fat extracted 0.30 G. Silkworm moth, fat extracted 0.60 H. Raw Silk 0.22 I. Fibroin 0.175 J. Sericin 0.30 3. The presence of cystine in the silkworm was substantiated the existence of 0.175 % methionine in mulberry leaves and 0.12% methionine in the silk gland. 4. Part of the sulfhydryl compounds in the silk gland is believed to transfer to serine and methionine, with the former being secreted into the liquid silk finally as silk fiber and the latter used for nutritive purposes in the growing of silk gland tissue. 5. The cystine content is variable by mulberry species, silkworm species, sex, breeding process, and other culturing environments. 6. Hybrid silkworms require more nutritive amino acids for effective growth than the original parents, and secrete less of them as silk fiber. 7. From such an observation, the amino acid composition of silk fiber is believed to be fairly flexible. Cystine if included in the amorphous part of the fiber, especially in sericin. 8. The result from enriching the silkworm diet with pure cystine or wool cystine did not result in any advantage, therefore it is believed that the natural cystine and methionine contents in the mulberry leafaregoodenoughforsilkwormnutrition. 9. The disulfide cross linkage in silk fiber was verified by using the Harris Method. Contraction took place following the treatment of the fiber with various salts and acids. Comparisons were made with wool fiber. 10. During these experiments, the fibrious structure of silk fiber and the net-globular liquid form were photographed microscopically. It is believed that the globules of liquid silk are net-formed by the inter attraction of the OH ion of the globular peptide and the H ion of water as shown by the hair cracking behavior of the film. The net-globular protein precipitation from the mulberry protein solution showed that mulberry is a proper diet for the formation of fibrous protein in the silk fiber. 11. The significance of the presence of cystine in silk fiber as emphasized in this paper should result in modification of the general conception that cystine is absent from this fiber. NOTICE: A part of this treatise was presented at the annual Korea Sericultural Society meeting held in 1961.

  • PDF

Petrology of Host Body of Feldspar Deposits in Jechon Ganites (장석광상 모암인 제천반상화강암의 암석학적 특성)

  • Lee, Han-Yeang;Kim, Dai-Oap;Park, Joong-Kwon
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
    • /
    • v.22 no.5
    • /
    • pp.405-414
    • /
    • 2001
  • Jecheon granite can be divided into two types; porphyritic granite (K-feldspar megacryst bearing) and medium-grained biotite granite. Porphyritic granite, host body of feldspar deposits, is 8${\sim}$11 km in diameter and about 80 $km^{2}$ in area. It mainly contains K-feldspar, plagioclase, biotite and quartz, and magnetite, zircon, sphene and apatite are accessary minerals. Enclosed minerals in K-feldspar megacryst with 3${\sim}$10 cm in diameter are hornblende, plagioclase, quartz, magnetite, apatite, sphene and zircon. Mafic enclaves mainly consisting of hornblende, plagioclase and quartz are frequently observed in porphrytic granite. Medium-grained biotite granite consists of K-feldspar, plagioclase, biotite and hornblende as main, and hematite, muscovite, apatite and zircon as accessary minerals. Core and rim An contents of plagioclase from porphyritic granite, medium biotite granite, K-feldspar megacryst, and mafic enclave are 36 and 21, 40 and 32, 37 and 32, and 43 and 36, respectively. $X_{Fe}$ values of hornblende are 0.57 at biotite granite, 0.51 at K-feldspar mehacryst and 0.45 at mafic enclave. $X_{Fe}$ values of biotite and hornblende are homogeneous without chemical zonation. K-feldspar megacryst shows end member of pure composition with exsolved thin lamellar pure albites. Characteristics of mineral compositions and petrography indicate porphyritic granite is igneous origin and medium-grained biotite granite comes from the same source of magma; biotite granite is initiated to solidly and from residual melt porphyritic granite can be formed. Possibly K-feldspar megacrysts are formde under H$_{2}$O undersaturation condition and near K-feldspar solidus curve temperature; growth rate is faster than nucleation rate. Mafic enclaves are thought to be mingled mafic magma in felsic magma, which is formed from compositional stratigraphy. Estimated equilibrium temperature and pressure for medium-grained biotite granite are about $800^{\circ}C$ and 4.83${\sim}$5.27 Kb, respectively.

  • PDF

Biological Activities of Calcium Polyphosphate (Calcium polyphosphate의 생물학적 활성도에 관한 연구)

  • Seol, Yang-Jo;Lee, Jae-Il;Lee, Yong-Moo;Lim, Yoon-Tak;Kim, Seok-Young;Ku, Young;Rhyu, In-Chul;Hahm, Byung-Do;Han, Soo-Boo;Choi, Sang-Mook;Chung, Chong-Pyoung
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
    • /
    • v.30 no.2
    • /
    • pp.213-231
    • /
    • 2000
  • 이 연구의 목적은 다공성의 CPP 내부에 쥐의 장골의 골수에서 유래된 세포를 접종하고 3차 원적으로 배양하여 CPP가 골 형성을 위한 조직공학의 지지체로 적용가능한가를 연구하는 것과 Calcium PolyPhosphate(CPP)의 돌연변이 유발성을 검사하는 것이다. 무수 ($Ca(H_2PO_4)$)를 condensation하여 무결정의 ($Ca(PO_3)$)를 얻고 이를 용융하고 냉각시킨 후 분쇄하여 Calcium polyphosphate(CPP) powder를 얻었다. 다공성의 CPP는 5% $SiO_2$를 첨가하여 sponge 형태로 $450-550{\mu}m$ 소공의 크기를 가지는 것과(CPP-45ppi) $200-300{\mu}m$의 소공의 크기를 가지는 것(CCP-60ppi) 2가지로 제작하였다. 각각의 CPP matrices는 $5mm{\times}5mm{\times}1mm$의 블록 형태로 만들었다. 체중 100g 내외의 백서에서 장골(femur, tibia)을 채취하여 백서의 장골 골수 세포를 분리하여 배양한 후 24well에 CPP block을 넣고 CPP block 당 $10^5$개의 배양한 세포를 접종하였다. 배양 1, 7, 14, 및 21 일째에 각 well에서 trypsin EDTA를 이용하여 2회 반복하여 cell을 분리하였고, 원심분리한 후 hemacytometer로 측정하였다. 또, 45ppi와 60ppi, 그 리 고 Tissue Culture Polystyrene(control group)에 접종, 배양된 세포들의 염기성 인산분해효소활성도를 배양 7, 14, 및 21 일째에 각각 측정하였다. 각 기간별로 배양된 세포-CPP 혼합체내에서 세포의 부착 및 증식과 형성된 조직의 3차원적 형태를 관찰하기 위하여 주사전자현미경하에서의 관찰하였다. CPP의 돌연변이 유발성 검사 (mutagenicity test)를 위해 hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase(HPRT) assay를 하였다. NIH3T3 cell line과 CHO-K1 cell line으로 각각 $1000{\mu}g/m{\ell}$, $100{\mu}g/m{\ell}$, $10{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ 그리고 $1{\mu}g/m{\ell}$의 CPP 농도에서 측정하였다. 통계적 분석을 위해서 모든 측정은 각군당 4개체 이상 시험하였고, 각 측정값은 평균값${\pm}$표준편차로 나타내었다. 각 군간의 통계적 유의성 검정을 위해서 Analysis of variance(ANOVA)를 이용하였고 Tukey의 방법으로 사후분석을 실시하였다. 제작된 CPP matrices 소공들이 서로간에 연결이 잘 되어있는 형태였다. 두 가지로 제조된 CPP(45ppi와 60ppi) 모두에서 세포의 부착이 잘 일어났고, 부착된 세포의 분열도 잘 일어났다. 2 가지의 CPP 모두에서 7, 14, 21일째의 세포 수는 1일째에 비해 유의성 있게 증가하였다(P<0.01). 3차원적 구조인 Calcium PolyPhosphate에서 배양한 세포는 24well dish(tissue culture polystyrene)에서 평면적으로 배양한 대조군의 세포에서 보다 염기성 인산분해효소 (Alkaline Phosphatase)를 유의성 있게 높게 나타냈다. 주사전자현미경에서 세포-CPP 혼합체를 관찰한 결과, CPP block에 세포들이 잘부착되어 있었고, 시간이 지남에 따라 세포가 여러 층을 형성하면서 뭉치는 현상을 보였다. 또, HPRT assay 결과 , Calcium PolyPhosphate는 돌연변이 유발성을 보이지 않았다. 이상의 결과로 볼 때 CPP에는 세포부착이 잘 일어나고, 지지체 상에서 세포의 분열도 활발하게 일어나므로 골조직을 위한 조직공학의 우수한 지지체가 될 수 있을 것으로 사료된다.

  • PDF

Effects of Single and Repeated Electroconvulsive Shock on the Acetylcholine and Polyamine Contents in Temporal Cortex and Decorticated Cerebrum of Mice (경련성 전기충격에 의하여 나타나는 측뇌-피질과 피질을 제외한 대뇌의 Acetylcholine및 Polyamine 함량-변동에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Sang-Hyun;Lee, Hak-Hee;Park, Chung-San;Chun, Boe-Gwun;Chun, Yeon-Sook
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
    • /
    • v.27 no.1
    • /
    • pp.13-20
    • /
    • 1991
  • There are some rather conflicting reports correlating ECS-induced changes of brain acetylcholine, and recently, Zawia and Bondy(1990) proposed the biological role of polyamine system in the long-term adaptive responses of brain to electrical stimulation. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of a single or repeated ECS(10mA, 100cps, 1sec; 5 ECS spread out over 9 days) on the brain acetylcholine(ACh) and polyamine contents of male mice. The ACh contents of temporal cortex(TCx) and decorticated cerebrum(dc-CB) were markedly increased by 79.9% and 49.4%, respectively, 10 and 30 min after ECS, and the increases were significantly attenuated with repeated 5 ECS, particularly in dc-CB. The putrescine concentrations of both TCx and dc-CB were little different and not affected by 1 ECS or 5 ECS. But the spermidine(Sd) concentration was higher in dc-CB and spermine(Sm) higher in TCx. While they were moderately decreased after 1 ECS, and their decreases were accentuated after 5 ECS, particularly in dc-CB.Sm(30mg/kg, i.p. inject. 30min before ECS) did not affect the ECS-induced increase of ACh content. Thease results suggest that both of brain ACh and polyamine may be implicated with the long-term adaptive responses to electrical stimulation

  • PDF

A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ORTHODONTIC PLIERS ACCORDING TO TYPES OF STERILIZATION (멸균 방법에 따른 교정용 플라이어의 물성 변화에 대한 비교 연구)

  • Cho, Il-Je;Son, Woo-Sung
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
    • /
    • v.28 no.2
    • /
    • pp.329-341
    • /
    • 1998
  • Sterilization has received much attention in orthodontic practices over the past several years. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of sterilization on the physical properties of orthodontic pliers-AEZ, Unitek, and Dentronix ligature cutters. This study was designed to examine the tips of ligature cutters before and after 200 and 400 sterilization cycles using the Bowmar RHT-1000, the Dentronix DDS-5000, and the Eschmann SES-2000. The tip surface and the fracture surface were observed with a scanning electron microscope. The microstructure was observed with an optical microscope. The hardness test was carried out with the mic개-Vickers hardness tester and the Rockwell C Scale hardness tester. The chemical composition was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The results of this study were as follows : 1. The number and the size of corrosion products on the tip surface and the proportion of cleavage planes in fractured specimen increased, but the hardness of the tip decreased in proportion to sterilization cycles. From these observations, it was considered that mechanical properities decreased in proportion to sterilization cycles. 2. The number and the size of chromium carbides increased in proportion to sterilization cycles. Coarse microstructure decreased mechanical properities. 3. The AEZ and Unitek ligature cutters were Fe-Cr stainless steels, but the Dentronix ligature cutter was Co-Cr alloy. There were many differences among manufactures, but the chemical composition was .not changed after sterilization cycles. 4. The tip edge of ligature cutter used in a clinic revealed microcracks with the SEM observation. Clinical experience confirmed that ligature cutters were gradually degraded by sterilization.

  • PDF

A Study on Understanding of Middle-East Terrorism : Focusing on Islamic Fundamentalism (이슬람 원리주의를 통해 본 중동지역테러리즘의 이해)

  • Park, Gi-Beom;Kang, Min-Wan;Jun, Yong-Tae
    • Korean Security Journal
    • /
    • no.12
    • /
    • pp.149-175
    • /
    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study is to understand and analyze the character of Islamic fundamentalism and Middle-Ease Terrorism. The aim of Islamic fundamentalism is reconstruction of Ummah(Muslim Unity), thee early society of Muhammad's age. Islamic movement insist to restore the spirit of Islam and purify the society of Islam from the United State and Western world. Now, Islamic fundamentalism movement as a new ideology, appeals to muslim in the world. The concept of modern national state from the Western countries do not accord with the traditional Islamic principles of reign and a spirit of nationalism. On the other hand, Islamic movement have no legitimacy in the system of modern state which govern the Arab world, regardless of the form of government. For this reasons, Islamic fundamentalist have an insecure position and their political activities. It is yet far from their purpose, to reconstruct the muslim unity, to realize the Islamic political principle close to their practical methods. Yet Islamic fundamental movement have not overcome the system of secular state. The Middle East terrorism supported by government might be eradicated by America's anti-terrorism policy. However, it will be serious and spread all over the world that the terrorist attack against the U. S. and western countries is acted by militant warriors of Islamic fundamentalism, uniting Arab and Islamic people's emotions against America and western countries. There are some reasons that we need to focus on the Arab and Islamic fundamentalism. We need to get out of misunderstanding and discrimination about Islamic religion and culture from America's and Western' standard Which are only their new world order. The discrimination of America and western nations against muslim could make other ideologies, opposite to the world peace. There are a lot of foreign workers from Islam countries in Korea. We need to give consideration and attention to them for the our globalization and world peace. It is time to consider what to do for the nation's profit(economical, political, strategic)with right understanding. We are not safe and free from the terrorism yet.

  • PDF

Optimization of Culture Conditions for 1,3-propanediol Production from Glycerol Using Klebsiella pneumoniae (글리세롤로부터 1,3-propanediol 생산을 위한 Klebsiella pneumoniae 배양 조건 최적화)

  • Jun, Sun-Ae;Kong, Sean W;Sang, Byoung-In;Um, Youngsoon
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
    • /
    • v.47 no.6
    • /
    • pp.768-774
    • /
    • 2009
  • To improve the productivity of 1,3-propanediol(1,3-PD) with K. pneumoniae DSM4799 using pure glycerol and crude glycerol derived from the biodiesel process, optimizing fermentation conditions was performed by changing environmental factors such as anaerobic/aerobic condition, temperature, glycerol concentration, and pH. When anaerobic conditions were maintained, there was an improved 1,3-PD production compared with that from aerobic/anaerobic 2-stage fermentation. From the results with temperature $26{\sim}37^{\circ}C$, the higher 1,3-PD production yield was observed at $30{\sim}33^{\circ}C$. For an initial glycerol concentration higher than 60 g/L, cell growth and 1,3-PD production were inhibited. When crude glycerol was used, the initial 1,3-PD production appeared to be inhibited. After 48 hr of incubation, however, 1,3-PD production with crude glycerol was even higher than that with pure glycerol, demonstrating the feasibility of 1,3-PD production using crude glycerol as a substrate. Fed-batch fermentation was applied for the high concentration of 1,3-PD without substrate inhibition. By regulating pH at 7 during the fed-batch with glycerol lower than 40 g/L, the yield of 1,3-PD was 25% higher than that without pH regulation(0.56 g/g vs. 0.45 g/g). In conclusion, based on our results, anaerobic conditions, temperature at $30^{\circ}C$, pure or crude glycerol lower than 40 g/L, and pH regulation at 7 were the optimized conditions for 1,3-PD production using K. pneumoniae DSM4799, making it more feasible to produce 1,3-PD at higher concentration and a lower price.