• Title, Summary, Keyword: 현상학적 연구

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Association of osteoarthritis and bone mineral density in women -The health and nutritional examination survey in Kuri- (여성의 골관절염과 골밀도간의 관련성 분석 -구리시민 건강.영양진단 조사결과를 바탕으로-)

  • Sheen, Seung-Soo;Lee, Soon-Young;Min, Byung-Hyun;Suh, Il
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.669-685
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    • 1997
  • Previous studies, reporting the inverse relationship between osteoarthritis and osteoporosis suggest the existence of possible pathophysiologic mechanisms between them. To examinine the hypothesis that 'bone mineral densities of women with osteoarthritis are significantly higher than that of women without osteoarthritis in Korea', subjects from the health and nutritional examination survey in Kuri city were sampled. Samples were selected through multi-stage sampling frame using established clusters in Kuri city. From August 18 to September 10,1997, the survey was conducted. Among the. total number of selected sample population (1,656 people), response .ate was 52.4 percent (348 men and 519 women). 420 women who took BMD measurement, radiologic exam, and anthropometric exam were selected for the analysis. The analytic results are as follows. 1. General characteristics: Mean BMD was $0.493g/cm^2$, mean age was 43.0, mean BMI was $23.9kg/m^2$. The number of women who experienced menopause was 106, hysterectomy was 19. There were 0 case of osteoarthritis of hip, 64 cases of osteoarthritis of knee, and 2 cases of osteoarthritis of hand. 2. Univariate analysis results: Mean BMD of women with the osteoarthritis of knee was significantly lower than that of women without the osteoarthritis of knee(0.4269 vs. $0.5057g/cm^2$). But, there were too few cases of osteoarthritis of hip and hand, so comparative studies of BMD in osteoarthritis of hip and hand could not be conducted. There were significant differences of BMD among pre-menopause group(0.5204), post-menopause group(0.4206), and hysterectomy group(0.4881). Additionally, there were significant differences of BMD among diabetes group(0.4297), impaired glucose tolerance group(0.4874), and normal group(0.5057). Furthermore, age, parity, BMI, bioimpedance were significantly related with BMD. 3. Multivariate analysis results: To examinine the relationship between osteoarthritis and BMD while controlling the other variables' effects which were significant in the univariate analyses, multiple linear regression analysis was done. But, it was found that osteoarthritis of knee was not a significant variable to BMD anymore. While age and menopause had significant negative relationship with BMD. Diabetes, parity, BMI, and bioimpedance did not have significant relationships with BMD. After stratification of subjects according to menopause, multiple linear regression analyses were done to each strata. Consequently, age in post-menopause group, age and osteoarthritis of knee in hysterectomy group showed significant negative relationship with BMD. The results did not support the many results of other previous studies done with white men and women. further studies of biological plausibility to Korean women are recommended. Also it is suggested that longitudinal study to verify the relationship between osteoarthritis and BMD will be valuable.

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The Change of Phytoplankton Community Structure and Water Quality in the Juksan Weir of the Yeongsan River Watershed (영산강수계 죽산보의 식물플랑크톤과 이화학적 변화)

  • Son, Misun;Chung, Hyeon Su;Park, Chang Hee;Park, Jong-hwan;Lim, Cheahong;Kim, Kyunghyun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.591-600
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    • 2018
  • The objective of this study was to determine the changes in phytoplankton and long-term water quality of Juksan-Weir in Yeongsan River that took place between April 2010 and December 2015. The number of species used in this study was 288, which consisted of 6% of Cyanophyta, 26% of Bacillariophyta, 53% of Chlorophyta and the others (15%). The standing crops of phytoplankton ranged from $500cells{\cdot}mL^{-1}-29,950cells{\cdot}mL^{-1}$ with an average of $7,885cells{\cdot}mL^{-1}$. At the two site, 20 dominant genera of found. The dominant genera were 6 of Bacillariophyta, 6 of Cyanophyta, 7 of Chlorophyta and 1 of Cryptophyta. The most dominant genus among the phytoplankton was Stephanodiscus sp. (Total 59%, each 54% and 63%). The most dominant genus among the Cyanophyta was Microcystis sp., which had a cell abundance ratio of 17%. The results of two sites were 21% and 13%, and the upstream was higher than the downstream.

Plant Characters of Selfed MET Maize Line (자식(自殖)된 다수다얼성(多穗多蘖性) 옥수수(MET)의 특성(特性) 비교(比較) 시험(試驗))

  • Choe, Bong Ho;Lee, Hee Bong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.166-173
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    • 1985
  • The multiple ear and tiller line (MET), which was selected from a local maize collection and has been selected for earliness by selfing for five generations, was compared its plant characteristics with four U.S. leading hybrids. 1. The general plant growth was a little retarded by poor soil fertility and structure. 2. The fresh weight of the MET line was about 97.8% of the U.S. check varieties. 3. The dry weight of the MET line was also about 94.5% of the check U.S. hybrids (1,695 kg / 10a.). 4. The tillering and eating habits of the MET line had contributed toward increasing fresh and dry weight of the MET line. 5. The average plant height of the MET line was much less than those of the check varieties, due to the selfing depression manifested by the MET line, (234.7cm. of the MET vs 250.7cm. of the check) 6. Apparent differences of disease resistance was observed among varieties studied. The degree of plants infected with the black stripe mosaic virus was over 20% for the check U.S. hybrids, while less than 5% of the MET line was infected with the disease. 7. The grain yield per 10 a of the MET line was far below the check hybrids due to the inbreeding depression of the MET line. However, the kernel number per unit area of the MET line with small size kernel was much greater than that of the check hybrids. The 100 kernel weight of the MET line was around 10 grams. 8. The average fresh and dry matter weight of the three ($sorghum{\times}sudan$ grass) varieties was very much alike with those of the MET line. 9. In conclusion, the use of the MET line for silage production may have dual adventages because of its low seed price and of its small size kernels, which may reduce the amount of seeds required for planting in an unit area.

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Untersuchungen iiber Blutenknospenbildung bei Ribes nigrum L. (리베스(Ribes nigrum L. var. 'Rosenthals Langtraubige Schwarze') 식물의 화아분화에 관한 연구)

  • Yang, Deok Cho
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.179-189
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    • 1984
  • Durch vergleichende Untersuchungen von Ribes nigrum L. var. 'Rosenthals Langtraubige Schwarze' zwischen $prim\"{a}rem$ und $sekund\"{a}rem$ Jugendstadium (P.J. und S.J.) eine vertiefte Einsicht in die beiden zeitlich unterschielich langen $Entwicklungsabl\"{a}ufe$ zu bekommen und auf diese Weise bessere Ansatzpunke $f\"{u}r$ die Regulierung der $Bl\"{u}tc-nknospeninduktion$ zu gewinnen, war das Ziel vorliegenden Untersuchungen. Diese Untersuchungen $f\"{u}hrten$ zu den flogenden Ergebnissen: Die Dauer der Jugendphase von Ribes nigrum L. betrug bei den P.J.-Pflanzen ca. 7 Monate, bei den S.J.-Pflanzen ca. 5 Monate. Die $Bl\"{u}hreife$-(Ripeness to flower)-setzte bei den P.J.-Pflanzen erst beim 20. Nodium ein, bei den S.J.-Pflanzen bereits beim 5. Nodium. Das $f\"{u}hrte$ dazu, da${\beta}$ bei gleicher Nodienzahl die P.J.-Pflanzen weniger $Bl\"{u}te-nknospen$ angesetzt hatten als die S.J.-Pflanzen. Die erste $Bl\"{u}tenknospendifferenzierung$ setzte bei den P.J.-Pflanzen in der oberen Triebmitte etwa am 30. Nodium ein, beiden S.J.-Pflanzen bereits in der unteren Tricbmitte etwa am 20. Nodium. Bie den P.J.-Pflanzen waren die untersten 20. Nodien immer steril, $w\"{a}hrend$ bei den S.J.-Pflanzen $h\"{a}uflgsten$ an dem ersten Nodium $\"{u}ber$ der Basis fertil waren. In allen Versuchen hat sich gezeigt, da${\beta}$ der Wachstumsabschlu${\beta}$ -(Bildung einer Terminal Knospe)-, der bei Ribes nigrum L. durch Kurztag eingeleitet wird, bei den P.J.-Pflanzen langsammer als bei den S.J.-Pflanzen erfolgt. Dies $f\"{u}hrt$ dazu, da${\beta}$ die Pflanzen der $sekund\"{a}ren$ Jugendphase auf die photokybernetischen Stimulation empfindlicher reagieren als die der $prim\"{a}ren$ Jugendphase. Alle untersuchten Versuchsdaten $f\"{u}hren$ zu dem Schlu${\beta}$, da${\beta}$ die Wurzelgibberelline $(GA_n)$ keinen Einflu${\beta}$ auf die $Jugendsterilit\"{a}t$ ($Basissterilit\"{a}t$) haben. Aus den Untersuchungen geht hervor, da${\beta}$ die induktive Ma${\beta}$nahme zur Beschleunigung der $Bl\"{u}tenknospenbildung$ $f\"{u}r$ eine $Z\"{u}chtungsselektion$ erst dann eingesetzt werden sollen, wenn die P.J.-Pflanzen mehr als 20 Nodien ausgebildet haben.

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The Effects of Increased Temperature on Seed Nutrition, Protein, and Oil Contents of Soybean [Glycine max (L.)] (온도 상승에 따른 콩 종실의 무기영양과 단백질 및 지방 함량 평가)

  • Lee, Yun-Ho;Cho, Hyeoun-Suk;Kim, Jun-Hwan;Sang, Wan-Gyu;Shin, Pyong;Baek, Jae-Kyeong;Seo, Myung-Chul
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.63 no.4
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    • pp.331-337
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    • 2018
  • The content of nutrients, proteins, and oils of crop seeds is affected by global climate change due to the increase in temperature. Information regarding the effects of increased temperature on soybean seed nutrition is limited despite its vital role in seed quality and food security. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increasing temperature on seed nutrient, protein, and oil content in two soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] cultivars (Daewonkong and Pungsannamulkong during the reproductive period in a temperature-gradient chamber. Four temperature treatments, Ta (near ambient temperature), $Ta+1^{\circ}C$ (ambient temperature+$1^{\circ}C$), $Ta+2^{\circ}C$ (ambient temperature+$2^{\circ}C$), $Ta+3^{\circ}C$ (ambient temperature+$3^{\circ}C$), and $Ta+4^{\circ}C$ (ambient temperature+$4^{\circ}C$), were established by dividing the rows along the temperature gradient. At maturity, increased temperature did not significantly affect the concentration of P, K, Ca, and Mg. The protein and oil content was significantly correlated with temperature. At maturity, the protein content of DWK and PSNK was reduced at $Ta+4^{\circ}C$. The oil content was the highest at $Ta+4^{\circ}C$ in DWK, whereas it decreased in PSNK at $Ta+4^{\circ}C$. Consequently, the biochemical composition of soybean seeds changed with the increase in temperature. These results illustrate the effects of temperature on soybean seed nutrient, protein, and oil content, which can help improve soybean quality at different temperatures. Thus, the biochemical composition of crop seeds can be changed in accordance with nutritional requirements for the benefit of human health in the future.

The Geochemistry of Copper-bearing Hydrothermal Vein Deposits in Goseong Mining District (Samsan Area), Gyeongsang Basin, Korea (경상분지내 삼산지역 열수동광상에 관한 지화학적 연구)

  • Choi, Sang Hoon;So, Chil Sup;Kweon, Soon Hag;Choi, Kwang Jun
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.147-160
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    • 1994
  • Copper-bearing hydrothermal vein mineralization of the Samsan area was deposited in two stages (I and II) of quartz-calcite-sulfide veins which fill fissures in Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Gyeongsang basin. The major ore minerals, chalcopyrite and sphalerite, together with pyrite, galena, hematite, and minor sulfosalts, occur with epidote and chlorite as gangue minerals in stage I quartz veins. Chlorite geothermometry, fluid inclusion and stable isotope data indicate that copper ore was deposited mainly at temperatures between $330^{\circ}C$ and $280^{\circ}C$ from fluids with salinities between 12 and 3 equiv. wt % NaCl. Evidence of fluid boiling indicates a range of pressures from ${\leq}100$ to 200 bars bars. Within ore stage I there was an apparent decrease in ${\delta}^{34}S$ values of $H_{2}S$ with paragenetic time, from 8.0 to 2.3 per mil. This pattern was likely achieved through progressive increases in activity of oxygen accompanying boiling and mixing. In the early part of the first stage, the high temperature, high salinity fluids gave way to progressively cooler and more dilute fluids of the late parts in the first stage and of the second stage. There is a systematic decrease in calculated ${\delta}^{18}O_{water}$ values with decreasing temperature in the Samsan hydrothermal system, from values of -86 per mil for early portion of stage I through -5.9 per mil for late portion of stage I to -6.3 per mil for stage II. The ${\delta}D$ values of fluid inclusion waters also decrease with paragenetic time from -76 per mil to -86 per mil. These trends combined with mineral paragenesis and fluid inclusion data are interpreted to indicate progressive cooler, more oxidizing meteoric water inundation of an early exchanged meteoric hydrothermal system.

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Surgical Treatment of Pulmonary Atresia with Intact Ventricular Septum -Effect of the size of tricuspid valve annulus on the surgical outcome- (영아기에 발견된 심실중격이 온전한 폐동맥 폐쇄증의 외과적 수술요법 술전 삼첨판륜 크기 가 수술 결과에 미치는 영향)

  • 이정렬;윤태진
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.29 no.10
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    • pp.1081-1089
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    • 1996
  • Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum has continued to have a high surgical mortality and morbidity. This mAy attribute to the non-uniformity of the anomaly. We reviewed a total of 34 infants with pulmonary atresla and intact ventricular septum managed in this hospital between 1987 and 1995. Mean age and body weight were 57.2 (range, 3-208) days and 4.1 (range, B.3∼6.8) kg. The preoperative Z-value of the diameter of the tricuspid valve was less than -2 in 85.2% of patients and less than -4 in 33. 3% . It is well correlated w th right ventricular cavity size (n=27. r10.68, p< 0.05). Coronary artery-right ventricular fistulas were identified in 3 patients, and right ventricular dependency was suspected in 1 Over All hospital mortality was 23.5%(8/34), although it decreased to 16.6%(4124) in 1990s. Subsequent procedures were performed in 6 patients between 3 days and 58 months after Initial palliation : one bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt and 1 Fontan operation after systemic-pulmonary shunt, 3 transannular patch + atrial septal defect closure and 1 additional systemic-pulmonary shunt after polmonary valvectomy or valvotomy. Changes of Z-values of the diameter of tricuspid valve have been followed up in 11 patients between 1 and 66 months postoperatively. Z-values were increased In 5 out of 8 transannular right ventriculAr outflow tract enlargement group and in 1 out of 3 pulmonary valvectomy or valvotomy group. Our data suggest that tailoring a treatment to right ventricular cavity size and coronary anom lies may improve the surgical outcome. A Z-value of the tricuspid valve diameter could be used.

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An Experimental Study on Optimum Slanting Angle in Reticulated Root Piles Installation (그물식 뿌리말뚝의 최적 타설경사각에 관한 실험 연구)

  • 이승현;김병일
    • Geotechnical Engineering
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.29-36
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    • 1995
  • Load testis are executed on model reticulated root piles (RRP) to figure out the optimum slanting angle in the piles installation. One set of model RRP consists of 8 slanting piles which are installed in circular patterns forming two concentric circles, each of which is made by 4 piles. Each pile which is a steel bar of 5m in diameter and 300mm in length is coated to become a pile of 6.5mm in diameter. The slanting angle of the model RRP varies from 0$^{\circ}$ to 20$^{\circ}$ Comparing ultimate bearing capacities of the model RRP of different installation angles, it is observed that the ultimate capacities of the RRP increase as the installation angle increases until 15$^{\circ}$, and the optimum slanting angle of the RRP is around 15$^{\circ}$ The ultimate bearing capacity of the 15$^{\circ}$-RRP is found to be 22% bigger than that of the vertical RRP and 120% bigger than that of the circular surface footing whose diameter is same with the circle formed by outer root piles'heads. However, it is noticed that when the slanting angle of the RRP is increased over 15$^{\circ}$, the ultimate capacity starts to be reduced. The ultimate capacity of 20$^{\circ}$-RRP is even smaller than that of the vertical RRP by as much as 5%. From the observation of the load settlement curve obtained during the RRP load tests, it is known that as the slanting angle gets bigger the load -settlement behavior becomes more ductile.

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Bioecological Studies in the Upwelling Area of Cheju Island. ( I ) - Upwelling Phenomenon and Chemical Properties of Seawater in the Southwestern Coastal Area of Cheju Island (제주도 주변 용승역의 생물생태학적 기초연구 ( I )- 제주도 남서부 연안해역의 해수화학적 특성과 용승현상)

  • KANG Tae-Youn;CHOI Young-Chan;Go You-Bong
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.603-613
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    • 1996
  • Hydrographic conditions (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen), nutrients, chlorophyll-a and suspended solid have been studied in the southwestern coastal area of Cheju Island from April 1993 to March 1994. Vertical profile of temperature, salinity and chemical properties (nutrients, chlorophyll-a) distribution in th southwestern sea of Cheju Island showed a upwelling feature. Although it was not clear in winter season, it seems to continued through out the year. In the surface water at the upwelling areas, the ranges of dissolved oxygen, nitrate, phosphate and silicate was $3.30\~8.43\;ml/l,\;0\~7.12{\mu}g/l,\;0.03\~1.75{\mu}g-at/l\;and\;2.75\~22.32\;{\mu}g-at/l$l, respectively. Nutrients was higher in the shore water than in the offshore water, because sufficient supply of nutrients from the bottom water by coastal upwelling. In November, especially high concentration silicate was observed at all the stations and depth in the study area. At all station of bottom water (down to the depth of 60 meter), concentration value of dissolved of gen was as high as 8 ml/l. Mean values of N/P was 8.0, lower than Redifield ratio of 16. The mean values of Si/P was observed to 46.3 in southwest of Cheju Island. Concentration of chlorophyll-a was in the range of $0.04\~2.36\;{\mu}g/l$. Concentration of chlorophyll-a in surface orator at all station was especially higher in spring than in other seasons. Mean concentration value of suspended solids was 3.14 mg/l $(0.75\~8.47\;mg/l)$. Ratio of the volatile suspended solids to the suspended solids was higher in the inshore water $(53\%)$ than in the offshore water $(46\%)$, and higher in the surface water than in the bottom water.

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The Alterations of the Lymphocyte Subsets and the Natural Killer Cell Activity in the Pregnant Mouse (수태중인 생쥐에 있어서 림프구아형 및 자연살해세포 활성도의 변화)

  • 신주옥;고기석;최임순
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.211-222
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    • 1996
  • The conceptus which are resulted by mating between two genetically non-identical partners can be considered to be an allograft to the mother science which is not rejected by the mother's immunological attack. The present studies have been, therefore, attempted in order to elucidate the mechanism by which protection of the fete-placental allograft, between the C3H/HeJ female mouse and DBA/2 male mouse occurred. For this purpose, firstly systemic immunity was investigated by measuring T and B lymphocytes subsets. Natural killer cell activity in maternal splenic tissue and by observing the effects of pregnancy serums, progesterone and hCG on immune systems. Secondly, local immunity also investigated by measuring T lymphocytes subsets, natural killer cell activity in lymph nodes draining the uterus. The subsets of Thy-1.2$^+$ cells and L 3T4$^+$ cells decreased slightly while the subsets of Ly2$^+$ cell increased significantly compared with those of the control group beyond the mid-gestational stage. The subsets of B cell gradually in-creased from the mid-gestational stage untill delivery. The natural killer cell activity in the maternal splenic tissue significantly increased during the period of 5th to 8th day of gestation. The natural killer cell activity was significantly suppressed by the pregnancy serums and non-pregnant serums compared with those of serum-free group. The treatment of hCG significantly suppressed natural killer cell activity in the dose dependent manner (1 unit/ml-1000 unit/ml) while pro-gesterone increased the natural killer cell activity at phamarcological dose only. In the lymph nodes draining the uterus, the subsets of Thy-1.2$^+$ cells significantly increased during the period of implantation and L3T4$^+$ cell subsets slightly increased during the mid-gestational stage. The subsets of Ly2$^+$ cell increased significantly during the mid-gestational stage, but decreasing slightly be-fore delivery. The natural killer cell activity was significantly elevated after the implantation period in the lymph nodes draining the uterus. The natural killer cell activity of the lymph nodes draining the uterus was higher than those of splenic tissue during the same periods of gestation. It is therefore, concluded that during the pregnancy, the phenomena which the fete-placental allograft has not been rejected and rather protected from the maternal immunological attack might be due to local immune suppression in fete-maternal interface tissues rather than systemic immune suppression. And the subsets of Thy-1.2$^+$ cells and L3T4$^+$ cells mainly contribute to accepting allograft in early stage of pregnancy, while the subsets of Ly2$^+$ cell and the subsets of B cell increased significantly compared with those of the control group beyond the mid-gestational stage, so their role in systemic immunity and local immunity gradually increased from the mid-gestational stage until delivery.

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