• Title, Summary, Keyword: 현상학적 연구

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The Resting and Exercise Related Oxygen Desaturation as the Associated Factor for Sleep Related Oxygen Desaturation in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (만성 폐쇄성 폐질환 환자의 수면 중 산소포화도 감소에 대한 예측인자로서 안정시 및 운동시 산소포화도)

  • Shin, Chang-Jin;Lee, Kwan-Ho;Park, Hye-Jung;Shin, Kyeong-Cheol;Chung, Jin-Hong;Lee, Hyun-Woo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.231-238
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    • 1999
  • Background: Nocturnal hypoxemia occurs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) and the detection and treatment of nocturnal hypoxemia should be part of the management of COPD patients. We performed this study to evaluate the factors influencing to sleep related arterial oxygen desaturation($SaO_2$) in patients with COPD. Methods: Resting and exercise cardiopulmonary function test, polysomnography, and $SaO_2$ during resting, exercise and sleep were measured in 12 patients with COPD. Results: The $SaO_2$ fell twice as much during sleep as during maximal exercise($13.1{\pm}9.3%$ fall in nocturnal $SaO_2$ vs. $6.4{\pm}3.3%$, p<0.05). Fall in nocturnal $SaO_2$ was well correlated with mean exercise $SaO_2$(r=-0.78, p<0.05), minimum exercise $SaO_2$(r=-0.90, p<0.01), and resting $SaO_2$(Cr=-0.82, p<0.05). Lowest sleep $SaO_2$ was well correlated with mean exercise $SaO_2$(r=0.80, p<0.05), lowest exercise $SaO_2$(r=0.90, p<0.01), and resting $SaO_2$(r=0.84, p<0.05). Conclusion: Resting and exercise $SaO_2$ was well correlated with nocturnal $SaO_2$, but exercise study add no additional information to predicting the nocturnal oxygen desaturation in patients with COPD.

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Vertical Ozone Distribution over Seoul: Ozonesonde Measurements During June 6~9, 2003 (서울지역 연직 오존 분포: 2003년 6월 6~9일 오존존데 관측)

  • Hwang, Mi-Kyoung;Kim, Yoo-Keun;Oh, In-Bo;Song, Sang-Keun;Lim, Yun-Kyu
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.196-205
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    • 2008
  • Variability in vertical ozone and meteorological profiles was measured by 2Z electrochemical concentration cells (ECC) ozonesonde at Bangyi in Seoul ($37.52^{\circ}N$, $127.13^{\circ}E$) during June $6{\sim}9$, 2003 in odor to identify the vertical distribution of ozone and its relationship with the lower-atmospheric structure resulted in the high ozone concentrations near the surface. The eight profiles obtained in the early morning and the late afternoon during the study period clearly showed that the substantial change of ozone concentrations in lower atmosphere(${\sim}5\;km$), indicating that it is tightly coupled to the variation of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) structure as well as the background synoptic flow. All profiles observed early in the morning showed very low ozone concentrations near the surface with strong vertical gradients in the nocturnal stable boundary layer due to the photochemical ozone loss caused by surface NO titration under very weak vertical mixing. On the other hand, relatively uniform ozone profiles in the developed mixing layer and the ozone peaks in the upper PBL, were observed in the late afternoon. It was noted that a significant increase in ozone concentrations in the lower atmosphere occurred with the corresponding decrease of the mixing height in the late afternoon on June 8. Ozone in upper layer did not vertically vary much compared to that in PBL but changed significantly on June 6 that was closely associated with the variation of synoptic flows. Interestingly, heavily polluted ozone layers aloft (a maximum value of 115 ppb around 2 km) were formed early in the morning on 6 through 7 June under dominant westerly synoptic flows. This indicates the effects of the transport of pollutants on regional scale and consequently can give a rise to increase the surface ozone concentration by downward mixing processes enhanced in the afternoon.

The Effects of the High Pressure Boiled Extracts (HPBE) of the Ogol Chicken with Herbs on the Hormones, Cytokine, Specific Antibody of Serum in the Rat (오골계 증탕액 급여가 흰쥐의 혈중 호르몬, Cytokine 및 특이항체에 미치는 영향)

  • Chae Hyun-Seok;Ahn Chong-Nam;Yoo Young-Mo;Ham Jun-Sang;Lee Jong-Moon;Yoon Sang-Ki;Choi Yang-Il
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.283-292
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to investigate feeding effects of the high pressure boiled extracts (HPBE) of the Ogol chicken with herbs on glucose, hormones and immunological response (cytokine, specific antibody) of serum in the rat which fed either with normal feed (T$_1$), normal feed + herb HPBE (T$_2$), normal feed + Ogol chicken HPBE (T$_3$), normal feed + mixture of cross-bred Ogol chicken HPBE (T$_4$) hydrolyzed with Flavourzyme 0.1% for 35 days. During experimental period, there was a weak trend to have a higher glucose content for the T$_4$ group with 102.27${\pm}$5.95 mg/dL, but it was not significantly higher than other treatments. For insulin level, T$_1$ group showed numerically a slightly higher level with 6.79${\pm}$4.64 ${\mu}$IU/mL, but the difference was not significant in statistic term due likely to a large variation in comparison with other treatments. The treatments did not significantly alter testosterone level in rat plasma with 1.09, 1.46, 0.98, 1.13 ng/mL in T$_1$, T$_2$, T$_3$ and T$_4$, respectively. T$_4$ treatment increased the aldosterone level to a significantly (p<0.05) higher level (273.33 ng/dL) than other treatments. The extract treated rat showed a tendency in the cortisol level of lower levels than the control group, particularly, it was significantly (p<0.05) lower in T$_3$ group than other groups. T$_3$ and T$_4$ groups showed higher levels for interlukin-4 (IL-4) and anti-BSA IgG in immune cells and plasma. T$_2$, T$_3$ and T$_4$ treatments showed a slightly higher levels in v-interferon (INF-r) than the control, with a greater effect for T4 treatments. These results suggested that HPBE of the cross-bred Ogol chicken hydrolyzed with Flavourzyme increased immunological activity and decreased the concentration of cortisol and aldosterone hormones.

Changes in Properties of Jeung-pyun Prepared with the Addition of Milk (우유를 첨가하여 제조한 증편의 성질변화)

  • Jang, Jung-Sun;Park, Young-Sun
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.354-362
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    • 2007
  • This study focused on the efficiency of Jeung-Pyun by examining its physical and chemical characteristics based on dough made with milk additions of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 g, in order to complement Jeung-Pyun's insufficient protein with respect to sitology, and its fermentation process. Moisture contents were approximately 50%, and there were no significant differences between the samples. The protein, fat, and ash contents of the groups with added milk were more than those of the control group, and the greater the addition of milk the more the levels increased. Therefore, the 20 g addition showed the highest values. The pH of the Jeung-Pyun dough was near 4.09${\sim}$5.15 just after mixing, and as fermentation time increased, the pH decreased significantly in all the sample groups (p<.001). The pH of the Jeung-Pyun ranged from 4.12 to 4.40 and had a tendency to increase. The volume of the Jeung-Pyun dough increased as fermentation time increased, and the groups with added milk had larger volumes than the group with no milk added. Also, the greater the addition of milk the more the volume tended to show a significant increase (p<.001). At eight hours of fermentation time, the group with 10 g of added milk showed a 1.31-fold increase in volume compared to the control, and milk additions of 15 and 20 g resulted in decreased volume by a depression phenomenon. For the volume of the Jeung-Pyun, the addition of milk caused significant increases (p<.001) compared to the control, and the group with the 10 g addition of milk showed the highest volume. As the amount of added milk increased, the more the volume decreased as a whole. With regards to the swelling degree of the Jeung-Pyun the groups with added milk had greater swelling than the control, but there were no significant differences. The group that had 10 g of milk added showed the highest value.

Preliminary Environmental Impact Assessments on Fish Compositions and the Ecological Health of Jeokbyeok River on the Road Construction of Muju-Geumsan Region (무주-금산간 도로건설에 따른 적벽강의 어류 종 조성 분석 및 생태건강도 사전환경성평가)

  • Lee, Sang-Jae;Park, Hee-Sung;An, Kwang-Guk
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.27-43
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    • 2017
  • The objectives of the study were to evaluate fish compositions, endangered species, community structure, physical habitat, and general water quality for a preliminary environmental impact assessment of Jeokbyeok River on the road construction between two regions. Total number of species and total number of individuals, based on CPUE, were 23 and 1186, respectively. The endangered species (I, II) as the legal protection species were Pseudopungtungia nigra (79 samples) Gobiobotia brevibarba) (5) Gobiobotia macrocephala (2), indicating a requiring of endangered species conservation. In the meantime, exotic species and ecological disturbing species such as Micropterus salmoides and Lepomis macrochirus, were not present, indicating a well conserved area. According to fish community analysis, values of species diversity index were high (range: 0.788 - 1.030), and the dominance index were low (range: 0.097 - 0.183), indicating that the fish community in this area was maintained well without high dominacne by specific species. Also, fish analysis on tolerance guilds and trophic guilds showed that the proportions of sensitive species were largely exceeded the proportions of the tolerant species, while the proportions of insectivore species were largely exceeded the proportions of the omnivore species. This outcome suggests that the ecosystem was well maintained in terms of tolerance and trophic compositions (food chain). Ecological health, based on the multi-metric fish model of Fish Assessment Integrity (FAI), reflected those fish conditions. In other words, values of FAI model averaged 82.4, which means a "good condition" in the criteria of ecological health by the Minstry of Environment, Korea. In addition, general water quality and physical habitat analyses showed that the system was in good condition. Under these conditions, if the road constructions between the two regions happen in the future, inorganic suspended solids may increase in the waterbody, and this may result in indirect or direct influences on the physical habitats and food chain as well as fish compositions, so the ecological protections and prevention strategy from the soil erosion are required in the system.

Drug Resistance Rate of New Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients Treated from the Private Sector in 2003~2005 (2003~2005년도 민간 병의원 신환자에서 분리된 결핵균의 항결핵약제 내성률)

  • Park, Young Kil;Park, Yoon Sung;Bai, Jeong Ym;Kim, Hee Jin;Lew, Woo Jin;Chang, Chul Hun;Lee, Hee Kyung
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.64 no.2
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    • pp.87-94
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    • 2008
  • Background: Surveillance of TB drug resistance (DR) is essential for providing information on the magnitude and trends in resistance, for developing treatment guidelines and for monitoring the effect of interventions. Up to now national surveys of drug resistance of M. tuberculosis have been conducted four times since 1994 among patients registered at health centers. The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of primary drug resistance among new cases identified in private sector, and to compare it with the previous national drug resistance surveys. Methods: The study collected results of drug susceptibility testing (DST) performed at the Korean Institute of Tuberculosis by the request of private sector from January 2003 to December 2005, and then finally selected new cases for the analysis from the database of Korean TB Surveillance (KTBS) by matching patients' name and social identification numbers. Results: Of the 5,132 new patients included in the study, 689 (13.4%) patients were found to have drug resistance at least one drug, 530 patients (10.3%) were isoniazid resistant, 195 patients (3.8%) were multi-drug resistant (MDR), and 21 patients (0.4%) were extensively drug resistant (XDR). The rate of drug resistance tended to decrease annually but it was not statistically significant. When compared with previous national DR surveys in 2003 and in 2004 respectively, they were not significantly different. Conclusion: The prevalence of DR among new cases managed in the private sector did not show significant difference from that of new patients registered in the public sector in the same year.

Retrospective Inertia of Historic Spots and Spectacles of Baekje's Sabi Period, Represented in Buyeo's Palkyung (부여 팔경으로 본 백제 사비시대 장소와 경물의 회고(懷古) 관성(慣性))

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Lee, Kyu-Wan
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.14-28
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    • 2010
  • By philological geography method for dismantling and reconstituting Buyeo's Palkyung(扶餘 八景), which best signify the image of ancient city Buyeo's landscape, this research is to demonstrate the fact that the place's inertia of certain historic sites has been passed down as a type of geographic code. Titled poems and retrospective poems about Buyeo's Palkyung and its spectacles and landscapes reveal the fact that the splendid and glorious cultural heritage of Baekje had faded but its traces have remained in the each eight views including Nakhwa-am(落花巖), Goran-sa(皐蘭寺), and Jayong-dae(釣龍臺). In addtion, the spectacles and historic sites of Buyeo's Palkyung appear as the symbol of Baekje's fall and loss in the poems. Thus, it can be said that Buyeo's culture and civilization have never escaped from the cultural and historical scars of Baekhe's fall, being dominated by the place's inertia originated from the identity as "Baekje'slastcapital". It is ironical that Buyeo's future development and prosperity are not free from its cultural and historical spectacles which bear the image of the fall of Baekje. 'Older Buyeos' Palkyung(扶餘舊八景)' and, Prior Buyeo's Palkyung(夫餘前八景), originate from nine views of an unknown builder and after the construction of pavilions and towers, 'Subuk-jeong eight views(水北亭八景)' by Heungguk Kim(金興國) and the eight poems of the, Retrospect of Buyeo(扶餘懷古八景), were created. 'Buyeo's later Palkyung(扶餘後八景), which are especially free from the site's inertia are known to have expanded the scope of Buyeo's landscape by deliberately demonstrating spectacles and sites different from those of existing views. Nakhwa-am, Goran-sa, Joryong-dae, Songwal-dae(送月臺), Youngwal-dae(迎月臺), and Pyungje-tap(平濟塔) are all located within a one kilometer radius of Banwol-sung(半月城), Buyeo's palace and the Baekma river(白馬江), Daewang-po(大旺浦), Busan(浮山) in a two kilometers radius. Jaon-dae(自溫臺), Subuk-jeong(水北亭), and Gyuam-jin(窺岩津) are located within a three kilometers radius. Even Chunjeong-dae(天政臺), which are located within a four kilometers radius of Banwol-sung are located alongside the Baekma river. This indicates the fact that these spectacles had not been established temporarily or impromptu but for a long period time by historic retrospect and the inertia of landscape's geographic cycle. In conclusion, the geographic phenomenon of historical and cultural inertia appeared because Buyeo had the geographic message of "fallen, ancient city". Therefore, Buyeo's Palkyung which have constant retrospective inertia is clearly an geographic code effective and helpful to understand not only the characteristics of historic sites and spectacles of Buyeo in the Sabi period but also the quality of the site itself.

Isolation and Identification of a Photosensitizer from Pueraria thunbergiana Leaves that Induces Apoptosis in SK-HEP-1 Cells (P. thunbergiana 잎으로부터 SK-HEP-1세포에 대한 apoptosis를 유도하는 광과민성물질의 분리 및 구조동정)

  • Lee, Jun Young;Kim, Mi Kyeong;Ha, Jun Young;Kim, Yong Gyun;Hong, Chang Oh;Kim, So Young;Kim, Chung-Hwan;Kim, Keun Ki
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.242-251
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    • 2014
  • The objective of this study was to isolate a photosensitizer from Pueraria thunbergiana leaves that induces apoptosis in SK-HEP-1 cells. Column chromatography and thin layer chromatography were used to isolate active compounds from extracts of P. thunbergiana leaves. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR, and FAB-mass spectroscopy. A substance, named M4-3, was purified from the leaves of P. thunbergiana using various chromatography methods, and the absorbance of the substance was measured. The absorbance was highest at 410 nm, suggesting that the M4-3 substance was a different compound from chlorophyll a and b, which absorb at 410, 502, 533, and 607 nm. Further analyses revealed that the M4-3 compound was a $13^2$-hydoxy pheophorbide, a methyl ester with a molecular weight of 662. M4-3 was identified as a derivative compound of pheophorbide, with a structure that magnesium comes away from the porphyrin ring. The results of the analysis of the cytotoxicity of the M4-3 substance against the SK-HEP-1 cells revealed that it inhibited rates of cell growth by 40% and 80% at a concentration of 0.04 ${\mu}M$ and 0.08 ${\mu}M$, respectively. The M4-3 compound was found to be a photosensitizer for cytotoxicity because it was appeared only in light condition as examining activity in different irradiation conditions (light condition and nonlight condition) under the same concentration. Analysis of morphological changes in the cells following cell death induced by exposure to the M4-3 substance reveled representative phenomena of apoptosis (nuclear condensation, vesicle formation, and fragmentation of DNA). The induction of apoptosis was attributed to the compound's photodynamic activity.

Distribution characteristics of chemical oxygen demand and Escherichia coli based on pollutant sources at Gwangyang Bay of South Sea in Korea (남해 광양만에서 오염원에 따른 화학적 산소요구량과 대장균의 해역별 분포특성)

  • Baek, SeungHo
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.3279-3285
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    • 2014
  • This study aimed to understand seasonal and geographical characteristic of chlorophyll-${\alpha}$ (chl-${\alpha}$), COD (chemical oxygen demand) and Escherichia coli at Gwangyang Bay during the period from February 2010 to November 2012. The bay is divided into three different zones based on the pollutant levels and geographical characteristics. During the study periods, water temperature, salinity, Chl. ${\alpha}$, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) varied in the range of $4.68-28.63^{\circ}C$, 1.94-33.84 psu, 0.31-35.10 ${\mu}gL^{-1}$, and 0.70-13.35 $mgL^{-1}$, respectively. Total chl-a concentration were high at the zone I, which can be characterized as a semi-enclosed eutrophic area, and it were low at the zone III, which is influenced by low nutrients of surface warm water current from offshore of the bay. The high concentration of COD was observed at inner bay during the four seasons and the water quality level was kept to be bad condition during spring season at the zone II, which is influenced by Seomjin River water. The highest colony form of E. coli was recorded to be 3550 $cfuL^{-1}$ during summer at station 1 (zone I), whereas it was relatively kept low level during all seasons at the zone III. As a result, the E. coli was correlated with water temperature (r=0.31 p<0.05) and salinity (r=-0.55 p<0.05), implying that those parameters have play an important crucial role in proliferation of E. coli. Consequently, our results indicated that the E. coli can be significantly promoted within pollutant sources including the high nutrients supplied by rive discharge during spring and summer rainy seasons in semi-enclosed area of Gwangyang Bay.

Interpretation of C.C.L.Hirschfeld's Theory of Garden Art in Contemporary Meaning and Its Significance (히르시펠트(C.C.L.Hirschfeld) 정원예술론의 의미와 가치의 현대적 해석)

  • Zoh, Kyung-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.58-68
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    • 2014
  • Christian Cay Lorenz Hirschfeld is often regarded as 'a father of landscape garden art.' He was an aesthetics professor and garden theoretician in the $18^{th}$ century. He put forth the most comprehensive garden theory book in five volumes between 1779 and 1785. His book, Theorie der Gartenkunst, was translated and widely circulated in his contemporary. The book, which dealt with diverse aspects of garden art such as history, design, material, and type, urged to promote the prevalence of landscape garden in European continents as well as in Germany. However, there have scarcely been discourses in the Hirschfeld's garden theory. This essay aims to review Hirschfeld's garden thoughts in his book critically and to reinterpret some issues in the contemporary landscape theory and practice. Hirschfeldian theory was the product of $18^{th}$ century German Enlightenment and romanticism. At that time, Nature was regarded as divine realm. There was a German affinity with natural world. The spread of reading culture and the fashion of travel literature were another background of the success of his garden literature. Several issues in Hirschfeld garden theory will discussed here. First, privileging garden art was the most significant contribution in his theory. He emphasized that garden art was the most advanced art form among all art genres. Second, garden art was grounded on the mimesis of nature. The ambiguous relationship between nature and art still existed in garden making. However, garden art can be flourished when utilizing the potency of nature in itself. Third, there was the association between the image and the idea in experiencing the garden. Some garden scenes stimulated the related emotional responses such as cheerful and merry, softly melancholic, romantic, solemn etc. Fourth, the movement was the essential aspect of garden art. Motion and emotion are come together in garden experience. To represent the landscape garden style in suitable way, the sketch or image seems to be preferable than the plans and views. Finally, garden art was composing of not only the physical space but also the spirit of place. He maintained the garden art as hortus moralis should be a social metaphor. Hirschfeldian garden theory has often been criticized as the lack of practical power and the old fashioned idea. However, his theory influenced on formulating the idea of public park in $19^{th}$ century. Moreover, there are still some visionary aspects of his theory such as the reevaluation of garden art, the emphasis of locality and the introduction of Mittelweg idea. Recently, gardening culture are prevalent in various realms of art and life. Hirschfeld's garden theory as humanistic landscape theory can provide us some insights in the contemporary practices.