• Title/Summary/Keyword: 현상학적 연구

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Enhanced Bioremediation of Phenanthrene Using Biosurfactant (생물계면활성제를 이용한 Phenanthrene의 생물학적 처리)

  • 신경희;김경웅
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.375-380
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    • 2003
  • This study was carried out 1) to investigate the pH effect on solubilization of phenanthrene by biosurfactant in aqueous system and 2) to evaluate the pH effect on the biodegradation rate of phenanthrene in the presence and the absence of the biosurfactant by phenanthrene degraders. Tween 80, which is a chemically synthesized surfactant, showed greater solubilizing capacity than rhamnolipid. The solubilization capacity can be expressed as a MSR(molar solubilization ratio=moles of organic compounds solubilized per mole of surfactant). The calculated MSR of Tween 80 and rhamnolipid were 0.1449 and 0.0425 respectively. The kinetic study of phenanthrene solubilization by rhamnolipid showed that solubilization mechanism could reach equilibrium within 24 hours. Addition of 240 ppm rhamnolipid solution, which concentration is 4.3 times of Critical Micelle Concentration(CMC), caused 9 times solubility enhancement compared to water solubility. The highest solubilities were detected around a pH range of 4.5-5.5. Changes in apparent solubility with the changes in pH are possibly related to the fact that the rhamnolipid, an anionic surfactant, can form different structures depending on the pH. Two biodegradation experiments were performed in the absence and the presence of rhamnolipid, with the cell growth investigated using a spread plate method. The specific growth rates at pH 6 and 7 were higher than at the other pH, and the HPLC analysis data, for the total phenanthrene loss, confirmed the trends in the $\mu$(specific growth rate) values. In presence of rhamnolipid, maximum $\mu$ values shifted from around pH 5 which showed maximum enhancement of solubility in the abiotic experiment, compared to the $\mu$ values obtained without the biosurfactant. In this study, the increase in the observed specific grow rate(1.44 times) was not as high as the increase in solubilization(5 times). This was supported by the fact all the solubilized phenanthrene is not bioavailable to microorganisms.

Removal Torque Values of Retaining Screws Tightened to Implant-Supported Prosthesis with Different Connection Systems by Various Tightening Technique (다른 연결 시스템을 갖는 임플랜트 상부 구조물에서 조임술식에 따른 지대주 나사의 풀림 토크값에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Dong-Wook;Choi, Yu-Sung;Jo, In-Ho
    • Journal of Dental Rehabilitation and Applied Science
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.343-358
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    • 2011
  • As implant treatment has become popular, lots of different shapes and materials of the implant upper component have been supplied. And there are also diverse reports about failures including loosening of the abutment screw which is one of the most common reason. Purpose : The purpose of this study is to find out how different screw tightening orders and methods influence on screw loosening according to the different connection systems. The upper component was fabricated by casting method. After fabricating master models that are precisely attached to the upper component, 5 experimental models each for the external connection system and internal connection system were fabricated using splinting impression technique. First, to find out the influence of the screw tightening order, screws were tightened in 3 orders; 1-2-3-4, 2-3-1-4, 2-4-3-1. After tightening, removal torque values (RTV) of each group was measured. And also to find out the influence of screw tightening method, a model with 2-3-1-4 screw tightening order was tightened with 30 Ncm at one time(1-step method) and the RTV was compared with the same order group (2-3-1-4) in the 2 step method. In the external connection system, RTV appeared significantly lower in group 2-3-1-4 than group 2-4-3-1 (p<0.05). And also in the internal connection system, the RTV of group 2-3-1-4 appeared significantly lower than that of group 2-4-3-1 and 1-2-3-4 (p<0.05). When comparing the tightening number of the screw without considering the screw tightening order, the first tightened screw appeared significantly higher RTV than the second one in the external connection system (p<0.05), however there was no significant difference from the first tightened screw to the last tightened screw in the internal connection system. And there was no statistically significant difference between the two screw tightening methods in both internal and external connection system. In the comparison of external and internal connection system, each RTV appeared 16.27 Ncm and 14.25 Ncm and appeared as a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). There was a significant difference in RTV measured according to the screw tightening order. The lowest RTV appeared in the groups started tightening from the middle. There was also a significant difference in RTV between the two connection system groups. A further study is needed to find out the influence factors in RTV and also a study is required related to the load condition.

Characteristics of Natural Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater and Its Occurrences (자연적 지하수 비소오염의 국내외 산출특성)

  • Ahn Joo Sung;Ko Kyung-Seok;Lee Jin-Soo;Kim Ju-Yong
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.547-561
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    • 2005
  • General characteristics of groundwater contamination by As were reviewed with several recent researches, and its occurrence in groundwater of Korea was investigated based on a ffw previous studies and a groundwater quality survey in Nonsan and Geumsan areas. In Bangladesh, which has been known as the most serious arsenic calamity country, about $28\%$ of the shallow groundwaters exceeded the Bangladesh drinking water standard, $50{\mu}g/L$, and it was estimated that about 28 million people were exposed to concentrations greater than the standard. Groundwater was characterized by circum-neutral pH with a moderate to strong reducing conditions. Low concentrations of $SO_4^{2-}$ and $NO_3^-$, and high contents of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and $NH_4^+$ were typical chemical characteristics. Total As concentrations were enriched in the Holocene alluvial aquifers with a dominance of As(III) species. It was generally agreed that reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides was the main mechanism for the release of As into groundwater coupling with the presence of organic matters and microbial activities as principal factors. A new model has also been suggested to explain how arsenic can naturally contaminate groundwaters far from the ultimate source with transport of As by active tectonic uplift and glaciatiion during Pleistocene, chemical weathering and deposition, and microbial reaction processes. In Korea, it has not been reported to be so serious As contamination, and from the national groundwater quality monitoring survey, only about $1\%$ of grounwaters have concentrations higher than $10{\mu}g/:L.$ However, it was revealed that $19.3\%$ of mineral waters, and $7\%$ of tube-well waters from Nonsan and Geumsan areas contained As concentrations above $10{\mu}g/:L.$. Also, percentages exceeding this value during detailed groundwater quality surveys were $36\%\;and\;22\%$ from Jeonnam and Ulsan areas, respectively, indicating As enrichment possibly by geological factors and local mineralization. Further systematic researches need to proceed in areas potential to As contamination such as mineralized, metasedimentary rock-based, alluvial, and acid sulfate soil areas. Prior to that, it is required to understand various geochemical and microbial processes, and groundwater flow characteristics affecting the behavior of As.

Relation Between Degree of Consistency of Elementary Students' Preconceptions on the Brightness of Electric Bulb and Their Cognitive Conflict (전구의 밝기에 대한 초등학생들의 사전개념 일관성 정도와 인지갈등 정도와의 관계)

  • Jung Mee-young;Kim Kung-suk;Kwon Jaesoo
    • Journal of Korean Elementary Science Education
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.259-267
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    • 2005
  • This study was to investigate the elementary students' preconception on the brightness of electric bulb and degree of consistency on their preconceptions. Participants were 160 students of fifth graders in Seoul area. They had already teamed about the brightness of series circuit and parallel circuit of batteries. After they solved six problems in the same context, we provided them a pair of circuit which was an anomalous situation. And then they conducted CCLT (Cognitive Conflict Level Test). Elementary school students showed various preconceptions when they explained the light of bulb of two Simple electric Circuits. Many Students Consistently Showed the Scientific misconceptions like 'the light of bulb of two simple electric circuits was that the more batteries and the fewer bulbs were brighter.' The level of consistency that students presented scientific misconceptions was grouped all of four, such as 'high, middle, low, and nothing.' Therefore the higher scientific achievement they have, the higher consistency they have. As the students had high consistency level, they revealed high cognitive conflict level significantly. This high consistency will help them to change their preconception on the brightness of electric bulb and their cognitive conflict.

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DNA damages with Fpg/Endo Ⅲ FLARE Assay in cynomolgus monkeys exposed to stainless steel welding fume (용접흄 흡입노출 영장류에서 Fpg/Endo Ⅲ FLARE Assay를 이용한 DNA 손상 및 회복)

  • Rim, Kyung Taek;Kim, Soo Jin;Chung, Yong Hyun;Kim, Hyeon Yeong;Maeng, Seung Hee;Yu, Il Je
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.272-281
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    • 2007
  • 선박제조업을 비롯한 운송업 및 건축업 등의 다양한 분야에서 용접기술이 이용되어 옴에 따라 용접근로자들에 대한 산업보건학적 관심이 높아지고 있다. 노출정도가 다양하기는 하지만 용접흄은 6가 크롬을 비롯한 금속화합물과 유해가스, 화학물질 등을 복합적으로 포함하고 있는 스테인레스 스틸 용접흄에 대한 유전독성영향을 평가하기 위하여 흡입챔버를 이용, 실험동물인 영장류에 스테인레스 스틸 용접흄을 노출시키고 혈액 내 lymphocytes에 생성된 용접흄 노출농도 및 시간별 DNA 손상정도 및 그 회복효소를 측정함으로써, 유해성이 완전하게 확인되지 않은 용접흄에 노출되어 나타날 수 있는 암을 비롯한 심각한 건강영향을 예방하기 위한 각 지표들을 찾아 그 유용성을 비교하고자 하였다. 영장류를 노출시키기 위해 robotic arm을 장치한 영장류 흡입노출 시스템을 개발하였으며, 이 노출 시스템을 이용하여 수컷 영장류 6마리에 대해 용접흄 노출시험을 실시하였는데 실험군은 대조군 2, 저농도 ($31mg/m^3$) 노출군 2, 고농도 ($63mg/m^3$) 노출군 2마리로 구성하였고, 1일 2시간씩 일주일에 5일 동안 용접흄에 노출시켰다. 노출 농도는 지속적으로 모니터링 하였고, 노출과정 중에 영장류의 혈액을 채취하여 lymphocytes를 분리, 단세포 DNA 손상을 선별하기 위해 DNA 손상회복 효소인 E. coli formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg)와 endonuclease Ⅲ (Thymine Glycol-DNA glycosylase) 투여와 Comet asaay (single cell gel electrophoresis, 단세포겔전기영동기법)를 결합시켜 이용하는 Fpg/Endo III FLARE 분석법을 사용하였다. Fpg enzyme에 의한 olive tail moment값의 변화는 16주 노출군부터 노출부검(34주)군 까지 노출농도가 높아짐에 따른 olive tail moment 기하평균 값의 양 반응관계를 보기는 어렵지만, 고농도군의 경우 27주 노출군에서 가장 높은 olive tail moment 값을 보이고 이후 차츰 감소하였다. 한편 16주에서 22주까지의 노출기간에서는 대조군에 비해 노출군에서 DNA손상정도(olive tail moment값)는 모두 유의하게 높았으나, 6, 12, 18, 25, 31, 33, 35주간 노출하였을 때는 다른 결과를 보였다. 각 실험군의 Fpg enzyme에 의한 tail length값의 분포를 살펴볼 때, 저농도군 및 고농도군에서 27주간 노출하였을 때 가장 높은 tail length 값을 보이고 이후 차츰 감소하는 경향을 보였다. 또한 16, 22주간 노출하였을 때 대조군에 비해 노출군에서 tail length 값이 유의하게 높았으나, 20주간에서만 양 반응관계가 관찰되었고, 다른 주간에서는 양 반응 및 기간 반응관계를 나타내지는 않았다. Endo III enzyme에 의한 olive tail moment값의 변화는 기간별 노출군에서 대조군에 비해 높은 DNA손상정도(olive tail moment값)를 나타내는 결과들이 있었지만, 10, 12, 16, 22, 25, 31주간 노출하였을 때 등 상당수 노출기간에서 반응관계를 나타내지는 않았다. 각 실험군의 Endo III enzyme에 의한 tail length값의 분포를 살펴볼 때, 18, 20, 27, 33주간 노출하였을 때 대조군에 비해 노출군에서 tail length 값이 조금 높았지만, 양 반응 및 기간 반응관계를 보이지 않았고 수치의 크기가 불규칙하게 변화하였다. 즉, DNA에 있어 산화된 pyrimidine을 형성하여 손상된 부위의 염기를 제거함으로써 AP site (abasic site)를 만들고 이들이 Comet assay를 통해 break로 전환된 것을 포함한 DNA손상을 측정하기 위하여 endonuclease III (Endo III)를 첨가시킨 Endo III FLARE 분석법을 실시한 결과, 본 연구에서 나타난 결과는 용접흄 노출 영장류에서 Olive tail moment 및 tail length 공히 노출량 및 노출기간 반응관계를 볼 수 없었다. Endo III FLARE 분석법을 통한 산화적 DNA 손상지표는 영장류에 적용하기에는 적응반응현상으로 대조군과 유의한 차이도 관찰할 수 없었고 더욱이 역으로 대조군에서의 자연발생적 수치가 더 높아질 수 있어 용접흄 노출 영장류의 모니터링 지표로 사용하기에는 제한점이 있었다.

Characteristics and Sensory Optimization of Taro (Colocasia esculenta) under Different Aging Conditions for Food Application of Black Taro (흑토란의 식품재료화를 위한 숙성 조건에 따른 토란의 특성 및 관능 최적화)

  • Jeon, Yu-Ho;Lee, Ji-Won;Son, Yang-Ju;Hwang, In-Kyeong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.133-141
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    • 2016
  • The physicochemical properties, antioxidant capacities, and sensory optimization of taro (Colocasia esculenta) under different aging conditions were investigated to develop black taro. Black taro was processed in three steps (steaming: $95{\pm}3^{\circ}C$ for 1 h; aging: 85, 90, $95^{\circ}C$ for 20, 40, and 60 h; drying: $60^{\circ}C$ for 24 h) and ground into a powder for all experiments. Black taro showed an increased crude fiber content and browning index compared to raw taro. Calcium oxalate contents, reducing sugar contents, moisture contents, and lightness values were decreased during the processing of taro. Improvements in total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP) were observed in the black taro samples aged at higher temperature. Response surface methodology was used for sensory optimization, and the optimum aging conditions with the highest acceptance values were found to be $88.73^{\circ}C$ for 39.50 h for taste, and $88.82^{\circ}C$ for 42.60 h for overall acceptance.

A Preliminary Study of Flume Experiments on the Flow Velocity for Initial Formation of Bedforms on Bimodal Sand-sized Sediments (이정 사질 퇴적물의 층면구조 형성 속도에 대한 수조 실험 예비 연구)

  • Kim, Hyun Woo;Choi, Su Ji;Choi, Ji Soo;Kwon, Yoo Jin;Lee, Sang Cheol;Kwak, Chang Hwan;Kwon, Yi Kyun
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.218-229
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    • 2016
  • The bedform stability diagram indicates the shape and size of bedforms that will occur to a given grain size and flow velocity. The diagram has been constructed from experimental data which have been mostly acquired by flume experiments. Generally, the flume experiments have been performed on well sorted sediments with unimodal grain size distribution, in order to understand relationship between grain size and flow velocity. According to the diagram, a ripple structure initiates to be formed from lower flow regime flat bed, as the flow velocity increases on the surface of fine-sand or medium-sand sediments. This study aims to verify that the experimental result of bedform stability diagram will be reproduced in our flume experimental systems, and also to confirm that the result is consistent not only on well-sorted sand sediments but also on poorly-sorted sand sediments with bimodal grain size distribution. The experimental results in this study show that initiation of 2D or 3D ripple structure on poorly-sorted sand sediments requires higher flow velocity and shear stress than those for initiation of the structure on well-sorted sand sediments. In general, carbonate sediments are characterized by poor sorting due to inactive hydraulic sorting and bimodal grain size distribution with allochems and matrices. The results suggest that the carbonate depositional system possibly need a higher flow velocity for initial formation of 2D or 3D bedform structures. The reason might be the fact that pulling off and lifting of a grain in poorly sorted sediments require more energy due to sorting, friction, stabilization, armour effects, and their complex interaction. This preliminary study warrants additional experiments under various conditions and more accurate analysis on the relationship between formation of bedforms and grain size distribution.

Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Over Northeast Asia During 2001 from MODIS and TOMS data (MODIS와 TOMS자료를 이용한 2001년 동북아시아 지역의 대기 에어로졸 모니터링)

  • 이권호;홍천상;김영준
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.77-89
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    • 2004
  • The spatial and temporal variations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) over Northeast Asia regions have special importance in the aerosol research for estimation of aerosol radiative forcing parameters and climate change. Aerosol optical and physical properties (AOD and ${\AA}$ngstrom parameter) have been investigated by using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Aerosol Index (AI) to estimate aerosol characteristics over the study region during 2001. Additionally, aerosol characteristics over the Korean peninsular during Aerosol Characteristic Experiment in Asia (ACE-Asia) Intensive Observation Period (IOP) have been investigated by using satellite observations. The results showed that the daily-observed aerosol data indicate seasonal variations with relatively higher aerosol loading in the spring and very low during the winter. The typical Asian dust case showed higher AOD (>0.7) with lower Angstrom exponent (<0.5) and higher AI (>0.5) that is mainly due to the composition of coarse particles in the springtime. Mean AOD for 2001 at 4 different places showed 0.65$\pm$0.37 at Beijing, 0.31$\pm$0.19 at Gosan, 0.54$\pm$0.26 at Seoul, and 0.38$\pm$0.19 at Kwangju, respectively. An interesting result was found in the present study that polluted aerosol events with small size dominated-aerosol loading around the Korean peninsular are sometimes observed. The origin of these polluted aerosols was thought to East China. Aerosol distribution from satellite images and trajectory results shows the proof of aerosol transport. Therefore, aerosol monitoring using satellite data is very useful.

The Cooperative Environmental Research in the Yellow Sea between Korea and China for the Establishment of Cooperative Management Plans on the Yellows Sea Conservation (황해 공동 관리시스템 기반 조성을 위한 한.중 황해환경공동조사)

  • Heo, Seung;An, Kyoung-Ho;Park, Soung-Yun;Park, Jong-Soo;Kang, Young-Shil;Shon, Jaek-Young;Kim, Pyoung-Joong;Kim, Hyung-Chul;Hwang, Woon-Ki;Lee, Seung-Min;Hwang, Hak-Jin;Choi, Yong-Suk;Ko, Byeong-Seol;Bang, Hyun-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.263-268
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    • 2009
  • The Yellow Sea is extremely important to the economy and to the health and well-being of surrounding countries, Korea and China. Recently, the Yellow Sea is under constantly increasing threat of degradation due to the increase of environmental pollution and over-fishing. The governments of Korea and China have been aware of the importance of the Yellow Sea and reached an Environmental Agreement between Korea and China at the governmental level(November, 1993) According to this environmental agreement the Yellow Sea Environmental Cooperative Research between Korea and China has been undertaken since 1997. The joint cruise had been conducted once a year at 33 stations in the 4 lines of the Yellow Sea where the 9 stations of the D line was newly added in the 7th cruise in 2003. The samples were analyzed by scientists of both countries at the WSFRI, Korea and the OEMNC of the SEPA, China in turn, the annual report has been published every year during 1998-2008. The scientific efforts to fix the cruise time in October and to extend research frequency, as twice a year, should be considered, and this requires the governmental supports such as research funds and other related administrational assistance on both sides. Finally, scientists should also pay a concentrated attention to standardize the analytical methods including quality control and to improve this Yellow Sea research as one of the most representative international projects in the Yellow Sea where sharing additional informations available, if exist of dumping sites and material content, and of the freshwater quality will be of great help to broaden the output of this joint research project.

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Spatio-temporal Fluctuations with Influences of Inflowing Tributary Streams on Water Quality in Daecheong Reservoir (대청호의 시공간적 수질 변화 특성 및 호수내 유입지천의 영향)

  • Kim, Gyung-Hyun;Lee, Jae-Hoon;An, Kwang-Guk
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.158-173
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    • 2012
  • The objectives of this study were to analyze the longitudinal gradient and temporal variations of water quality in Daecheong Reservoir in relation to the major inflowing streams from the watershed, during 2001~2010. For the study, we selected 7 main-stream sites of the reservoir along the main axis of the reservoir, from the headwater to the dam and 8 tributary streams. In-reservoir nutrients of TN and TP showed longitudinal declines from the headwater to the dam, which results in a distinct zonation of the riverine ($R_z$, M1~M3), transition ($T_z$, M4~M6), and lacustrine zone ($L_z$, M7) in water quality, as shown in other foreign reservoirs. Chlorophyll-a (CHL) and BOD as an indicator of organic matter, were maximum in the $T_z$. Concentration of total phosphorus (TP) was the highest (8.52 $mg\;L^{-1}$) on March in the $R_z$, and was the highest (165 ${\mu}g\;L^{-1}$) in the $L_z$ on July. Values of TN was the maximum (377 ${\mu}g\;L^{-1}$) on August in the $R_z$, and was the highest (3.76 $mg\;L^{-1}$) in the $L_z$ on August. Ionic dilution was evident during September~October, after the monsoon rain. The mean ratios of TN : TP, as an indicator of limiting factor, were 88, which indicates that nitrogen is a surplus for phytoplankton growth in this system. Nutrient analysis of inflowing streams showed that major nutrient sources were headwater streams of T1~T2 and Ockcheon-Stream of T5, and the most influential inflowing stream to the reservoir was T5, which is located in the mid-reservoir, and is directly influenced by the waste-water treatment plants. The key parameters, influenced by the monsoon rain, were TP and suspended solids (SS). Empirical models of trophic variables indicated that variations of CHL in the $R_z$ ($R^2$=0.044, p=0.264) and $T_z$ ($R^2$=0.126, p=0.054) were not accounted by TN, but were significant (p=0.032) in the $L_z$. The variation of the log-transformed $I_r$-CHL was not accounted ($R^2$=0.258, p=0.110) by $I_w$-TN of inflowing streams, but was determined ($R^2$=0.567, p=0.005) by $I_w$-TP of inflowing streams. In other words, TP inputs from the inflowing streams were the major determinants on the in-reservoir phytoplankton growth. Regression analysis of TN : TP suggested that the ratio was determined by P, rather than N. Overall, our data suggest that TP and suspended solids, during the summer flood period, should be reduced from the eutrophication control and P-input from Ockcheon-Stream should be controlled for water quality improvement.