• Title, Summary, Keyword: 현상학적 연구

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Antitumor and Immunological Effects of Tuna Extract (참치 추출물의 항암 및 면역효과)

  • 황우익;백나경;황윤경;이성동
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.353-366
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    • 1992
  • This study was devised to purify the compound from tuna that have cytotoxic activities against various cancer cell lines and to observe its immunopotentiating activities. The cytotoxic compound was partially purified 277 fold, from petroleum ehter extract (crude extract) of tuna by silicic acid column chromatography (fraction D) and thin layer chromatography (Spot I). Cytotoxic activity was monitored using human colon cancer cell, HCT-48. The active compound (Spot I) was composed of seven materials which are fatty acids of four kinds ($C_{14:0},\;C_{16:0},\;C_{17:1},\;and\;C_{18:0}$) and unknown three fat materials. The active compound has cytotoxic activities against various cancer cell lines, that is, murine leukemic lymphocytes (L1210, P388) and human rectal (HRT-18) and colon cancer cells (HCT-48, HT-29). The patterns of size distribution of HCT-48 cells in the medium containing tuna extract were shifted to direction of the small size region. Also, the microscopic shape of HCT-48 cells were shrinked and distracted. The number of plaque forming cell and immunoglobin fraction of serum protein obtained from tuna-treated mice were increased, but natural killer cell activity was not affected.

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Histological studies on in vitro Propagation of Pulsatilla koreana Nakai (할미꽃 기내증식(器內增殖)에 관(關)한 조직학적(組織學的) 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Man-Sang;Oh, Ki-Hong
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.137-157
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    • 1993
  • This study was carried out to investigate the optimal condition for multiple propagation through leaf tissue culture and to apply anther culture techniques to Pulsatilla koreana Nakai breeding. Leaf and anther of Pulsatilla koreana Nakai were cultured on MS, MT, LS and $B_5$ media supplemented with several growth regulators and nitrogen sources under various conditions. For callus induction and differentiation from the Pulsatilla koreana leaf segments were more effective in the combination of zeatin and auxin than auxin alone. The color of the callus was green when treated with IBA alone. Shoot differentiation was more effective when treated with zeatin than auxin alone, especially the best hormoal combination for shoot differentiation was zeatin 1.0mg/l +NAA 0.1mg/l, while 2,4-D inhibited shoot differentiation. The appeared rate of S pollen was 35% in vivo, while that of S pollen by low temperature$(4^{\circ}C)$ pretreatment for 4 days was increased by 53% and the optimum culture time for callus induction from anther was uni-nucleate stage. $B_5$ basal medium supplemented with NAA 0.5mg/l and zeatin 1 mg/l was the most effective on callus formation and the best results of plant regeneration were obtained from combination of NAA 0.5mg/l and zeatin 0.5mg/l in anther culture. $NH_{4}NO_3$ as more effectives as the nitrogen source than $KNO_3$ and the combination with zeatin 2.0mg /L was the best effective. The best combination for plant regeneration in callus induced from anther was $NH_{4}NO_3$ 1650mg/l + $KNO_3$ 3800mg/l + zeatin 2.0mg/l. Ploidy level of anther-derived plants appeared 28% haploid, 47% diploid and the others were triploid, tetraploid and mixploid. In compare with E.S.T, M.D.H and P.X banding patterns were distinguished among callus, haploid and diploid plants in electrophoresis.

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Experimental life history of Echinostoma hortense (호르린스극구흡충의 실험실 내 생활사에 대한 연구)

  • 이순형;황순옥
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.161-172
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    • 1991
  • The complete life cycle of Echinostoma hertense has been maintained in the laboratory, using Lymnaea persia snails and Rana nigromaculata tadpoles as the first and second intermediate hosts. ICR mice was used as the definitive host. Within the egg of 5. hotense, the miracidium was fully matured in 13 days of incubation at $29~30^{\circ}C$. The miracidium was $93.8{\times}53.6{\;}{\mu\textrm{m}}$ in average size, covered with numerous cilia of $7~11{\;}{\mu\textrm{m}}$ length. The epidermal plates were arranged in 6-8-4-2 formula. The first generation rediae ($1.19{\times}0.27{\;}mm$ in average size) were observed in 14 days after miracidial challenge to the snails, and the second generation rediae ($1.40{\times}0.26{\;}mm$ in average size) in 30 days. The average sixte of the cercaria was $295.5{\times}145.0{\;}{\mu\textrm{m}}$. Their head crown was poorly developed, and collar spines were not yet observed. After a cercarial challenge to the tadpoles, all of the tadpoles became infected and the average worm recovery rate was 88.5%. The majority of the metacercariae (75.5%) were recovered from the muscle of the tadpole's posterior body and the rest (24.3%) from their gills. The metacercariae from the tadpoles were elliptical, and $167.7{\times}129.9{\;}{\mu\textrm{m}}$ in average size. The recovery rate of adults from the mice was difFerent by the age of the metacercariae grown in the tadpoles. The metacercariae younger than 5 hrs could not infect mice whereas those older than 6 hrs could infect mice. The recovery rate became higher as the metacercaria matured, with the peak recovery rate of 90.0 % at the metacercarial age of 9 days. Thereafter the recovery rate decreased to 55.0% at the age of 50 days. As shown by the above results, the whole life cycle of E. hcrtense has been completed in the laboratory. At least 55~58 days were required to maintain one egg-to-egg cycle of E. hortense.

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Expression of Cell Cycle Related Genes in HL60 Cells Undergoing Apoptosis by X-irradiation (HL60 세포주에서 방사선 조사에 의한 Apoptosis와 세포 주기 관련 유전자의 발현 변화)

  • Kim, Jin-Hee;Park, In-Kyu
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.377-388
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    • 1998
  • Purpose : To evaluate changes in expression of cell cycle related genes during apoptosis induced in HL60 cells by X-irradiation to understand molecular biologic aspects in mechanism of radiation therapy. Material and Methods : HL-60 cell line (promyelocytic leukemia cell line) was grown in culture media and irradiated with 8 Gr by linear accelerator (6 MV X-ray). At various times after irradiation, ranging from 3 to 48 hours were analyzed apoptotic DNA fragmentation assay for apoptosis and by western blot analysis and semi-quantitative RT-PCR for expression of cell cycle related genes (cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin C, cyclin Dl, cyclin E, cdc2, CDK2, CDK4, $p16^{INK4a}$, $p21^{WAF1}$, $p27^{KIP1}$, E2F, PCNA and Rb). Results : X-irradiation (8 Gy) induced apoptosis in HL-60 cell line. Cycline A protein increased after reaching its peak 48 h after radiation delivery and cyclin E, E2F, CDK2 and RB protein increased then decreased after radiation. Radiation induced up-regulation of the expression of E2F is due to mostly increase of Phosphorylated retinoblastoma proteins (ppRb). Cyclin Dl, PCNA, CDC2, CDK4 and $p16^{INK4a}$ protein underwent no significant change at any times after irradiation. There was not detected $p21^{WAF1}$ and $p27^{KIP1}$ protein. Cyclin A, B, C mRNA decreased immediately after radiation and then increased at 12 h after radiation. Cyclin Dl mRNA increased immediately and then decreased at 48 h after radiation. After radiation, cyclin E mRNA decreased with the lapse of time. CDK2 mRNA decreased at 3h and increased at eh after radiation. CDK4 mRNA rapidly increased at 6 to 12 h after radiation. There was no change of expression of $p16^{INK4a}$ and not detected in expressin of $p21^{WAF1}$ and $p27^{KIP1}$ mRNA. Conclusion : We suggest that entry into S phase may contribute to apoptosis of HL60 cells induced by irradiation. Increase of ppRb and decrease of pRb protein are related with radiation induced auoptosis of HL60 cells and tosis of HL60 cells induced by irradiation. Increase of ppRb and decrease of PRb protein are related with radiation induced apoptosis of HL60 cells and this may be associated with induction of E2F and cyclinE/CDK2. These results support that $p21^{WAF1}$ and $p27^{KIP1}$ are not related with radiation induced-apoptosis.

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A Study on the Adolescent Growth Spurt of Skinfold, Muscle and Bone Variables Aligned on Peak Height Velocity in Boys and Girls (PHV 척도를 기준한 피하지방후, 근과 골 변인의 사춘기 발육분출에 관한 연구)

  • Shin Sang-Keun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.339-344
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    • 2006
  • The aim of this study was to examine the timing and magnitude of growth spurt in skinfold, body musle and bone related variables aligned on peak height velocity in boys and girls. In the study design, the subjects and the method were used by the cross-sectional investigation. The subjects participated in this study were 7 through 18 years of age belonged to typical primary, junior, senior high school students, and about 250 males and 250 females in each age group. The total subjects were 2,798 males and 2,762 females. All subjects of this study were lived in Pusan metropolitan city, Korea. The growth velocity magnitudes of sum of the four sites sknfold thickness, body musle and bone related variables. Velocity curve chart of physique was the smoothed according to an approximation of splines by the Sigma Plot-2001 graphic program. In this study, age at PHV of girls occurred eariler about 2 years than boys. In sum of four sites skinfold thickness, PV occurred -2 years from PHV in boys, and PV occurred +2 years from PHV in girls, respectively. In humerus breadth, two PV occurred before and after PHV in boys, whereas PV occurred -1 year from PHV in girls, respectively. In femur breadth, PFV and PHV appeared to occure the same time in boys, PV occurred -2 years from PHV in girls, respectively, In arm circumference, PV occurred after PHV in both sexes. In calf circumference, PV occurred +2 years from PHV in boys, PCCV and PHV appeared to occure the same time in girls, respectively. In magnitudes of peak velocity of body height, humerus breadth, femur breadth, arm circumference and calf circumfence, boys obtained higher than girls, on the other hand, girls obtained higher than boys in sum of four sites skinfold variable. we need to longitudinal and scientific investigation by Korean government level in adolescent growth spurt study, because childhood and adolescence achive higher positive physical education effect than the other ages.

The Clinical Effect of Administration of Magnesium Sulfate in Cardiac Surgery (심장수술 시 황산마그네슘 투여의 임상효과)

  • Bang Jung-Heui;Moon Seong-Min;Kim Si-Ho;Cho Kwang-Jo;Choi Pil-Jo;Woo Jong-Su
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.366-375
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    • 2006
  • Background: Hypomagnesemia is a common complication after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical beneficial effect of administration of magnesium sulfate in cardiac surgery. Material and Method: Thirty five patients scheduled for elective cardiac surgery were randomly assigned to magnesium group (n=20) which received magnesium sulfate in priming solution (1 g) and cardioplegic solution (1 g) or control group (n=15) which did not receive it. Arterial blood samples were drawn for measuring $Mg^{++}$ and electrolytes contents, blood gas analysis, CBC, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin, tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ $(TNF-{\alpha})$, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), creatine phosphokinase (CpK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), troponin-1 (TNI), prothrombin time (PT) and activated pratial thromboplastin time level (aPTT). Venous blood samples were drawn before and after the operation for measuring activated clotting time level (ACT). Result: $Mg^{++}$ levels in magensium group were higher than those of control group at intraoperative and post-operative periods (p<0.05). dysrhythmias were lower in magnesium group (8 cases out of 17 patients, 46.4%) than in control group (10 cases out of 10, 100%, p=0.050). Conclusion: These results showed that administration of low dose magnesium sulfate during cardiac surgery prevented hypomagnesemia and lowered incidence of dysrhythmia.

Inhibitory Effects of Schisandrae Fructus Ethanol Extract on the Production of Matrix Metalloproteinases in in vitro and in vivo Osteoarthritis Models (In vitro 및 in vivo 퇴행성관절염 모델에서 오미자 에탄올 추출물에 의한 matrix metalloproteinases의 생성 억제)

  • Jeong, Jin-Woo;Lee, Hye Hyeon;Kim, Hong Jae;Lee, Ki Won;Kim, Ki Young;Kim, Sung Goo;Hong, Su-Hyun;Kim, Bum Hoi;Park, Cheol;Choi, Yung Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.27 no.10
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    • pp.1207-1214
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    • 2017
  • Schisandrae Fructus (SF), the fruit of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., is widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a number of chronic diseases. SF extracts have been recently reported to attenuate the inflammatory responses in SW1353 human chondrocyte cells in in vitro and monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced cartilage degradation in in vivo osteoarthritis (OA) models. However, their protective and therapeutic potentials against OA in primary culture chondrocytes and animal models remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the ethanol extract of SF on the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), biomarkers for diagnosis of OA, on interleukin $(IL)-1{\beta}-induced$ primary cultured rat cartilage chondrocytes and MIA-induced osteoarthritis in a rat model. Our data indicated that SF treatment significantly reduced the mRNA expression and enzyme activity of MMP-1, -3 and -13 in $IL-1{\beta}-induced$ primary cultured rat cartilage chondrocytes. The chondro-protective effects of SF were then analyzed in a rat OA model using a single intra-articular injection of MIA in the right knee joint. According to our results, the elevated levels of MMP-1 and -3 were markedly ameliorated by SF administration. Collectively, these findings indicate that SF could be a candidate for the treatment of OA.

Effects of Different Day / Night Temperature Regimes on Growth and Clove Development in Cool-type Garlic (Allium sativum L.) (한지형 마늘의 생육 및 인편 발달에 미치는 주야간 온도의 영향)

  • Oh, Soonja;Moon, Kyung Hwan;Koh, Seok Chan
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2017
  • We investigated growth, clove development, and photosystem II activity in garlic (Allium sativum L.) grown under different day/night temperature regimes using Soil-Plant-Atmosphere - Research (SPAR) chambers to determine the optimum cultivation temperature and to assess the impact of temperature stress on garlic. In the early stages of growth, plant growth increased markedly with temperature. At harvest time, however, the pseudostem diameter decreased significantly under a relatively low day/night temperature range ($14/10-17/12^{\circ}C$), suggesting that these temperature conditions favor regular bulb growth. At harvest time, the bulb diameter and height were great at $14/10-23/18^{\circ}C$, whereas the bulb fresh weight and number of cloves per bulb were greatest at $17/12-20/15^{\circ}C$. However, the number of regularly developed cloves per bulb was highest at the relatively low temperature range of $14/10-17/12^{\circ}C$, as were the clove length and fresh weight. The photochemical efficiency ($F_v/F_m$) and potential photochemical efficiency ($F_v/F_o$) of photosystem II in the leaves of garlic plants were higher at $14/10-20/15^{\circ}C$ and lower at temperatures below $14/10^{\circ}C$ or above $20/15^{\circ}C$, implying that the $14/10-20/15^{\circ}C$ temperature range is favorable, whereas temperatures outside this range are stressful for garlic growth. Furthermore, at temperatures above $20/15^{\circ}C$, secondary growth of garlic, defined as lateral bud differentiation into secondary plants, continuous growth of the cloves of the primary plants, or the growth of bulbil buds into secondary plants, was enhanced. Therefore, to achieve commercial production of fresh scapes and bulbs of garlic, it may be better to grow garlic at relatively low temperature ranges of $14/10-17/12^{\circ}C$.

Removals of PAH-quinones Using Birnessite-Mediated Oxidative-Transformation Processes (망간산화물(Birnessite)을 매개로한 산화-변환반응을 이용한 PAH-퀴논화합물의 제거)

  • Choi, Chan-Kyu;Harn, Yoon-I;Kim, Seong-Uk;Shin, Hyun-Sang
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.396-404
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    • 2011
  • An investigation on the removals of PAH-quinone compounds, which are commonly produced from the biological and/or chemical treatments of PAH-contaminated soils, from the aqueous phase via birnessite (${\delta}-MnO_2$)-mediated oxidative transformation is described. It was demonstrated that acenaphthenequinone (APQ), p-PAH quinone can be removed via birnessite-mediated oxidative-coupling reactions, and anthraquinone (AQ) and 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NPQ), o-PAH quinones were efficiently removed by birnessite-mediated cross-coupling reactions in the presence of catechol (CAT) as a reactive mediator. The removals of PAH-quinone compounds followed pseudo-first-order reactions, and the rate constant (k, $hr^{-1}$) for the removals of 1,4-NPQ under the experiment conditions (1,4-NPQ = 10 mg/L, CAT = 50 mg/L, ${\delta}-MnO_2$ = 1.0 g/L, pH 5, Reaction time = 6~96 hr) was 0.0426, which was about 4 times lower than that of APQ (0.173). With the observed pseudo-first order rate constants with respect to birnessite loadings under the same experimental conditions, the surface-normalized specific rate constant, $K_{surf}$, for 1,4-NPQ was determined to be $8.5{\times}10^{-4}L/m^2{\cdot}hr$. The analysis of the kinetic data with respect to birnessite loading indicated that the cross-coupling reactions of 1,4-NPQ consist of two different reaction steps over time and the results have also been discussed in terms of the reaction mechanisms.

Spatial and Temporal Variability of Water Quality in Geum-River Watershed and Their Influences by Landuse Pattern (금강 수계의 시.공간적 수질특성과 토지이용도의 영향)

  • Han, Jeong-Ho;Bae, Young-Ju;An, Kwang-Guk
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.385-399
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this study was to analyze long term temporal trends of water chemistry and spatial heterogeneity for 83 sampling sites of Geum-River watershed using water quality dataset during 2003~2007 (obtained from the Ministry of Environment, Korea). The water quality, based on multi-parameters of temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and electric conductivity (EC), largely varied depending on the landuse patterns, years and seasons. The watershed was classified into three different landuse types: forest stream (Fo), agricultural stream (Ag), and urban stream (Ur). Largest seasonal variabilities in most parameters occurred during the two months of July to August and these were closely associated with large spate of summer monsoon rain. Conductivity, used as a key indicator for an ionic dilution during rainy season, and nutrients of TN and TP had inverse functions of precipitation. BOD, COD decrease during the rainy season. Minimum values in the conductivity, TN, and TP were observed during the summer monsoon, indicating an ionic and nutrient dilution of river water by the rainwater. In contrast, major inputs of suspended solids (SS) occurred during the period of summer monsoon. The landuse patterns analyses, based on the variables of BOD, COD, TN, TP and SS, showed that the values were greater in the agricultural stream (Ag) than in the forest stream (Fo) and urban stream (Ur) and that water quality was worst in the urban stream (Ur). The overall dataset suggest that efficient water quality management, especially in Gap-Stream and Miho-Stream, which showed worst water quality is required along with some of urban stream (Ur), based on the analysis of landuse patterns.