• Title, Summary, Keyword: 현상학적 연구

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Physicochemical Characteristics and Sensory Properties of Commercial Mukeunji Products (국내 시판 묵은지의 이화학적 및 관능적 특성)

  • Hur, Sung-Won;Ko, Myeung-Sin;Kim, Mi-Ran;Lee, Hye-Ran;Chung, Seo-Jin;Cho, Mi-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.702-708
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    • 2015
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the physicochemical characteristics of commercial Mukeunji product along with its sensory properties. Six different types of commercial Mukeunji products were purchased through an on-line market, and each product had a different fermentation period. General commercial Baechu Kimchi was compared with commercial Mukeunji products in order to standardize quality properties of Mukeunji. As a result, commercial Mukeunji showed a lower pH value (pH 3.96, mean value) than commercial Baechu Kimchi (pH 5.92), whereas commercial Mukeunji samples showed higher acidity and salinity. Color values (L, a, and b) of commercial Mukeunji decreased as the storage period increased. Hardness and thickness of commercial Mukeunji showed a lower range compared to Baechu Kimchi. The reducing sugar content decreased as the storage period of commercial Mukeunji increased. Acetic, lactic, and succinic acids were detected in commercial Mukeunji samples, whereas citric acid and malic acid were additionally detected in Baechu Kimchi. Commercial Mukeunji samples showed lower contents of acetic and succinic acid and higher content of lactic acid than Baechu Kimchi. Commercial Mukeunji samples showed a significant difference in all descriptive sensory attributes except for bitterness. Overall intensity, sourness, moldy odor, redness, sour smell, saltiness, and carbonated taste increased as the storage period increased, whereas cabbage flavor, crispiness, sweetness, firmness, and savory taste decreased as the storage period increased.

Studies on the Biological Effects of Chemosterilant, Hempa, on the Rice Weevil (Sitophilus oryzae 1.) and Transmission of Sterility (화학적 불임유기물질 Hempa가 쌀바구미(Sitophilus oryzae L.)에 미치는 생물학적 영향 및 불임성의 전달에 관한 연구)

  • Shim Jai Wook
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.1-21
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    • 1973
  • Some experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of the chemosterilant, hempa, on the biology of the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae L., and the transmission of the lethal factors in the progeny. One to three days old adult males were fed on the wheat grains treated with concentrations of 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, and $0.5\%$ of hempa water solution. The effects of the treatment on the mortality, longevity, and the performance of oviposition were examined for the Pl generation, and the hatchability and mortality in the postembryonic development were also tested in the $F_1,\;F_2,\;BC_1,\;F_3,\;and\;BC_2$ generations to analyze the inheritance of the lethal factors. The results obtained were summarized as follows. (1) The average longevity of the treated males were ranged from 26.6 to 30.4 days, and indicated no statistical differences. (2) The mortality of the treated males were ranged between $3.3\%\;and\;13.3\%$ and showed no statistical significance. (3) The overall mean number of eggs laid by a female mated to a treated male with concentrations of 0.0625, 0.125, 0.26 and $0.5\%$ were 3.78, 4.05, 3.75 and 3.61 for the respective treatments, and they were not differ significantly from those of control which were 3.60 per female per 3 day period. The unmated female laid 1.91 in the same period, and significantly differ from those in other experimental groups. (4) The overall mean hatchability of the eggs laid by the females mated with males that had been treated with various concentrations of hempa were 86.82, 64.77, 53.47, 40.33 and $24.78\%$ for the respective concentrations of 0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25 and $0.5\%$. The hatchability decreased with the increasing concentrations. (5) The minimum hatchabilities were obtained from the eggs laid in the period of 10-12 days after treatment, then the hatchability increased showing some recovery. The recovery seemed to be very much delayed for the males which had been treated with the greater concentrations. Such a difference in hatchability might be related with the sensitivity of the developmental stages of the sperms, and broader spectrum in the stages and severer effects seemed to be associated with the increased concentrations. (6) The overall mean of larval mortality in the $F_l$ generation were 6.55, 17.89, 27.40, 35.42 and $52.17\%$ for the respective concentrations of 0,0.0625, 0.125,0.25 and $0.5\%$. And there was a tendency to increase in the mortality with the increase of concentrations. (7) The correlation coefficients between per cent sterile eggs and larval mortality for the experimental plots of 0.125, 0.25 and $0.5\%$ treatments showed r=+0.83 and +0.85, respectively, and it seemed to be close correlation between the lethal effects on the embryonic and post-embryonic developments. (8) Since the $SC_{50}$ of the sterile eggs was $0.133\%$ and $SC_{50}$ of the larval mortality was $0.565\%$, it was considered that tile lethal factors expressed more in the egg stages than the larval stages. (9) The ratio of female to male in the $F_l$ adults showed 100 : 125, 100 : 108 and 100 : 124 for the plots of 0.125, 0.25 and $0.5\%$ treatments, respectively. And it n·as considered that the sex ratio distortions might occur with the higher concentrations. (10) When the F, males originated 1.on the eggs had been laid by p, in the period of 16-18 days after treatment, were crossed to normal females $(BC_1)$ and made sib matings $(F_2)$, the per cent sterile eggs of the $BC_1$ generation were 13.88 and $33.04\%$ , and were 31.01 and $38.73\%$ for the $F_2$generation with the plots of 0.0625 and $0.125\%$ treatment, respectively. And these seemed to be a results of the $F_1$ individuals are carrying some chromosomal aberrations (11) The larval mortality was the highest in the $F_2$ plot and followed the female backcross plot, and the least in the male backcrosses. (12) The proportions of 1st and 2nd instar larvae among the larval development at tile 17th day after oviposition were 10.98, 27.26, 32.98 and $15.73\%$ in the normal female $\times$ normal male, $F_1$ female$\times$normal male, normal $female \;\times F_1$ male and $female \;\times F_1$ male plots, respectively. It was considered that the larval development might be delayed by the treatment in the 2nd generation. (13) Per cent larval mortality and sterile eggs were greater in the $F_2$ sib mating plots $(F_3)$ than both of $F_2$ backcrosses. Therefore, it seemed that some of the recessive lethal mutations might affect in the further generations. (14) The sterility, induced by the treatment of chemosterilant, hempa, was considered as the result of the dominant lethal mutations due to chromosomal aberrations such as translocation and/or deletion. The effects of these lethal factors seemed to be inherited tip to 3rd generation after treatment.

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The Effect of Antioxidant Vitamins on Aflatoxin $B_{1}-DNA$ Adduct the Formation in Aflatoxin $B_1$ Administered Mice Liver (항산화비타민이 Aflatoxin $B_1$ 투여 마우스의 간세포에서 Aflatoxin $B_{1}-DNA$ Adduct 형성에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Seon-Ja;Kang, Sung-Jo;Park, Jung-Hyun;Oh, Sang-Suk;Chung, Duck-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.669-675
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    • 2001
  • The objective of this study was to examine the effects of antioxidant vitamins on the formation of $AFB_{1}-DNA$ adduct and $AFB_{1}-inducing$ cellular oxidative damage. Intraperitoneal(i.p.)injections of 10 mg/kg vitamin C(VC) and 63.8 mg/kg vitamin E(VE) were repeatedly administrated 4 times with 2 days interval to 6 week old male ICR mice. After one hour of vitamin treatments, 0.4 mg/kg $AFB_1$ was injected in $AFB_1$ plus vitamin treated groups by same way. On the other hands, $AFB_1$ treated group was only injected with $AFB_1$ by the same method described above without vitamins. According to quantitative analysis of the $AFB_1$ in mice serum by indirect competitive ELISA, 12.28 and 18.78 ng/mL were detected in $AFB_1-treated$ groups, but 7.60 and 4.85 ng/mL in $AFB_1$ plus VC and VE treated groups, respectively. 23.78, 25.48 ng/mL of $AFB_1-DNA$ adduct were detected in mice liver of $AFB_1$treated groups, while 5.26, 7.81 ng/mL in $AFB_1$ plus VC and VE treated groups, respectively. Consequently, the differences in the concentrations of $AFB_1$ related materials between vitamin treated and non-treated groups were significant. Immunohistochemistry revealed brownish infiltration of $AFB_1$ around central vein and sinusoid in $AFB_1-treated$ group. This manifestation was distinctly reduced in $AFB_1$ plus VC and VE treated groups.

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Study on the Accumulation of Iron and Manganese in Relation to the Morphological Characteristics of Paddy Soils (답토양(沓土壤)의 형태적(形態的) 특징(特徵)에 따른 철(鐵) 및 망간의 이동집적(移動集積)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Shin, C.S.
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.123-144
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    • 1975
  • This study has been carried out to investigate the translocation-illuviation status of iron and manganese, which are striking phenomena in paddy soils, in relation to its morphological characteristics, and to find out a method to identify illuvial layer of iron quantitatively. Determination of active iron and easily reducible manganese content in surface soils of lowland paddy (266 samples) in Korea were conducted. The examination has been made on relationship between morphological, physico-chemical properties of the representative paddy soils (9 series) and iron and manganese content of their horizons. The results are summarized as follows. 1. The poorer the drainage, the higher concentration of active iron and easily reducible manganese were found, and under same drainage condition, the more the sand, the lower the content of them. 2. Irrespective of soil texture and drainage, highly signignificant positive correlation was found between the contents of active iron ($\hat{Y}$) and clay plus silt in surface soils. $$\hat{Y}=0.3929+(0.05352\;X\;clay%)+(0.0001023\;X\;silt%){\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;I$$ No correlation, however, was found between clay content and easily reducible manganese concentration. 3. Significant positive correlation was obtained between active iron ($\hat{Y}$) and total iron (x) content in each profiles of all soil series. Obtained regression equation is as follows; $$\hat{Y}=0.361x-0.480(r=0.651^{**}){\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;{\ldots}\;II$$ On the other hand, easily reducible manganese concentration had a tendency to increase, not significantly, with increasing total manganese concentration. 4. Accumulation of iron and manganese generally can be found in paddy soils, but distinct accumulation was found under moderately well drained fine loamy and clay soils, while surface accumulation occurred under poor drainage without regard to soil texture. 5. Profile description or determination of active iron in each horizon were found to be insufficient to designate illuvial layer of iron. Therefore, identification of illuvial layer of iron based on the ratio of total iron and active iron, and concentration of active iron estimated by the content of clay plus silt (Equation 1 above) was thought to be reasonable. Also, manganese accumulation layer would be estimated by total manganese and easily reducible manganese content and their ratio.

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The Effect of Ginseng Saponins on the Biosynthesis of Prostaglandins (인삼 Saponin이 Prostaglandin 대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Park C.W.;Lee S.H.
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.77-80
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    • 1988
  • The effects of ginseng saponins and some phenolic acids on the in vitro biosynthesis of prostaglandins was examined in order to identify the role of some ginseng components on the regulaion of arachidonic acid metabolism. The productions of prostaglandin $E_2(PGE_2).$ prostaglandin $F_2{\alpha}(PGF_2{\alpha}).$ thromboxane $B_2(TxB_2)$ and 6-keto-prostaglandin $F_1{\alpha}(6-keto-PGF_1{\alpha})$ from $[^3H]-arachidonic$ acid were evaluated with rabbit kidney microsome. human platelet homogenate and bovine aortic microsome. The amounts of the total cyclooxy-genase products from arachidonic acid did't show significant changes in the presence of ginseng saponins. Panaxadiol. panaxatriol and all of the ginsenosides used in these experiments reduced the formation of $TxB_2.$ while increased the $6-keto-PGF_1{\alpha}$ production dose dependently. Ginseng saponins did't inhibit the ADP($10{\mu}M$) induced platelet aggregation. but sodium arachidonate (0.5 mM) induced platelet aggregation. but sodium arachidonate (0.5 mM) induced platelet aggregation was signiticantly inhibited. These findings suggest that ginseng saponins seem to playa role in the regulation of the arachidonate metabolism. probably by affecting the divergent biosynthetic pathway of prostaglandins from endoperoxide.

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Reflectance and Microhardness Characteristics of Sulfide Minerals from the Sambong Copper Mine (삼봉동광산산(三峰銅鑛山産) 유화광물(硫化鑛物)의 반사도(反射度)와 미경도(微硬度) 특성(特性))

  • Chi, Se Jung
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.115-139
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    • 1984
  • The Cu-Pb-Zn-Ag hydrothermal vein-type deposits which comprise the Sambong mine occur within calc-alkaline volcanics of the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Basin. The ore mineralization took place through three distinct stages of quartz (I and II stages) and calcite veins (III stage) which fill the pre-existing fault breccia zones. These stages were separated in time by tectonic fracturing and brecciation events. The reflection variations of one mineral depending on mineralization sequence are considered to be resulted from variation in its chemical composition due to different physico-chemical conditions in the hydrothermal system. The reflection power of sphalerite increases with the content of Fe substituted for Zn. Reflectances of the sphalerite grain are lower on (111) than on (100) surface. The spectral profiles depend on the internal reflection color. Sphalerite, showing green, yellow and reddish brown internal reflection, have the highest reflection power at $544m{\mu}$ (green), $593m{\mu}$ (yellow) and $615m{\mu}$ (red) wavelength, respectively. Chalcopyrite is recognized as biaxial negative from the reflectivity data of randomly oriented grains measured at the most sensitivity at $544m{\mu}$. The microindentation hardness against the Fe content (wt. %) for the sphalerite increases to 8.05% Fe and then decreases toward 9.5% Fe content. Vickers hardness of the sphalerite is considerably higher on surface of (100) than on (111). The relationship between Vickers hardness and crystal orientation of the galena was determined to be $VHN_{(111)}$ > $VHN_{(210)}$ > $VHN_{(100)}$. The softer sulfides have the wider variation of the diagonal length in the indentation. Diagonal length in the indentation is pyrite

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Effects of Propylthiouracil and Thyroxine on Thyroid Function and Body Growth in Rats (Propylthiouracil 및 Thyroxine의 처리(處理)가 흰쥐의 갑상선기능(甲狀腺機能)과 체성장(體成長)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Seo, Kil Woong;Lee, Kyu Seung;Park, Chang Sik
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.210-218
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    • 1986
  • This study was conducted to find out the effects of propylthiouracil and thyroxine on thyroid function and body growth in female rats. One hundred and forty-four female rats (Wistar-imamichi albino rats) of 25 days old were divided into 4 groups; thyroidectomy (Thx), propylthiouracil (PTU), thyroxine (Thyro.)and control (Cont.) groups. Thirty-six rats were allotted to each group, and changes of body weights were weekly checked. In addition, 6 rats in each group were sacrificed at 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 weeks after treatments with time elapse for investigating changes of thyroid weights and tissues. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The weights of thyroid gland showed significant differences among all the compared groups at all observation times. The weights of thyroid glands in PTU group were higher than those in control group, but those in the Thyro. group were lower than those in control group. 2. In the histological changes of thyroid glands in the PTU group, the follicle epithelium showed columnar cells following hype trophy and hyperplasia from 1 week after treatment. The follicle epithelium in the Thyro. group were recognized inactive showing squamous cells. 3. The body weights showed significant differences among the compared groups from 2 weeks after treatment. The body weights decreased significantly in PTU and Thx. groups, while those in Thyro. group increased significantly in comparison with those in control group. No significant difference in body weight was noted between PTU and Thx. groups.

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Behavior of Cadmium, Zinc, and Copper in soils -I. Effect of Organic Matter Treatment on Adsorption of Cadmium, Zinc, and Copper in soils- (토양내(土壤內) 카드뮴, 아연(亞鉛) 및 구리의 행동(行動)에 관한 연구(硏究) -제2보(第-報). 토양내(土壤內) 카드뮴, 아연(亞鉛) 및 구리의 흡착(吸着)에 미치는 유기물처리(有機物處理)의 영향(影響)-)

  • Yoo, Sun-Ho;Hyun, Hae-Nam
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.68-75
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    • 1985
  • Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of compost and humic acid treatment on adsorption of Cd, Zn, and Cu in soils. Three soils differing in physical and chemical properties used in this experiments were Bonyrang (Typic Udifluvents) SL, Gangseo (Aquatic Eutrochrepts) L, and Gyorae (Typic Distrandepts) SiL. Adsorption of Cd, Zn, ana Cu on the soils followed Langmuir isotherm up to 75 ppm of initial concentration. The adsorption maxima of Cd, Zn, and Cu for the Bonryang soil, the lowest in pH, organic matter content, and CEC, were the lowest of the three soils. Although the Gyorae soil derived from volcanic ash was the highest in organic matter content and CEC, the adsorption maxima of heavy metals for the Gyorae soil were lower than those for the Gangseo soil of which organic content and CEC were intermidiate. The adsorption maxima/CEC ratios for the Bonryang, the Gangseo, the Gyorae soils were found to be in the range of $23{\sim}27%,\;28{\sim}57%$, and $11{\sim}14%$ respectively The bonding energy constants of Cd, Zn, and Cu for the soils were in the order of Gangseo>Bonryang>Gyorae soils. The adsorption maxima of Cd, Zu, and Cu for the Bonryang soil increased with compost treatment by $100{\sim}210%,\;90{\sim}230%$, and $130{\sim}290%$ respectively, while little difference was observed when the soil was treated with humic acid Bonding energy constants of Cd, Zn, and Cu for the Bonryang soil increased significantly with compost treatment, and showed insignificant correlation with humic acid treatment.

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Mytilin B, an Antimicrobial Peptide from the Hemocyte of the Hard-shelled Mussel, Mytilus coruscus : Isolation, Purification, and Characterization (참담치(Mytilus coruscus) 혈구(hemocyte) 유래 항균 펩타이드 mytilin B의 정제 및 특성 분석)

  • Lee, Min Jeong;Oh, Ryunkyoung;Kim, Young-Ok;Nam, Bo-Hye;Kong, Hee Jeong;Kim, Joo-Won;Park, Jung Youn;Seo, Jung-Kil;Kim, Dong-Gyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.28 no.11
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    • pp.1301-1315
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    • 2018
  • We purified an antimicrobial peptide from the acidified hemocyte extract of Mytilus coruscus by $C_{18}$ reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The peptide was 4041.866 Da based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrophotometer (MALDI-TOF/MS) and the 25 amino acids of the N-terminus sequence were identified. Comparison of this sequence of the purified peptide with the N-terminus sequences of other antimicrobial peptides revealed 100% identity with the mytilin B precursor of Mytilus coruscus. We also identified a 312 bp open-reading frame (ORF) encoding 103 amino acids based on the obtained amino acid residues. The nucleotide sequence of this ORF and the amino acid sequence also revealed 100% identity with the mytilin B precursor of Mytilus coruscus. We synthesized two antimicrobial peptides with an alanine residue in the C-terminus, and designated them mytilin B1 and B2. These two antimicrobial peptides showed antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus cereus and Streptococcus parauberis (minimal effective concentration, MECs $41.6-89.7{\mu}g/ml$), gram-negative bacteria, including Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia stuartii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio ichthyoenteri (MECs $7.4-39.5{\mu}g/ml$), and the fungus Candida albicans (MECs $26.0-31.8{\mu}g/ml$). This antimicrobial activity was stable under heat and salt conditions. Furthermore, the peptides did not exhibit significant hemolytic activity or cytotoxic effects. These results suggest that mytilin B could be applied as alternative antibiotic agent, and they add to the understanding of the innate immunity of hard-shelled mussels.

Mesozoic Granitoids and Associated Gold-Silver Mineralization in Korea (한국 중생대 화강암류와 이에 수반된 금-은광화작용)

  • 최선규;박상준;최상훈;신홍자
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.25-38
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    • 2001
  • Contrasts in the style of the gold-silver mineralization in geologic and tectonic settings in Korea, together with radiometric age data, reflect the genetically different nature of hydrothermal activities, coinciding with the emplacement age and depth of Mesozoic magmatic activities. It represents a clear distinction between the plutonic settings of the Jurassic Daebo orogeny and the subvolcanic environments of the Cretaceous Bulgugsa igneous activities. During the Daebo igneous activities (about 200-130 Ma) coincident with orogenic time, gold mineralization took place between 197 and 127 Ma. The Jurassic deposits commonly show several characteristics: prominent association with pegmatites, low Ag/Au ratios in the ore-concentrating parts, massive vein morphology and a distinctively simple mineralogy including Fe-rich sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, Au-rich eIectrum. pyrrhotite and/or pyrite. During the Bulgugsa igneous activities (120-60 Ma), the precious-metal deposits are generally characterized by such features as complex vein morphology, medium to high AgiAu ratios in the ore concentrates, and abundance of ore minerals including base-metal sulfides, Ag sulfides, native silver, Ag sulfosalts and Ag tellurides. Vein morphology, mineralogical, fluid inclusion and stable isotope results indicate the diverse genetic natures of hydrothermal systems. The Jurassic Au-dominant deposits were formed at the relatively high temperature (about 300 to 450$^{\circ}$C) and deep-crustal level (>3.0 kb) from the hydrothermal fluids containing more amounts of magmatic waters (3180; 5-10 %0). It can be explained by the dominant ore-depositing mechanisms as CO2 boiling and sulfidation, suggestive of hypo/mesothermal environments. In contrast, mineralization of the Cretaceous Au-Ag type (108-71 Ma) and Agdominant type (98-71 Ma) occurred at relatively low temperature (about 200 to 350$^{\circ}$C) and shallow-crustal level «1.0 kb) from the ore-fonning fluids containing more amounts of less-evolved meteoric waters (15180; -10-5%0). These characteristics of the Cretaceous precious-metal deposits can be attributed to the complexities in the ore-precipitating mechanisms (mixing, boiling, cooling), suggestive of epilmesothermal environments. Therefore, the differences of the emplacement depth between the Daebo and the Bulgugsa igneous activities directly influence the unique temporal and spatial association of the deposit type.

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