• Title, Summary, Keyword: 현상학적 연구

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Nutritional Effects of Paper Board Sludge on the Soybean(Glycine max. L.) (대두(大豆)에 대(對)한 제지(製紙) Sludge의 영양학적(營養學的) 연구(昭究))

  • Kim, Moon Kyu;Chang, Ki Woon;Choi, Woo Young;Ham, Suon Kyu;Nam, Yun Kyu;Lee, Chang Jun
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1990
  • The paper board sludge(PBS) itself and compost sludge manure(CSM) mixed with sawdust, fowl droppings and urea to the PBS were treated to soybean plants to find the effects of growing characters, yield components, and nutritional compounds in the plant tissues. 1. Percentages of missing plants were 5-9% and 3.6-4.1% in the treatments of PBS and CSM, respectively. After that, the plants were restored to normal conditions. Anyway it is not desirable to use the paper board sludge and immature compost sludge manure in seeding time or to young seedlings. 2. Growth of the plant height was retarded in early growing phase, but it was normal in later stages. And the width and length of the largest leaf, numbers of main stem nodes and pods were not significant among the treatments. 3. The yield intends to increase through the treatments of 1,200, 1,600, and 2,000Kg PBS per 10a. In the CSM treatments with high rate of sawdust, fowl droppings and urea, the numbers of pods and grains were higher than the treatment of high content of PBS. 100-grain and one liter weights were opposite intention. It was suggested that the excess nitrogen amounts from the compost sludge manure than conventional fertilization affected to the yield components. 4. The contents of the main chemical compounds such as N, $P_2O_5$, $K_2O$, Ca, Mg were determined. The concentrations of nitrogen were higher in the treatment of PBS and CSM than none and control. 5. In conclusion, the nutritional effects of PBS were in evidence. To use the sludges, it should be fermented with adequate additives to improve the aeration, C/N ratio, activity of microbial, and other conditions. The sludges could be used to crops as a fertilizers effectively.

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Anatomical Studies on Root Formation in Hypocotyl and Epicotyl Cuttings of Woody Plants (임목(林木)의 배축(胚軸) 및 유경삽수발근(幼茎揷穗発根)의 해부학적(解剖学的) 연구(研究))

  • Choi, Man Bong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.1-30
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    • 1981
  • The origin and development of adventitious roots was studied using hypocotyl and epicotyl cuttings of 34 species, 24 genus of woody plants. These cuttings obtained from young seedlings cultured in vials containing distilled water only. The several characteristics of cuttings materials studied are shown in Table 1. The results are summerized as follows: 1. The circumference shapes of cross-sections of hypocotyl and epicotyl cuttings can be divided into six categories, namely, round, irregular round, ellipse, irregular ellipse, square, and triangle. Species differences within a genus did not show any difference of hypocotyl and epicotyl cross-sections shape, however, a noticeable variation among genus or higher taxa. 2. The arrangements of vascular bundles in the cross-sections of hypocotyls or epicotyls were almost all collateral types and generally showed generic characteristics differing one to the other. However, there were some variations between species within the genus. Six models of vascular bundle arrangement were proposed for all the above speices. 3. The rooting portions of hypocotyl and epicotyl cuttings in this experimental materials can be grouped as follows: (1) Interfascicular parenchyma; (Thuja orientalis. T. orientalis for. sieboldii, Acer microsieboldianum, A. palmatum, A. saccharinum, Cercis chinensis, Lespedeza bicolor, Magnolia obovata, M. sieboldii, Mallotus japonicus, Staphylea bumalda) (2) Cambial and phloem parenchyma: (Chamaecyparis obtusa, C. pisifera, Albizzia julibrissin, Buxus microphylla var. Koreana, Cereis chinensis, Euonymus japonica, Firmiana platanifolia, Lagerstroemia indica, Ligustrum salicinum, L. obtusifolium, Magnolia kobus, M. obovata, Mallotus japonicus, Morus alba, Poncirus trifoliata, Quercus myrsinaefolia, Rosa polyantha, Styrax japonica, Styrax obassia) (3) Primary ray tissues; (Euonymus japonica, Styrax japonica) (4) Leaf traces; (Quercus acutissima, Q. aliena) (5) Cortex parenchyma; (Ailanthus altissima) (6) Callus tissues; (Castanea crenata, Quercus aliena, Q. myrsinaefolia, Q. serrata) 4. As a general tendency throughout the species studied, in hypocotyl cuttings, the adventitious root primordia were originated from the interfascicular parenchyma tissue, however, leaf traces and callus tissues were contributed to the root primordia formation in epicotyl cuttings. The hypocotyl cuttings of Ailanthus altissima exhibited a special performance in the root primordia formation, this means that cortex parenchyma was participated to the origin tissue. And in Firmiana platanifolia, differening from the other most species, the root primordia were formed at the phloem parenchyma adjacent outwardly to xylem tissue of vascular bundle system as shown photo. 48. 5. All the easy-to, or difficult-to root species developed adventitious roots in vials filled with distilled water. In the difficult-to-root species, however, root formations seemed to be delayed because they almost all had selerenchyma or phloem fiber which gave some mechanical hindrance to protrusion of root primordia. On the other hand, in the easy-to-root species they seemed to form them more easily because they did not have the said tissues. The rooting portions between easy-to-root and difficult-to-root species have not clearly been distinguished, and they have multitudinous variations. 6. The species structured with the more vascular bundles in number compared with the less vascular bundles exhibited delayed rooting. In the cuttings preparation, the proximal end of cuttings was closer to root-to-stem transition region, the adventitious root formation showed easier. 7. A different case occured however with the mature stem cuttings, in both the needle-leaved and the broad-leaved species. In the hypocotyl cuttings, parenchymatous tissues sited near the vascular bundles become the most frequent root forming portions in general and relevant distinctions between both species were hardly recognizable. 8. In the epicotyl cuttings, root primordia originated mainly in leaf traces in connection with cambial and phloems or callus tissues itself. In the hypocotyl cuttings, interfascicular parenchyma was the most frequent portion of the root primordia formation. The portions of root primordia had more connection with vascular cambium system, as the tissues were continuing to be developed.

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Analysis of p53 and Retinoblasoma(Rb) Gene Polymorphisms in Relation to Lung Cancer in Koreans (한국인 폐암 환자에 대한 p53 및 Rb유전자의 다형성 분석)

  • Lee, Kyung-Sang;Sohn, Jang-Won;Yang, Suck-Chul;Yoon, Ho-Joo;Shin, Dong-Ho;Park, Sung-Soo;Lee, Jung-Hee;Lee, Chun-Geun;Cho, Youl-Hee
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.534-546
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    • 1997
  • Background : The p53 and retinoblastoma(Rb) tumor suppressor genes are associated with the pathogenesis of several types of human cancer. Substantial proportion of the primary lung cancers or cell lines have been reported to have the p53 and/or the Rb gene mutations. But, so far there is no report on the analysis of the Rb gene polymorphism as one of the genetic susceptibility marker. This study was undertaken to establish the gene frequencies of the polymorphic genotypes of the p53 and Rb genes in Koreans to evaluate the possible involvement of these genotypes as a risk factor of lung cancer. Methods : In this study 145 controls without previous and present tumor history and 128 lung cancer patients were subjected to analysis. The two intragenic polymorphisms of the p53 gene(exon 4/ AccII, intron 6/MspI) and one intron 17/XbaI polymorphism of the Rb gene were analysed by the method of polymersae chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphisms(PCR-RFLPs). The genotype of the intron 3/16 bp repeat polymorphism of p53 was determined by PCR and direct gel electrophoresis. Results : There were no significant differences in the genotype distributions of the p53 gene between lung cancer patients and controls. But heterozygotes(Arg/Pro) of the exon 4/AccII polymorphisms were slightly over-represented than controls, especially in the Kreyberg type I cancer, which was known to be associated with smoking. The intron 3/16 bp duplication and the intron 6/MspI polymorphisms were in complete linkage disequilibrium. About 95% of the individuals were homozygotes of the common alleles both in the 16 duplication and MspI polymorphisms, and no differences were deteced in the genotype distributions between lung cancer patients and controls. Overall genotype distributions of the Rb gene polymorphisms between lung cancer patients and controls were not significantly different However, the genotype distributions in the Kreyberg type I cancer were significantly different from those of controls(p = 0.0297) or adenocarcinomas(p = 0.0008). It was noticeable that 73.4% of the patients with adenocarcinomas were heterozygotes(r1/r2) whereas 39.2% of the Kreyberg type I cancer were heterozygous at this polymorphisms. In the lung cancer patients, significant differences were also noted between the high dose smokers and low dose smokers including non-smokers(p = 0.0258). The relative risk to Kreyberg type I cancer was significantly reduced in the individuals with the genotype of r1/r2(odds ratio = 0.46, 95% C.I. = 0.25-0.86, p = 0.0124). The combined genotype distribution of the exon 4 AccII of the p53 and the intron 17 Rb gene polymorphisms in Kreyberg type I cancers were significantly different from dose of controls or adenocarcinomas. The highest odds ratio were observed in the individuals with the genotypes of Arg/Pro and r2/r2(odds ratio = 1.97,95% C.I. = 0.84-4.59) and lowest one was in the patients with Arg/Arg, r1/r2 genotype(odds ratio = 0.54, 95% C.I. = 0.25-1.14). Conclusion : The p53 and the Rb gene polymorphisms modulate the risk of smoking induced lung cancer development in Koeans. However, the exact mechanism of risk modulation by these polymorphism remains to be determined. For more discrete clarification of associations between specific genotypes and lung cancer risk, the evaluations of these polymorphisms in other ethnics and more number of patients will be needed.

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Studies on the Effects of Various Methods of Rotation Irrigation System Affecting on The Growth, Yield of Rice Plants and Its Optimum Facilities (수환관개방법의 차이가 수도생육 및 수량에 미치는 영향과 그 적정시설에 관한 연구)

  • 이창구
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.1937-1947
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    • 1970
  • This experiment was conducted, making use of the 'NONG-RIM No, 6' a recommended variety of rice plant for the year of 1969. Main purpose of the experiment are to explore possibilities of; a) ways and means of saving irrigation water and, b) overcoming drought at the same time so that an increaded yield in rice production could be resulted in Specifically, it was tried to determine the effects of the Rotation Irrigation method combined with differentiated thickess of Lining upon the growth and Yield of rice production. Some of the major finding are summarized in the follows. 1) The Different thicknesses show a significant relationship with the weight of 1000 grains. In the case of 3cm Lined plot, the grain weight is 39.0 Grams, the heaviest. Next in order is 6 cm lined plnt, 5 day control plot, 6 day control plot. 2) In rice yield, it is found that there is a considerably moderate signicant relationship with both the different thickness of lining and the number of irrgation, as shown in the table No,7. 3) There is little or no difference among different plot in terms of; a) physical and chemical properties of soil, b) quality of irrgation water, c) climatic condition, and rainfalls. 4) It is found that there is no significant relationship between differences in the method of rotation irrgation and the number of ears per hill because of too much rainydays and low temperature during irrigation season. 5) In uyny1-treated plots, it is shown that there is on difference among different plots, but the irrigation water requirement saved as much as 1/2 to actual irrigation water compare to uncontroled plot. 6) The irrigation water requirement for 48 days is saved as much 67% compared to uncontroled plot, the order are; the 9cm lined plot, the plot of vinyl with no hole, the plot with a hole of $1cm/m^2$ as shows in fig 15. 7) The rate of percolation of 40-30mm/day is decreased to 30-20/day. It is found that the decreasad rate of percolation due to vinyl-cutoff in footpath. 8) The growing condition was fine, and there was no found that decease and lageing as always submerged plot. 9) It is found that it must be constructed irrigation and drainage system, inlet and outlet perpect, respectly, of which could be irrigation water saved and would be inereased the irrigation water temperature.

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The Evaluation of Attenuation Difference and SUV According to Arm Position in Whole Body PET/CT (전신 PET/CT 검사에서 팔의 위치에 따른 감약 정도와 SUV 변화 평가)

  • Kwak, In-Suk;Lee, Hyuk;Choi, Sung-Wook;Suk, Jae-Dong
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.21-25
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: For better PET imaging with accuracy the transmission scanning is inevitably required for attenuation correction. The attenuation is affected by condition of acquisition and patient position, consequently quantitative accuracy may be decreased in emission scan imaging. In this paper, the present study aims at providing the measurement for attenuation varying with the positions of the patient's arm in whole body PET/CT, further performing the comparative analysis over its SUV changes. Materials and Methods: NEMA 1994 PET phantom was filled with $^{18}F$-FDG and the concentration ratio of insert cylinder and background water fit to 4:1. Phantom images were acquired through emission scanning for 4min after conducting transmission scanning by using CT. In an attempt to acquire image at the state that the arm of the patient was positioned at the lower of ahead, image was acquired in away that two pieces of Teflon inserts were used additionally by fixing phantoms at both sides of phantom. The acquired imaged at a were reconstructed by applying the iterative reconstruction method (iteration: 2, subset: 28) as well as attenuation correction using the CT, and then VOI was drawn on each image plane so as to measure CT number and SUV and comparatively analyze axial uniformity (A.U=Standard deviation/Average SUV) of PET images. Results: It was found from the above phantom test that, when comparing two cases of whether Teflon insert was fixed or removed, the CT number of cylinder increased from -5.76 HU to 0 HU, while SUV decreased from 24.64 to 24.29 and A.U from 0.064 to 0.052. And the CT number of background water was identified to increase from -6.14 HU to -0.43 HU, whereas SUV decreased from 6.3 to 5.6 and A.U also decreased from 0.12 to 0.10. In addition, as for the patient image, CT number was verified to increase from 53.09 HU to 58.31 HU and SUV decreased from 24.96 to 21.81 when the patient's arm was positioned over the head rather than when it was lowered. Conclusion: When arms up protocol was applied, the SUV of phantom and patient image was decreased by 1.4% and 9.2% respectively. With the present study it was concluded that in case of PET/CT scanning against the whole body of a patient the position of patient's arm was not so much significant. Especially, the scanning under the condition that the arm is raised over to the head gives rise to more probability that the patient is likely to move due to long scanning time that causes the increase of uptake of $^{18}F$-FDG of brown fat at the shoulder part together with increased pain imposing to the shoulder and discomfort to a patient. As regarding consideration all of such factors, it could be rationally drawn that PET/CT scanning could be made with the arm of the subject lowered.

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Effects of Anti-thyroglobulin Antibody on the Measurement of Thyroglobulin : Differences Between Immunoradiometric Assay Kits Available (면역방사계수법을 이용한 Thyroglobulin 측정시 항 Thyroglobulin 항체의 존재가 미치는 영향: Thyroglobulin 측정 키트에 따른 차이)

  • Ahn, Byeong-Cheol;Seo, Ji-Hyeong;Bae, Jin-Ho;Jeong, Shin-Young;Yoo, Jeong-Soo;Jung, Jin-Hyang;Park, Ho-Yong;Kim, Jung-Guk;Ha, Sung-Woo;Sohn, Jin-Ho;Lee, In-Kyu;Lee, Jae-Tae;Kim, Bo-Wan
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.252-256
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a valuable and sensitive tool as a marker for diagnosis and follow-up for several thyroid disorders, especially, in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Often, clinical decisions rely entirely on the serum Tg concentration. But the Tg assay is one of the most challenging laboratory measurements to perform accurately owing to antithyroglobulin antibody (Anti-Tg). In this study, we have compared the degree of Anti-Tg effects on the measurement of Tg between availale Tg measuring kits. Materials and Methods: Measurement of Tg levels for standard Tg solution was performed with two different kits commercially available (A/B kits) using immunoradiometric assay technique either with absence or presence of three different concentrations of Anti-Tg. Measurement of Tg for patient's serum was also performed with the same kits. Patient's serum samples were prepared with mixtures of a serum containing high Tg levels and a serum containg high Anti-Tg concentrations. Results: In the measurements of standard Tg solution, presence of Anti-Tg resulted in falsely lower Tg level by both A and B kits. Degree of Tg underestimation by h kit was more prominent than B kit. The degree of underestimation by B kit was trivial therefore clinically insignificant, but statistically significant. Addition of Anti-Tg to patient serum resulted in falsely lower Tg levels with only A kit. Conclusion: Tg level could be underestimated in the presence of anti-Tg. Anti-Tg effect on Tg measurement was variable according to assay kit used. Therefore, accuracy test must be performed for individual Tg-assay kit.

A study on the Greeting's Types of Ganchal in Joseon Dynasty (간찰(簡札)의 안부인사(安否人事)에 대한 유형(類型) 연구(硏究))

  • Jeon, Byeong-yong
    • (The)Study of the Eastern Classic
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    • no.57
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    • pp.467-505
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    • 2014
  • I am working on a series of Korean linguistic studies targeting Ganchal(old typed letters in Korea) for many years and this study is for the typology of the [Safety Expression] as the part. For this purpose, [Safety Expression] were divided into a formal types and semantic types, targeting the Chinese Ganchal and Hangul Ganchal of modern Korean Language time(16th century-19th century). Formal types can be divided based on whether Normal position or not, whether Omission or not, whether the Sending letter or not, whether the relationship of the high and the low or not. Normal position form and completion were made the first type which reveal well the typicality of the [Safety Expression]. Original position while [Own Safety] omitted as the second type, while Original position while [Opposite Safety] omitted as the third type, Original position while [Safety Expression] omitted as the fourth type. Inversion type were made as the fifth type which is the most severe solecism in [Safety Expression]. The first type is refers to Original position type that [Opposite Safety] precede the [Own Safety] and the completion type that is full of semantic element. This type can be referred to most typical and normative in that it equipped all components of [Safety Expression]. A second type is that [Safety Expression] is composed of only the [Opposite Safety]. This type is inferior to the first type in terms of set pattern, it is never outdone when it comes to the appearance frequency. Because asking [Opposite Safety] faithfully, omitting [Own Safety] dose not greatly deviate politeness and easy to write Ganchal, it is utilized. The third type is the Original position type showing the configuration of the [Opposite Safety]+Own Safety], but [Opposite Safety] is omitted. The fourth type is a Original position type showing configuration of the [Opposite Safety+Own Safety], but [Safety Expression] is omitted. This type is divided into A ; [Safety Expression] is entirely omitted and B ; such as 'saving trouble', the conventional expression, replace [Safety Expression]. The fifth type is inversion type that shown to structure of the [Own Safety+Opposite Safety], unlike the Original position type. This type is the most severe solecism type and real example is very rare. It is because let leading [Own Safety] and ask later [Opposite Safety] for face save is offend against common decency. In addition, it can be divided into the direct type that [Opposite Safety] and [Own Safety] is directly connected and indirect type that separate into the [story]. The semantic types of [Safety Expression] can be classified based on whether Sending letter or not, fast or slow, whether intimate or not, and isolation or not. For Sending letter, [Safety Expression] consists [Opposite Safety(Climate+Inquiry after health+Mental state)+Own safety(status+Inquiry after health+Mental state)]. At [Opposite safety], [Climate] could be subdivided as [Season] information and [Climate(weather)] information. Also, [Mental state] is divided as receiver's [Family Safety Mental state] and [Individual Safety Mental state]. In [Own Safety], [Status] is divided as receiver's traditional situation; [Recent condition] and receiver's ongoing situation; [Present condition]. [Inquiry after health] is also subdivided as receiver's [Family Safety] and [Individual Safety], [Safety] is as [Family Safety] and [Individual Safety]. Likewise, [Inquiry after health] or [Safety] is usually used as pairs, in dimension of [Family] and [Individual]. This phenomenon seems to have occurred from a big family system, which is defined as taking care of one's parents or grand parents. As for the Written Reply, [Safety Expression] consists [Opposite Safety (Reception+Inquiry after health+Mental state)+Own safety(status+Inquiry after health+Mental state)], and only in [Opposite safety], a difference in semantic structure happens with Sending letter. In [Opposite Safety], [Reception] is divided as [Letter] which is Ganchal that is directly received and [Message], which is news that is received indirectly from people. [Safety] is as [Family Safety] and [Individual Safety], [Mental state] also as [Family Safety Mental state] and [Individual Safety Mental state].

A study on the case of education to train an archivist - Focus on archival training courses and the tradition of archival science in Italiy - (기록관리전문가의 양성교육에 관한 사례연구 -이탈리아의 기록관리학 전통과 교육과정을 중심으로-)

  • Kim, Jung-Ha
    • Journal of Korean Society of Archives and Records Management
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.201-230
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    • 2001
  • Conserving the recored cultural inheritance is actually the duty of all of us. Above all, the management and conservation of archives and documents is up to archivists who have technical knowledge about archival science. Archivists have to not only conserve archives and documents but also carry out classifying and appraising them in order to define them as current historic ones. The fundamental education about archival science is made up of history and law. Because Archive is the organisation which manage archives and documents produced by legal and administrative actions. Although there are still arguments about technical knowledge and degree archivists have to acquire, most of them prefer the studies related with history and emphasize legal studies to be the general boundary of archivits' ideology and trust. The training course about conservation of archives is conducted in about 9 National Archives of Torino, Milano, Venezia, Genova, Bologna, Parma, Roma, Napoli, Palermo. The training course in 19th was mostly based on the lectures of Phaleography, Diplomatics. There were not the education about archival science yet. Toward the end of 19th and 20th, people stressed the most basic subject in the training course of National Archive was not Phaleography and Diplomatics but archival science. The goal of archival science is to study the institution and organisation transferring archives and documents to Archive. And also it help archivists not wander about with ignorance of organisational and original procedures and divisions but know exactly theirs works. Like this, the studies on institution and organisation have got in the saddle as a branch of archival science since a few ten years. While archival science didn't evoke sympathy among people and experienced the tedious and difficult path in italy and other countries, Archive was managed by experts of other branches. As a result, there were a lot of faults in Archival Science. Specializing training course for Italian archivists came into being under the backdrop of Social Science Institute of Roma National University in 1925. The archival course of universities accomplished by the studies of history, law and economy. And such as Eugenio Casanova and Giorgio Cencetti were devoted archival science was abled to settle down in national archive. The training course for experts of 'archival science, 'Phaleography and Diplomatics' in National Archive of Bologna(Archivio di Stato di Bologna) is one of courses conducted in 17 National Archives in italy. This course is gratuitous and made up of 8 subjects(Archivistica, Paleografia, Diplomatica, Storia dell' Archivio, Notariato e documenti privati, istituzione medievale, istituzione moderna, istituzione contemporanea) students have to complete for two years. Students can receive the degree through passing twice written exam and once oral test. After department of Culture and education finally puts the marks of students, the chief Nationa Archive of Bologna confer the degree of 'archival science Phaleography and Diplomatics' on students passing the exams. This degree authenticates trainees' qualification which enables him to work at the archive in province, district and administrative capital city and archive of comunity and so on. Italian training course naturally leads archivists to keep in contact with valuable cultural inheritance through training in Archive. And it shows the intention to strengthen the affinity with each documents in the spot of archival management before training archivists. Also this is appraised as one of positive policies to conserve the local cultual inheritante in connection with the original qualitity of national archive with testify the history of each region. Traning course for archivist in Italy shows us the way how we have to prepare and proceed it. First, from producing documents to conserving than forever there has introduced 'original order that is to say a general rule to respect the first order given at the time producing documents'. Management of administrative documents is related consistently with one of historical documents. Second, the traning course for archivist is managing around 17 national archives. because italian national archive lay stress not or rducation of theory bus on train for archivest working in the first time of archival science. Third, diplomatics and phaleography for studies about historical document support archives. Forth, the studies on history id proceeding by cooperation between archivist and historian around archive. How our duties is non continuinf disputer who has to conserve and manage document and archives, but traing experts who having ability, vision and flexible thought, responsibility about archivals.

Matrix Metalloproteinase in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (특발성 폐섬유화증환자의 기관지폐포세척액 및 폐포대식세포 배양액의 Matrix metalloproteinase의 변화)

  • Park, Joo-Hun;Shim, Tae-Sun;Lim, Chae-Man;Koh, Youn-Suck;Lee, Sang-Do;Kim, Woo-Sung;Kim, Won-Dong;Kim, Dong-Soon
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.303-314
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    • 2001
  • Background : Matrix metalioproteinase(MMP)-2 and MMP-9 have been known to play an important role in cell migration and the tissue remodeling process by type IV collagen lysis, a major component of the basement membrane. Intra-alveolar fibrosis, secondary to an injury to the basement membrane of the alveolar epithelial lining, is a major process in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis(IPF). Therefore, MMP-2 and MMP-9 was hypothesized to play an important role in IPF pathogenesis. As a result, their level may reflect the activity or prognosis. Method : Forty one progressive IPF patients(age $59.82{\pm}1.73$ years, M:F=23:18), 16 patients with stable IPF for more than one year without therapy(age : $63.6{\pm}2.8$ years, M:F=13:3), and 7 normal controls were enrolled in this study. The MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels in the BAL fluid and alveolar macrophage conditioned media(AM-CM) were measured by zymography and the TIMP-1 level was measured by ELISA. Results : 1) The MMP-2 level in BALF was highest in the progressive IPF group ($1.36{\pm}0.28$) followed by the stable group ($0.46{\pm}0.13$) and the controls ($0.08{\pm}0.09$), which was statistically significant. The MMP-9 level of the IPF ($0.31{\pm}0.058$) and the stable group ($0.22{\pm}0.078$) were higher than that of the control group ($0.002{\pm}0.004$). In the AM-CM, only MMP-9 was detected, which was significantly higher in IPF group ($0.80{\pm}0.1O$) than in the control group($0.23{\pm}0.081$). The TIMP-1 level was also higher in both the IPF ($36.34{\pm}8.62\;{\mu}g/ml$) and stable group ($20.83{\pm}8.53\;{\mu}g/ml$) compared to the control group ($2.80{\pm}1.05\;{\mu}g/ml$) (p<0.05). 3) There was a correlation between the MMP-2 level in the BALF with the total cell number(r=0.298) and neutrophils(r=0.357) (p<0.05), and the MMP-9 level with the number of neutrophils (r=0.407) and lymphocytes (r=0.574)(p<0.05). The TIMP-1 level correlated with the total number of cell (r=0.338, p<0.05) and neutrophils(r=0.449, p=0.059). Conclusion : Both MMP and TIMP appear to play an important role in IPF pathogenesis, and their level may reflect the disease activity.

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Studies on the Propagation of the Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense (De Haan) Reared in the Laboratory 2. Life History and Seedling Production (담수산 새우, Macrobrachium nipponense (De Haan)의 증${\cdot}$양식에 관한 생물학적 기초연구 2. 생활사 및 종묘생산에 관한 연구)

  • KWON Chin-Soo;LEE Bok-Kyu
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.29-67
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    • 1992
  • Life cycle and seed production of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, were studied and the results are as follows : 1. Larval development : Embryos hatched out as zoea larvae of 2.06 mm in mean body length. The larvae passed through 9 zoea stages in $15{\~}20$ days and then metamorphosed into postlarvae measuring 5.68 mm in mean body length. Each zoea stage can be identified based on the shapes of the first and second antennae, exo- and endopodites of the first and second pereiopods, telson and maxillae. 2. Environmental requirements of zoea larvae : Zoea larvae grew healthy when fed with Artemia nauplii. Metamorphosing rate was $65{\~}72{\%}$ at $26{\~}28\%$ and $7.85{\~}8.28\%_{\circ}Cl.$. The relationship between the zoeal period (Y in days) and water temperature (X in $^{\circ}C$) is expressed as Y=46.0900-0.9673X. Zoeas showed best survival in a water temperature range of $26{\~}32^{\circ}C$ (optimum temperature $28^{\circ}C$), at which the metamorphosing rate into postlarvae was $54{\~}72\%$ The zoeas survived more successfully in chlorinity range of $4.12{\~}14.08{\%_{\circ}}Cl.$, (optimum chlorinity $7.6{\~}11.6\;{\%_{\circ}}Cl.$.), at which the metamorphosing rate was $42{\~}76{\%}$. The whole zoeal stages tended to be longer in proportion as the chlorinity deviated from the optimum range and particularly toward high chlorinity. Zoeas at all stages could not tolerate in the freshwater. 3. Environmental requirements of postlarvae and juveniles : Postlarvae showed normal growth at water temperatures between $24{\~}32^{\circ}C$ (optimun temperature $26{\~}28^{\circ}$. The survival rate up to the juvenile stage was $41{\~}63{\%}$. Water temperatures below $24^{\circ}C$ and above $32^{\circ}$ resulted in lower growth, and postlarvae scarcely grew at below $17^{\circ}C$. Cannibalism tended to occur more frequently under optimum range of temperatures. The range of chlorinity for normal growth of postlarvae and juveniles was from 0.00 (freshwater) to $11.24{\%_{\circ}}Cl.$, at which the survival rate was $32{\~}35\%$. The postlarvae grew more successfully in low chlorinities, and the best growth was found at $0.00\~2.21{\%_{\circ}}Cl.$. The postlarvae and juveniles showed better growth in freshwater but did not survive in normal sea water. 4. Feeding effect of diet on zoea Ilarvae : Zoea larvae were successfully survived and metamorposed into postlarvae when fed commercial artificial plankton, rotifers, and Artemia nauplii in the aquaria. However, the zoea larvae that were fed Artemia nauplii and reared in Chlorella mixed green water showed better results. The rate of metamorphosis was $68\~{\%}75$. The larvae fed cow live powder, egg powder, and Chlorella alone did not survive. 5. Diets of postlarvae, juveniles and adults : Artemia nauplii and/or copepods were good food for postlarvae. Juveniles and adults were successfully fed fish or shellfish flesh, annelids, corn grain, pelleted feed along with viscera of domestic animals or fruits. 6. Growth of postlarvae, juveniles and adults : Under favorable conditions, postlarvae molted every five or six days and attained to the juvenile stage within two months and they reached 1.78 cm in body length and 0.17 g in body weight. The juveniles grew to 3.52 cm in body length and 1.07 g in body weight in about four months. Their sexes became determinable based on the appearance of male's rudimental processes (a secondary sex character) on the endopodites of second pereiopods of males. The males commonly reached sexual maturity in seven months after attaining the postlarvae stage and they grew to 5.65 cm in body length and 3.41 g in body weight. Whereas the females attained sexual maturity within six to seven months, when they measured 4.93 cm in body length and 2.43 g in body weight. Nine or ten months after hatching, the males grew $6.62{\~}7.14$ cm in body length and $6.68{\~}8.36$ g in body weight, while females became $5.58{\~}6.08$ cm and $4.04{\~}5.54$ g. 7. Stocking density : The maximum stocking density in aquaria for successful survival and growth was $60{\~}100$ individuals/$\ell$ for zoeas in 30-days rearing (survival rate to postlarvae, $73{\~}80{\%}$) ; $100{\~}300$ individuals/$m^2$ for postlarvae of 0.57 cm in body length (survival rate for 120 days, $78{\~}85{\%}$) ; $40{\~}60$ individuals/$m^2$ for juveniles of 2.72 cm in body length (survival rate for 120 days, $63{\~}90{\%}$) : $20{\~}40$ individuals/$m^2$ for young prawns of 5.2 cm in body length (survival rate for 120 days, $62\~90{\%}$) ; and $10\~30$ individuals/$m^2$ for adults of 6.1 cm in body length (survival rate for 60 days, $73\~100{\%}$). The stocking density of juveniles, youngs and adults could be increased up to twice by providing shelters.

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