• Title, Summary, Keyword: 현상학적 연구

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Anger and Alexithymia in Women with Premenstrual Syndrome (월경전기 증후군 여성들에서 분노 및 감정표현불능증)

  • Suh, Shin-Young;Kim, Mi-Young;Lee, Sang-Hyuk;Choi, Tae-Kyou;Kim, Keun-Hyang;Kim, Eun-Kyung;Park, Seon-Eun;Kim, Yong-Woo;Kim, Seo-Young;Yook, Keun-Young
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.108-115
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    • 2006
  • Objectives : Objectives of this study was to explore the relationships between anger, alexithymia and premenstrual syndrome(PMS). Methods The subjects included 125 women with PMS and 58 women with non-PMS assessed by Daily record of Severity of Problems(DRSP) and Shortened Premestrual Assessment Form(SPAE). Anger level was assessed by anger expression scale. The level of alexithymia was assessed by Toronto alexithymia scale. We compared the scores of anger, alexithymia between PMS group and no-PMS group. Results : The mean scores of anger in(p=0.04), anger total(p=0.01) were significantly higher in women with PMS compared to control subjects. and the mean scores of alexithymia(p=0.04) were also significantly higher in women with PMS compared to control subjects. Conclusions : This study showed that the level of anger and alexithymia could be higher in women with PMS compared to control subjects, and that symptoms of PMS could be associated with anger and alexithymia. therefore, It would be better to consider the level of anger and alexithymia in treating and evaluating women with PMS.

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Verification of ET and AI Derived Offspring Using on the Genetic Polymorphisms of Microsatellite and Coat Color Related Genes in Jeju Black Cattle (제주흑우 집단에서 모색 관련 유전자와 microsatellite marker의 다형현상을 이용한 수정란이식 및 인공수정 유래 후대우 검증)

  • Han, Sang-Hyun;Ko, Jin-Cheul;Kim, Young-Hoon;Kim, Nam-Young;Kim, Jae-Hwan;Ko, Moon-Suck;Jeong, Ha-Yeon;Cho, In-Cheol;Yang, Young-Hoon;Lee, Sung-Soo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.381-387
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    • 2010
  • To find offspring of Jeju Black cattle (JBC) produced by embryo transfer (ET) and artificial insemination (AI), a molecular genetic study was carried out in candidate cattle populations collected from cattle farms in Jeju Island, Korea. The genetic marker set was composed of 11 ISAG microsatellite (MS) markers, 11 SAES MS markers selected by our preliminary analysis for population diversity of JBC and two major coat color related genes: MC1R and ASIP. The results showed a combined non-exclusion probability for first parent (NE-P1) that was higher than that recommended by ISAG (above 0.9995), and a combined non-exclusion probability for sib identity of $5.3{\times}10^{-10}$. Parentage analysis showed that the cases identified the candidate's father only (77.0%), mother only (54.0%), and both parents (40.5%) in the candidate offspring population. The ET and AI calves were identified as 14.7% in the in vitro fertilized eggs provided and 32.4% in total population, respectively. However, the result from ISAG marker analysis showed 3 identical allele-combinations in 7 calves, and that from ISAG/SAES MS marker combination also showed 1 identical allele-combination in 2 calves. Data from MS and coat-color gene analyses provided information for complete identification of all animals tested. Because the present JBC population was mostly bred using small nuclear founders through bioengineering techniques such as AI and ET, the genetic diversity levels obtained from MS analysis in the JBC population were relatively lower than those of other cattle populations, including Hanwoo. The results suggested that the more efficient marker combinations, including coat color related genotypes, should be studied and used for constructing a system for identification and molecular breeding of JBC as well.

Development of a Model of Brain-based Evolutionary Scientific Teaching for Learning (뇌기반 진화적 과학 교수학습 모형의 개발)

  • Lim, Chae-Seong
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.29 no.8
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    • pp.990-1010
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    • 2009
  • To derive brain-based evolutionary educational principles, this study examined the studies on the structural and functional characteristics of human brain, the biological evolution occurring between- and within-organism, and the evolutionary attributes embedded in science itself and individual scientist's scientific activities. On the basis of the core characteristics of human brain and the framework of universal Darwinism or universal selectionism consisted of generation-test-retention (g-t-r) processes, a Model of Brain-based Evolutionary Scientific Teaching for Learning (BEST-L) was developed. The model consists of three components, three steps, and assessment part. The three components are the affective (A), behavioral (B), and cognitive (C) components. Each component consists of three steps of Diversifying $\rightarrow$ Emulating (Executing, Estimating, Evaluating) $\rightarrow$ Furthering (ABC-DEF). The model is 'brain-based' in the aspect of consecutive incorporation of the affective component which is based on limbic system of human brain associated with emotions, the behavioral component which is associated with the occipital lobes performing visual processing, temporal lobes performing functions of language generation and understanding, and parietal lobes, which receive and process sensory information and execute motor activities of the body, and the cognitive component which is based on the prefrontal lobes involved in thinking, planning, judging, and problem solving. On the other hand, the model is 'evolutionary' in the aspect of proceeding according to the processes of the diversifying step to generate variants in each component, the emulating step to test and select useful or valuable things among the variants, and the furthering step to extend or apply the selected things. For three components of ABC, to reflect the importance of emotional factors as a starting point in scientific activity as well as the dominant role of limbic system relative to cortex of brain, the model emphasizes the DARWIN (Driving Affective Realm for Whole Intellectual Network) approach.

Clinical Experience with Long-term Lamivudine Therapy to Determine the Adequate Duration of Treatment in Children and Adolescents with HBeAg-Negative Chronic Hepatitis B (HBeAg 음성 만성 B형 간염 소아청소년 환자에서 라미부딘의 적절 치료 기간 결정을 위한 장기 치료 경험)

  • Kim, Jung-Mi;Hong, Suk-Jin;Choi, Byung-Ho;Chu, Mi-Ae;Cho, Seung-Man;Choe, Byung-Ho
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.23-29
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: To provide the primary data for reaching a consensus on the adequate duration of treatment of lamivudine in children with HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B. Methods: Seven of 83 children/adolescents with chronic hepatitis B were diagnosed with HBeAg-negative and HBV DNA-positive chronic hepatitis B and treated with lamivudine. Six children/adolescents were enrolled among 7 patients, who had been treated with lamivudine over 2 years. The primary goal of treatment was HBV DNA clearance and normalization of the serum ALT level; the final goal of treatment was the durability of the complete response after discontinuation of lamivudine. It was planned to continue lamivudine for more than two additional years after HBV DNA negativity and normalization of ALT. Results: The mean duration of lamivudine treatment was 32.2 months (range, 26~40 months) and the mean duration of follow-up was 59.5 months (range, 26~110 months). HBV DNA levels became undetectable (<0.5 pg/mL) in 6 patients within 3 months of treatment. ALT levels were normalized in 3.5 months (range, 2~7 months) in all 6 patients. Biochemical breakthrough developed in 1 patient 18 months after the initiation of lamivudine treatment. No evidence of relapse could be found in 4 patients with a mean follow-up of 23.8 months (range, 4~75 months) after cessation of lamivudine treatment. Conclusion: Suppression of HBV replication and normalization of serum ALT levels were effectively achieved with long-term lamivudine treatment in children/adolescents with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B. Two additional years of lamivudine may be needed after HBV DNA clearance and ALT normalization in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B in order to decrease the relapse rate.

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A Study on Designation Potential as Ramsar Site and Management Method of Massive Scale of Wetland - A Case of Jang Hang Estuary Wetland, Han River, Korea - (대규모 습지의 Ramsar Site 지정 가능성 검토 및 관리방안 연구 - 한강하류 장항습지를 대상으로 -)

  • Yeum, Jung-Hun;Han, Bong-Ho;Lee, Kyong-Jae
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.249-257
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this paper is to weigh the possibility of endangered Jang-hang wetland at the estuary of Han River to be included on the Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance and come up with ways to manage the wetland depending on its biotope patterns. The target area is located between Gimpo bridge and Isanpo I.C. with about $2.7km^2$ area. Through the analysis of RIS(Information Sheet for Ramsar Wetlands), it was known that the wetland is located on the sedimentary topography and formed as a result of sediment at the estuary of the river owing to the concentration of rainfall during summer. The vegetation environment in the area is divided into brackish water and fresh water areas depending on salinity. Rhizosphere soil(RS) of the area was analyzed to be Silt loam while bottom RS to be Sand loam. The plant ecology was composed of 52 families 135 species and 11 varieties and 146 types. Among indigenous species found are Salix koreensis, Phragmites communis and Miscanthus sacchariflorus. The analyzed results of the actual vegetation showed that willow community accounts for 37% of the area and rice field is 13.5%. As for animal ecology, total of 62 species and 25,977 individual wild birds were observed. After comparing and analyzing the RIS we compiled with the Ramsar Site designation standards, it turns out that the Jang-hang wetland meets criteria 1(biographic region), criteria 2,3 and 4(species and ecological communities) and criteria 5 and 6(water birds). Thus, Jang-hang wetland is eligible for the Ramsar site. As a result of establishing and evaluating the biotope types for setting management areas, Jang-hang wetland has a total of 13 different types, and the grade I represents 75.4% of the area while the grade III 0.8% of the land status. We categorized four management zones for the wetland depending on the biotope patterns - preservation, restoration, use and buffer zones and suggested management methods for each zone.

Adsorption of Arsenic on Goethite (침철석(goethite)과 비소의 흡착반응)

  • Kim, Soon-Oh;Lee, Woo-Chun;Jeong, Hyeon-Su;Cho, Hyen-Goo
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.177-189
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    • 2009
  • Iron (oxyhydr)oxides commonly form as secondary minerals of high reactivity and large surface area resulting from alteration and weathering of primary minerals, and they are efficient sorbents for inorganic and organic contaminants. Accordingly, they have a great potential in industrial applications and are also of substantial interest in environmental sciences. Goethite (${\alpha}$-FeOOH) is one of the most ubiquitous and stable forms of iron (oxyhydr)oxides in terrestrial soils, sediments, and ore deposits, as well as a common weathering product in rocks of all types. This study focused on adsorption reaction as a main mechanism in scavenging arsenic using goethite. Goethite was synthesized in the laboratory to get high purity, and a variety of mineralogical and physicochemical features of goethite were measured and related to adsorption characteristics of arsenic. To compare differences in adsorption reactions between arsenic species, in addition, a variety of experiments to acquire adsorption isotherm, adsorption edges, and adsorption kinetics were accomplished. The point of zero charge (PZC) of the laboratory-synthesized goethite was measured to be 7.6, which value seems to be relatively higher, compared to those of other iron (oxyhydr)oxides. Its specific surface area appeared to be $29.2\;m^2/g$ and it is relatively smaller than those of other (oxyhydr)oxides. As a result, it was speculated that goethite shows a smaller adsorption capacity. It is likely that the affinity of goethite is much more larger for As(III) (arsenite) than for As(V) (arsenate), because As(III) was observed to be much more adsorbed on goethite than As(V) in equivalent pH conditions. When the adsorption of each arsenic species onto goethite was characterized in various of pH, the adsorption of As(III) was largest in neutral pH range (7.0~9.0) and decreased in both acidic and alkaline pH conditions. In the case of As(V), the adsorption appeared to be highest in the lowest pH condition, and then decreased with an increase of pH. This peculiarity of arsenic adsorption onto goethite might be caused by macroscopic electrostatic interactions due to variation in chemical speciation of arsenic and surface charge of goethite, and also it is significantly affected by change in pH. Parabolic diffusion model was adequate to effectively evaluate arsenic adsorption on goethite, and the regression results show that the kinetic constant of As(V) is larger than that of As(III).

A Geophysical Study on the Geotectonics and Opening Mechanism of the Ulleung Basin, East Sea (동해 울릉분지의 지구조 및 성인에 관한 지구물리학적 연구)

  • Suh, Man-Cheol;Lee, Gwang-Hoon;Shon, Ho-Woong
    • The Sea
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.34-44
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    • 1998
  • Analysis of gravity, magnetic, and seismic reflection data from the Ulleung Basin, East Sea has provided some insights into the opening mechanism and crustal type of the basin. Free-air gravity anomaly data show positive anomalies of about 40~60 mgal near the Korea Plateau and Oki Bank and of about -20~20 mgal in the central basin. Bouguer gravity anomaly data exhibit NE-SW trending positive anomalies of about 150 mgal in the central basin which is interpreted to be related to high-density crustal material. Abrupt changes in both Free-air and Bouguer gravity anomaly profiles across the basin margins may be due to transition between continental and oceanic crusts. Magnetic anomalies in the basin are generally less than -400 nT. No stripe pattern is evident in the magnetic anomaly map but a NW-SE trending symmetric pattern is seen in some magnetic profiles. The symmetric pattern is probably associated with the high-density crustal material in the central basin suggested by Bouguer gravity anomaly. The acoustic basement in the deep part of the basin has only a small amount of local relief. No graben or half-graben structures are seen in the acoustic basement from which mechanical extension might be inferred. The lack of high-relief structures in the acoustic basement may suggest that the basin is underlain by oceanic crust or that the basement is overlain by thick volcanic layer which obscures the structures and relief of the basement. High-density crust in the central basin inferred from gravity data, abrupt changes in gravity anomalies across the basin margins, symmetric pattern seen in some magnetic anomaly profiles, and lack of relief in the acoustic basement may suggest sea-floor spreading origin of the Ulleung Basin.

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Geochemistry and Metamorphism of the Amphibolite in the Odesan Gneiss Complex (오대산편마암복합체내에 산출되는 앰피볼라이트의 지화학적 특성과 변성작용)

  • 권용완
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.111-131
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    • 1998
  • The migmatitic gneiss in the Odesan Gneiss Complex has small amount of quartzite, amphibolite and marble and the Kuryong Group which contact with migmatitic gneiss unconformitly, also contains some amphibolite. Preview studies of this area had regarded that the amphibolites contact with marble had been produced by metasomatism from the pelitic and calcareous sediments mixtures, but the amphibolite is reinterpreted as igneous origin. $SiO_2$ content of the amphibolite is 45.9~52.7 wt%, which corresponds to basaltic composition. MgO content has narrow range (4.6~6.87 wt%) and major and trace element are plotted against MgO,$TiO_2, P_2O_5$, Hf, Zr are reduced and Cr and Ni are increased their content with increasing MgO. This phenomenon indicates that the basaltic magma as the protolith of the amphibolite had frationated with the crystallization of the pyroxene and/or olivine. REE pattern has smoothly decrease from LREE to HREE. Eu/Eu(0.83~1.19) show the flat Eu anomaly, which indicate small fractional crystallization of plagioclase. HREE is enriched in the garnet-bearing amphibolites. Several discrimination diagram for the basaltic magma show that the amphibolite of the study area is originated tholeiitic basaltic magma indicating continental rift environment. Due to determine the metamorphic condition garnet-hornblende geothermometry and hornblende-plagioclase geobarometry are used. Peak metamorphic temperature range of the amphibolite $788~870^{\circ}C$ and is deduced toward the northeastern part. The calculated temperature from the amphibolite has slightly higher than the temperature of the metapelites but the trend of metamorphic grade which decrease from western to eastern part progradly is similar to each other. The metamorphic pressure calculated by garnet- hornblede-plagioclase geobarometry is 4~5kb. But ilmenite-plagioclase pair enclosed in garnet show 8 kb at $700^{\circ}C$ by garnet-ilmenite-rutile-plagioclase geobarometery. The zonal profile of garnet in sample 84 shows the bell-shape profile, which grossular content decreases whereas pyrope content increases progressively. This means that the amphibolite has undergone the clockwise P-T-t path which is shown in the migmatitic gneiss of the Odesan Gneiss Complex.

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Correlation of Tracheal Cross-sectional Area with Parameters of Pulmonary Function in COPD (만성 폐쇄성 폐질환에서 기관의 단면적과 폐기능지표와의 상관관계)

  • Lee, Chan-Ju;Lee, Jae-Ho;Song, Jae-Woo;Yoo, Chul-Gyu;Kim, Young-Whan;Han, Sung-Koo;Shim, Young-Soo;Chung, Hee-Soon
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.628-635
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    • 1999
  • Background : Maximal expiratory flow rate is determined by the size of airway, elastic recoil pressure and the collapsibility of airway in the lung. The obstruction of expiratory flow is one of the major functional impairments of emphysema, which represents COPD. Nevertheless, expiratory narrowing of upper airway may be recruited as a mechanism for minimizing airway collapse, and maintaining lung volume and hyperinflation by an endogenous positive end-expiratory pressure in patients with airflow obstruction. We investigated the physiologic role of trachea in respiration in emphysema. Method : We included 20 patients diagnosed as emphysema by radiologic and physiologic criteria from January to August in 1997 at Seoul Municipal Boramae Hospital. Chest roentgenogram, high resolution computed tomography(HRCT), and pulmonary function tests including arterial blood gas analysis and body plethysmography were taken from each patient. Cross-sectional area of trachea was measured according to the respiratory cycle on the level of aortic arch by HRCT and calibrated with body surface area. We compared this corrected area with such parameters of pulmonary function tests as $PaCO_2$, $PaO_2$, airway resistance, lung compliance and so on. Results : Expiratory cross-sectional area of trachea had significant correlation with $PaCO_2$ (r=-0.61, p<0.05), $PaO_2$ (r=0.6, p<0.05), and minute ventilation (r=0.73, p<0.05), but inspiratory cross-sectional area did not (r=-0.22, p>0.05 with $PaCO_2$, r=0.26, p>0.05 with $PaO_2$, and r=0.44, p>0.05 with minute ventilation). Minute ventilation had significant correlation with tidal volume (r=0.45, p<0.05), but it had no significant correlation with respiratory frequency (r=-0.31, p>0.05). Cross-sectional area of trachea had no significant correlation with other parameters of pulmonary function including $FEV_1$, FVC, $FEV_1$/FVC, peak expiratory flow, residual volume, diffusing capacity, airway resistance, and lung compliance, whether the area was expiratory or inspiratory. Conclusion : Cross-sectional area of trachea narrowed during expiration in emphysema, and its expiratory area had significant correlation with $PaCO_2$, $PaO_2$, and minute ventilation.

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2007 Korean National Growth Charts: review of developmental process and an outlook (2007 한국 소아 청소년 성장도표 : 개발 과정과 전망)

  • Moon, Jin Soo;Lee, Soon Young;Nam, Chung Mo;Choi, Joong-Myung;Choe, Bong-Keun;Seo, Jeong-Wan;Oh, Kyungwon;Jang, Myoung-Jin;Hwang, Seung-Sik;Yoo, Myung Hwan;Kim, Young Taek;Lee, Chong Guk
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.1-25
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : Since 1967, The Korean Pediatric Society and Korean Government have developed Korean Growth Standards every 10 years. Last version was published in 1998. During past 40 years, Korean Growth Standards were mainly descriptive charts without any systematic nor statistical standardization. With the global epidemic of obesity, many authorities such as World Health Organization (WHO) and United States' Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have been changed their principles of growth charts to cope with the situations like ours. This article summarizes and reviews the whole developmental process of new 2007 Korean Growth Charts with discussion. Methods : With the initiative of Division of Chronic Disease Surveillance in Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we have performed new national survey for the development of new Standards in 2005 and identified marked increase of childhood obesity and plateau of secular increment of final height in late adolescents. We have developed new Growth Standards via adapting several innovative methods, including standardization of all available raw data, which were acquired in 1997 and 2005 national survey and full application of LMS method. Results : We could get new standardized charts; weight-for-age, length/height-for-age, weight-for-height, head circumference-for-age and BMI-for-age. Other non-standardized charts based on 2005 survey data were also published; waist circumference-for-age, mid-arm circumference-for-age, chest circumference-for-age and skinfold-for-age. Clinical guideline was also developed. Conclusion : Developmental process and results of new Korean Growth Charts are comparable with other internationally well-known Growth Standards, WHO 2006 Growth Standards and CDC Growth Charts. 2007 Korean Growth Charts are relevant especially in Korea and Korean ethnic groups.