• Title, Summary, Keyword: 현상학적 연구

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Trophic State Index (TSI) and Empirical Models, Based on Water Quality Parameters, in Korean Reservoirs (우리나라 대형 인공호에서 영양상태 평가 및 수질 변수를 이용한 경험적 모델 구축)

  • Park, Hee-Jung;An, Kwang-Guk
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.14-30
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate trophic conditions of various Korean reservoirs using Trophic State Index (TSI) and predict the reservoir conditions by empirical models. The water quality dataset (2000, 2001) used here were obtained from the Ministry of Environment, Korea. The water quality, based on multi-parameters of dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), suspended solid (SS), Secchi depth (SD), chlorophyll-${\alpha}$ (CHL), and conductivity largely varied depending on the sampling watersheds and seasons. In general, trophic conditions declined along the longitudinal axis of headwater-to-the dam and the largest seasonal variations occurred during the summer monsoon of July-August. Major inputs of TP occurred during the monsoon (r=0.656, p=0.002) and this pattern was similar to solid dynamics of SS (r=0.678, p<0.001). Trophic parameters including CHL, TP, SD, and TN were employed to evaluate how the water systems varies with season. Trophic State Index (TSI, Carlson, 1977), based on TSI (CHL), TSI (TP), and TSI (SD), ranged from mesotrophic to eutrophic. However, the trophic state, based on TSI (TN), indicated eutrophic-hypereutrophic conditions in the entire reservoirs, regardless of the seasons, indicating a N-rich system. Overall, nutrient data showed that phosphorus was a primary factor regulating the trophic state. The relationships between CHL (eutrophication index) vs. trophic parameters (TN, TP, and SD) were analysed to develop empirical models which can predict the trophic status. Regression analyses of log-transformed seasonal CHL against TP showed that the value of $R^2$ was 0.31 (p=0.017) in the premonsoon but was 0.69 (p<0.001) during the postmonsoon, indicating a greater algal response to the phosphorus during the postmonsoon. In contrast, SD had reverse relation with TP, CHL during all season. TN had weak relations with CHL during all seasons. Overall, data suggest that TP seems to be a good predictor for algal biomass, estimated by CHL, as shown in the empirical models.

프렌차이점에서 사용되는 튀김류의 산패도 및 트랜스지방의 함량 비교

  • Kim, Yeong-Seong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Sanitation Conference
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    • pp.76-97
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    • 2005
  • As the recent change of multiformity and taste in clination in eating habit culture is yearly in creasing foods used oil and fats. Because the frying food is especially important snack , it's safty is very essential. In order to know the safty and harmfulness of frying oil and fats. The 20 kinds samples were purchased chicken fried food shops around the north of seoul and kyunggi. The acid value, iodine value, peroxide value, TBA value, fatty acid, carbonyl value, and smoke point of deep fat fried oils were analyzed. Results of analyzed, A company of deep fat frying oil showed stability state and C company and B company of deep fat frying oil is acidification to turned. But D company of deep fat frying oil showed quite a bit acidification progressived of used hydrogenated oil.

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Isolation and Characteristics of a Phenol-degrading Bacterium, Rhodococcus pyridinovorans P21 (페놀분해세균 Rhodococcus pyridinovorans P21의 분리 및 페놀분해 특성)

  • Cho, Kwang-Sik;Lee, Sang-Mee;Shin, Myung-Jae;Park, Soo-Yun;Lee, Ye-Ram;Jang, Eun-Young;Son, Hong-Joo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.9
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    • pp.988-994
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    • 2014
  • The effluents of chemical and petroleum industries often contain non-biodegradable aromatic compounds, with phenol being one of the major organic pollutants present among a wide variety of highly toxic organic chemicals. Phenol is toxic upon ingestion, contact, or inhalation, and it is lethal to fish even at concentrations as low as 0.005 ppm. Phenol biodegradation has been studied in detail using bacterial strains. However, these microorganisms suffer from substrate inhibition at high concentrations of phenol, whereby growth is inhibited. A phenol-degrading bacterium, P21, was isolated from oil-contaminated soil. The phenotypic characteristics and a phylogenetic analysis indicated the close relationship of strain P21 to Rhodococcus pyridinovorans. Phenol biodegradation by strain P21 was studied under shaking condition. The optimal conditions for phenol biodegradation by strain P21 were 0.09% $KNO_3$, 0.1% $K_2HPO_4$, 0.3% $NaH_2PO_4$, 0.015% $MgSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$, 0.001% $FeSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$, initial pH 9, and $20-30^{\circ}C$, respectively. When 1,000 ppm of phenol was added to the optimal medium, the strain P21 completely degraded it within two days. Rhodococcus pyridinovorans P21 could grow in up to 1,500 ppm of phenol as the sole carbon source in a batch culture, but it could not grow in a medium containing above 2,000 ppm. Moreover, strain P21 could utilize toxic compounds, such as toluene, xylene, and hexane, as a sole carbon source. However, no growth was detected on chloroform.

The Effect of Drought Simulated by Discharge Control on Water Quality and Benthic Diatom Community in the Indoor Experimental Channel (인공하천에서 유량감소로 모사한 가뭄효과가 수질 및 부착돌말류 군집에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Hye-Jin;Kim, Baik-Ho;Kong, Dong-Soo;Hwang, Soon-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.129-138
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    • 2012
  • We investigated an ecological impact of drought simulated by discharge depletion on the water quality and benthic diatom community in the indoor experimental channel. As artificial substrates slide-glass was installed in acrylic channel for 16 days. Channels were supplied continuously with eutrophic lake water with a discharge rate of 6 L $min^{-1}$ in duplication during the colonized period. And then during the discharge depletion period, three discharge rates were provided: NDF (No depletion of flow rate (Control): 6 L $min^{-1}$), LDF (Low depletion of flow rate: 3 L $min^{-1}$) and HDF (High depletion of flow rate: 1 L $min^{-1}$). Environmental factors in the water, such as suspended solid, Chl-$a$ and nutrients concentration, were measured with periphytic algae including AFDM (ash free dry matter), Chl-$a$ concentration and cell density at 1-day intervals. Light intensity increased significantly with discharge depletion (F=229.5, p= 0.000). $NH_4$-N concentration was highest at HDF. Suspended solid in outflowing water decreased at HDF (88%), LDF (97%) and NDF (99%), compared to inflowing water (100 %). Chl-$a$ in substrates increased more than two times at LDF and HDF than NDF (F= 8.399, p=0.001). Also AFDM and benthic diatom density increased significantly at LDF and HDF than NDF (F=9.390, p=0.001; F=6.088, p=0.007). In all experimental groups, $Aulacoseira$ $ambigua$, $Achnanthes$ $minutissima$ and $Aulacoseira$ $granulata$ were dominant species accounting for greater than 10% of benthic diatom density. The most dominant species, $A.$ $ambigua$ was highest at LDF, followed by HDF and NDF (F=8.551, p=0.001). In conclusion, the effect of drought simulated by discharge depletion in an artificial stream ecosystem caused significant changes on water quality and benthic diatom biomass. This result provides a useful data to understand the effect of draught on stream ecosystem in situ.

Physicochemical Characteristics and Sensory Properties of Commercial Mukeunji Products (국내 시판 묵은지의 이화학적 및 관능적 특성)

  • Hur, Sung-Won;Ko, Myeung-Sin;Kim, Mi-Ran;Lee, Hye-Ran;Chung, Seo-Jin;Cho, Mi-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.702-708
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    • 2015
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the physicochemical characteristics of commercial Mukeunji product along with its sensory properties. Six different types of commercial Mukeunji products were purchased through an on-line market, and each product had a different fermentation period. General commercial Baechu Kimchi was compared with commercial Mukeunji products in order to standardize quality properties of Mukeunji. As a result, commercial Mukeunji showed a lower pH value (pH 3.96, mean value) than commercial Baechu Kimchi (pH 5.92), whereas commercial Mukeunji samples showed higher acidity and salinity. Color values (L, a, and b) of commercial Mukeunji decreased as the storage period increased. Hardness and thickness of commercial Mukeunji showed a lower range compared to Baechu Kimchi. The reducing sugar content decreased as the storage period of commercial Mukeunji increased. Acetic, lactic, and succinic acids were detected in commercial Mukeunji samples, whereas citric acid and malic acid were additionally detected in Baechu Kimchi. Commercial Mukeunji samples showed lower contents of acetic and succinic acid and higher content of lactic acid than Baechu Kimchi. Commercial Mukeunji samples showed a significant difference in all descriptive sensory attributes except for bitterness. Overall intensity, sourness, moldy odor, redness, sour smell, saltiness, and carbonated taste increased as the storage period increased, whereas cabbage flavor, crispiness, sweetness, firmness, and savory taste decreased as the storage period increased.

Studies on the Biological Effects of Chemosterilant, Hempa, on the Rice Weevil (Sitophilus oryzae 1.) and Transmission of Sterility (화학적 불임유기물질 Hempa가 쌀바구미(Sitophilus oryzae L.)에 미치는 생물학적 영향 및 불임성의 전달에 관한 연구)

  • Shim Jai Wook
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.1-21
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    • 1973
  • Some experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of the chemosterilant, hempa, on the biology of the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae L., and the transmission of the lethal factors in the progeny. One to three days old adult males were fed on the wheat grains treated with concentrations of 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, and $0.5\%$ of hempa water solution. The effects of the treatment on the mortality, longevity, and the performance of oviposition were examined for the Pl generation, and the hatchability and mortality in the postembryonic development were also tested in the $F_1,\;F_2,\;BC_1,\;F_3,\;and\;BC_2$ generations to analyze the inheritance of the lethal factors. The results obtained were summarized as follows. (1) The average longevity of the treated males were ranged from 26.6 to 30.4 days, and indicated no statistical differences. (2) The mortality of the treated males were ranged between $3.3\%\;and\;13.3\%$ and showed no statistical significance. (3) The overall mean number of eggs laid by a female mated to a treated male with concentrations of 0.0625, 0.125, 0.26 and $0.5\%$ were 3.78, 4.05, 3.75 and 3.61 for the respective treatments, and they were not differ significantly from those of control which were 3.60 per female per 3 day period. The unmated female laid 1.91 in the same period, and significantly differ from those in other experimental groups. (4) The overall mean hatchability of the eggs laid by the females mated with males that had been treated with various concentrations of hempa were 86.82, 64.77, 53.47, 40.33 and $24.78\%$ for the respective concentrations of 0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25 and $0.5\%$. The hatchability decreased with the increasing concentrations. (5) The minimum hatchabilities were obtained from the eggs laid in the period of 10-12 days after treatment, then the hatchability increased showing some recovery. The recovery seemed to be very much delayed for the males which had been treated with the greater concentrations. Such a difference in hatchability might be related with the sensitivity of the developmental stages of the sperms, and broader spectrum in the stages and severer effects seemed to be associated with the increased concentrations. (6) The overall mean of larval mortality in the $F_l$ generation were 6.55, 17.89, 27.40, 35.42 and $52.17\%$ for the respective concentrations of 0,0.0625, 0.125,0.25 and $0.5\%$. And there was a tendency to increase in the mortality with the increase of concentrations. (7) The correlation coefficients between per cent sterile eggs and larval mortality for the experimental plots of 0.125, 0.25 and $0.5\%$ treatments showed r=+0.83 and +0.85, respectively, and it seemed to be close correlation between the lethal effects on the embryonic and post-embryonic developments. (8) Since the $SC_{50}$ of the sterile eggs was $0.133\%$ and $SC_{50}$ of the larval mortality was $0.565\%$, it was considered that tile lethal factors expressed more in the egg stages than the larval stages. (9) The ratio of female to male in the $F_l$ adults showed 100 : 125, 100 : 108 and 100 : 124 for the plots of 0.125, 0.25 and $0.5\%$ treatments, respectively. And it n·as considered that the sex ratio distortions might occur with the higher concentrations. (10) When the F, males originated 1.on the eggs had been laid by p, in the period of 16-18 days after treatment, were crossed to normal females $(BC_1)$ and made sib matings $(F_2)$, the per cent sterile eggs of the $BC_1$ generation were 13.88 and $33.04\%$ , and were 31.01 and $38.73\%$ for the $F_2$generation with the plots of 0.0625 and $0.125\%$ treatment, respectively. And these seemed to be a results of the $F_1$ individuals are carrying some chromosomal aberrations (11) The larval mortality was the highest in the $F_2$ plot and followed the female backcross plot, and the least in the male backcrosses. (12) The proportions of 1st and 2nd instar larvae among the larval development at tile 17th day after oviposition were 10.98, 27.26, 32.98 and $15.73\%$ in the normal female $\times$ normal male, $F_1$ female$\times$normal male, normal $female \;\times F_1$ male and $female \;\times F_1$ male plots, respectively. It was considered that the larval development might be delayed by the treatment in the 2nd generation. (13) Per cent larval mortality and sterile eggs were greater in the $F_2$ sib mating plots $(F_3)$ than both of $F_2$ backcrosses. Therefore, it seemed that some of the recessive lethal mutations might affect in the further generations. (14) The sterility, induced by the treatment of chemosterilant, hempa, was considered as the result of the dominant lethal mutations due to chromosomal aberrations such as translocation and/or deletion. The effects of these lethal factors seemed to be inherited tip to 3rd generation after treatment.

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The Effect of Antioxidant Vitamins on Aflatoxin $B_{1}-DNA$ Adduct the Formation in Aflatoxin $B_1$ Administered Mice Liver (항산화비타민이 Aflatoxin $B_1$ 투여 마우스의 간세포에서 Aflatoxin $B_{1}-DNA$ Adduct 형성에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Seon-Ja;Kang, Sung-Jo;Park, Jung-Hyun;Oh, Sang-Suk;Chung, Duck-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.669-675
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    • 2001
  • The objective of this study was to examine the effects of antioxidant vitamins on the formation of $AFB_{1}-DNA$ adduct and $AFB_{1}-inducing$ cellular oxidative damage. Intraperitoneal(i.p.)injections of 10 mg/kg vitamin C(VC) and 63.8 mg/kg vitamin E(VE) were repeatedly administrated 4 times with 2 days interval to 6 week old male ICR mice. After one hour of vitamin treatments, 0.4 mg/kg $AFB_1$ was injected in $AFB_1$ plus vitamin treated groups by same way. On the other hands, $AFB_1$ treated group was only injected with $AFB_1$ by the same method described above without vitamins. According to quantitative analysis of the $AFB_1$ in mice serum by indirect competitive ELISA, 12.28 and 18.78 ng/mL were detected in $AFB_1-treated$ groups, but 7.60 and 4.85 ng/mL in $AFB_1$ plus VC and VE treated groups, respectively. 23.78, 25.48 ng/mL of $AFB_1-DNA$ adduct were detected in mice liver of $AFB_1$treated groups, while 5.26, 7.81 ng/mL in $AFB_1$ plus VC and VE treated groups, respectively. Consequently, the differences in the concentrations of $AFB_1$ related materials between vitamin treated and non-treated groups were significant. Immunohistochemistry revealed brownish infiltration of $AFB_1$ around central vein and sinusoid in $AFB_1-treated$ group. This manifestation was distinctly reduced in $AFB_1$ plus VC and VE treated groups.

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Study on the Accumulation of Iron and Manganese in Relation to the Morphological Characteristics of Paddy Soils (답토양(沓土壤)의 형태적(形態的) 특징(特徵)에 따른 철(鐵) 및 망간의 이동집적(移動集積)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Shin, C.S.
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.123-144
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    • 1975
  • This study has been carried out to investigate the translocation-illuviation status of iron and manganese, which are striking phenomena in paddy soils, in relation to its morphological characteristics, and to find out a method to identify illuvial layer of iron quantitatively. Determination of active iron and easily reducible manganese content in surface soils of lowland paddy (266 samples) in Korea were conducted. The examination has been made on relationship between morphological, physico-chemical properties of the representative paddy soils (9 series) and iron and manganese content of their horizons. The results are summarized as follows. 1. The poorer the drainage, the higher concentration of active iron and easily reducible manganese were found, and under same drainage condition, the more the sand, the lower the content of them. 2. Irrespective of soil texture and drainage, highly signignificant positive correlation was found between the contents of active iron ($\hat{Y}$) and clay plus silt in surface soils. $$\hat{Y}=0.3929+(0.05352\;X\;clay%)+(0.0001023\;X\;silt%){\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;I$$ No correlation, however, was found between clay content and easily reducible manganese concentration. 3. Significant positive correlation was obtained between active iron ($\hat{Y}$) and total iron (x) content in each profiles of all soil series. Obtained regression equation is as follows; $$\hat{Y}=0.361x-0.480(r=0.651^{**}){\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;II$$ On the other hand, easily reducible manganese concentration had a tendency to increase, not significantly, with increasing total manganese concentration. 4. Accumulation of iron and manganese generally can be found in paddy soils, but distinct accumulation was found under moderately well drained fine loamy and clay soils, while surface accumulation occurred under poor drainage without regard to soil texture. 5. Profile description or determination of active iron in each horizon were found to be insufficient to designate illuvial layer of iron. Therefore, identification of illuvial layer of iron based on the ratio of total iron and active iron, and concentration of active iron estimated by the content of clay plus silt (Equation 1 above) was thought to be reasonable. Also, manganese accumulation layer would be estimated by total manganese and easily reducible manganese content and their ratio.

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The Effect of Ginseng Saponins on the Biosynthesis of Prostaglandins (인삼 Saponin이 Prostaglandin 대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Park C.W.;Lee S.H.
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.77-80
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    • 1988
  • The effects of ginseng saponins and some phenolic acids on the in vitro biosynthesis of prostaglandins was examined in order to identify the role of some ginseng components on the regulaion of arachidonic acid metabolism. The productions of prostaglandin $E_2(PGE_2).$ prostaglandin $F_2{\alpha}(PGF_2{\alpha}).$ thromboxane $B_2(TxB_2)$ and 6-keto-prostaglandin $F_1{\alpha}(6-keto-PGF_1{\alpha})$ from $[^3H]-arachidonic$ acid were evaluated with rabbit kidney microsome. human platelet homogenate and bovine aortic microsome. The amounts of the total cyclooxy-genase products from arachidonic acid did't show significant changes in the presence of ginseng saponins. Panaxadiol. panaxatriol and all of the ginsenosides used in these experiments reduced the formation of $TxB_2.$ while increased the $6-keto-PGF_1{\alpha}$ production dose dependently. Ginseng saponins did't inhibit the ADP($10{\mu}M$) induced platelet aggregation. but sodium arachidonate (0.5 mM) induced platelet aggregation. but sodium arachidonate (0.5 mM) induced platelet aggregation was signiticantly inhibited. These findings suggest that ginseng saponins seem to playa role in the regulation of the arachidonate metabolism. probably by affecting the divergent biosynthetic pathway of prostaglandins from endoperoxide.

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Reflectance and Microhardness Characteristics of Sulfide Minerals from the Sambong Copper Mine (삼봉동광산산(三峰銅鑛山産) 유화광물(硫化鑛物)의 반사도(反射度)와 미경도(微硬度) 특성(特性))

  • Chi, Se Jung
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.115-139
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    • 1984
  • The Cu-Pb-Zn-Ag hydrothermal vein-type deposits which comprise the Sambong mine occur within calc-alkaline volcanics of the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Basin. The ore mineralization took place through three distinct stages of quartz (I and II stages) and calcite veins (III stage) which fill the pre-existing fault breccia zones. These stages were separated in time by tectonic fracturing and brecciation events. The reflection variations of one mineral depending on mineralization sequence are considered to be resulted from variation in its chemical composition due to different physico-chemical conditions in the hydrothermal system. The reflection power of sphalerite increases with the content of Fe substituted for Zn. Reflectances of the sphalerite grain are lower on (111) than on (100) surface. The spectral profiles depend on the internal reflection color. Sphalerite, showing green, yellow and reddish brown internal reflection, have the highest reflection power at $544m{\mu}$ (green), $593m{\mu}$ (yellow) and $615m{\mu}$ (red) wavelength, respectively. Chalcopyrite is recognized as biaxial negative from the reflectivity data of randomly oriented grains measured at the most sensitivity at $544m{\mu}$. The microindentation hardness against the Fe content (wt. %) for the sphalerite increases to 8.05% Fe and then decreases toward 9.5% Fe content. Vickers hardness of the sphalerite is considerably higher on surface of (100) than on (111). The relationship between Vickers hardness and crystal orientation of the galena was determined to be $VHN_{(111)}$ > $VHN_{(210)}$ > $VHN_{(100)}$. The softer sulfides have the wider variation of the diagonal length in the indentation. Diagonal length in the indentation is pyrite

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