• Title, Summary, Keyword: 현상학적 연구

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Interpretation of C.C.L.Hirschfeld's Theory of Garden Art in Contemporary Meaning and Its Significance (히르시펠트(C.C.L.Hirschfeld) 정원예술론의 의미와 가치의 현대적 해석)

  • Zoh, Kyung-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.58-68
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    • 2014
  • Christian Cay Lorenz Hirschfeld is often regarded as 'a father of landscape garden art.' He was an aesthetics professor and garden theoretician in the $18^{th}$ century. He put forth the most comprehensive garden theory book in five volumes between 1779 and 1785. His book, Theorie der Gartenkunst, was translated and widely circulated in his contemporary. The book, which dealt with diverse aspects of garden art such as history, design, material, and type, urged to promote the prevalence of landscape garden in European continents as well as in Germany. However, there have scarcely been discourses in the Hirschfeld's garden theory. This essay aims to review Hirschfeld's garden thoughts in his book critically and to reinterpret some issues in the contemporary landscape theory and practice. Hirschfeldian theory was the product of $18^{th}$ century German Enlightenment and romanticism. At that time, Nature was regarded as divine realm. There was a German affinity with natural world. The spread of reading culture and the fashion of travel literature were another background of the success of his garden literature. Several issues in Hirschfeld garden theory will discussed here. First, privileging garden art was the most significant contribution in his theory. He emphasized that garden art was the most advanced art form among all art genres. Second, garden art was grounded on the mimesis of nature. The ambiguous relationship between nature and art still existed in garden making. However, garden art can be flourished when utilizing the potency of nature in itself. Third, there was the association between the image and the idea in experiencing the garden. Some garden scenes stimulated the related emotional responses such as cheerful and merry, softly melancholic, romantic, solemn etc. Fourth, the movement was the essential aspect of garden art. Motion and emotion are come together in garden experience. To represent the landscape garden style in suitable way, the sketch or image seems to be preferable than the plans and views. Finally, garden art was composing of not only the physical space but also the spirit of place. He maintained the garden art as hortus moralis should be a social metaphor. Hirschfeldian garden theory has often been criticized as the lack of practical power and the old fashioned idea. However, his theory influenced on formulating the idea of public park in $19^{th}$ century. Moreover, there are still some visionary aspects of his theory such as the reevaluation of garden art, the emphasis of locality and the introduction of Mittelweg idea. Recently, gardening culture are prevalent in various realms of art and life. Hirschfeld's garden theory as humanistic landscape theory can provide us some insights in the contemporary practices.

Effects of vitamin C on the formation of aflatoxin B1-DNA adduct in rat livers treated with radiation and aflatoxin B1 (Vitamin C가 방사선과 Aflatoxin B1을 처리한 흰쥐의 간세포에서 Aflatoxin B1-DNA Adduct 형성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Soyoung;Kim, Hansoo;Kang, Jin-Soon
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.747-756
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    • 2014
  • The objective of this study was to examine the effects of vitamin C on the formation of aflatoxin $B_1$ ($AFB_1$)-DNA adduct and $AFB_1$-induing cellular oxidative damage in rat livers treated with radiation and $AFB_1$. Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: the control group, the $AFB_1$-treated group, the group treated with $AFB_1$ and vitamin C, the group treated with X-ray and $AFB_1$, and the group treated with X-ray and $AFB_1$ with vitamin C. On the first day of the experiment, only one dose of X-rays was exposed to the entire liver at 1,500 cGy. Next, vitamin C was injected at 10 mg/kg body weight via intraperitoneal injection, followed an hour later by the administration of 0.4 mg/kg of $AFB_1$ via intraperitoneal injection. These treatments were administered every three days for 15 days. On the 16th day, the animals were sacrificed. The $AFB_1$ contents of the rat sera were determined via indirect competitive ELISA. In the quantitative analysis of $AFB_1$ in the rat sera via ELISA, $5.17{\pm}0.34ng/mL$ of $AFB_1$ was detected in the $AFB_1$-treated groups, but the amount decreased more significantly to $3.23{\pm}0.76ng/mL$ in the groups treated with $AFB_1$ and vitamin C (p<0.01) than in the $AFB_1$-treated groups. The effect of vitamin C on $AFB_1$-DNA adduct formation was determined via ELISA. The values of $AFB_1$-DNA adduct formation were $9.38{\pm}0.41ng/mL$ in the $AFB_1$-treated groups, but the amount decreased more significantly to $5.28{\pm}0.32ng/mL$ in the groups treated with $AFB_1$ and vitamin C (p<0.01) than in the $AFB_1$-treated groups. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the accumulation of the $AFB_1$ was not observed in the normal liver tissue (G1). The $AFB_1$-positive materials were observed in the central vein and the portal vein of the liver tissue from the $AFB_1$(G2) treatment or the X-ray and $AFB_1$(G4) co-treatment, but the $AFB_1$-positive materials were observed weakly in the group treated with vitamin C (G3 and G5). These results indicate that vitamin C had ameliorating effects on the $AFB_1$ accumulation of liver tissue.

Effect of Phenolic Mediators and Humic Acid on the Removal of 1-Indanone Using Manganese Oxide (망간산화물(Birnessite)을 이용한 1- Indanone 제거 시 페놀계 반응매개체와 휴믹산(HA) 영향 평가)

  • Choi, Chan-Kyu;Eom, Won-Suk;Shin, Hyun-Sang
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.34 no.7
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    • pp.445-453
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    • 2012
  • An investigation for removal of 1-indanone (1-ID), which were commonly produced from the biological and/or chemical treatment and natural weathering of the PAHs-contaminated soils, via oxidative transformation mediated by birnessite in the presence of various phenolic mediators is described. This study also examines the potential effect of the natural occurring substance humic acid (HA) on the oxidative transformation. The experiment was carried out in aqueous phase as a batch test (10 mg/L 1-ID, 0.3 mM phenolic mediators, $1.0g/L\;{\delta}-MnO_2$, at pH 5). All of the 11 tested phenoilic mediators belong to the group of natural occurring phenols and are widely used as model constituents of humic substances. From the results of HPLC analysis, it is demonstrated that 1-ID was not reactive to birnessite itself, but it can be effectively removed in birnessite-mediated cross coupling reactions in the presence of the phenolic mediators. The percent removals of 1-ID after 2 day incubation were ranged from 9.2 to 71.2% depending on the phenolic mediators applied. The initial rate constant ($K_{int}$, $hr^{-1}$) values for the 1-ID removals obtained from the pseudo-first-order kinetic plots also widely ranged from 0.18 to 15.0. Results of the correlative analysis between the removal efficiencies and structural characteristics of phenolic mediators indicate that the transformation of the 1-ID was considerably enhanced by the addition of electron-donating substituents (e.g., -OH, $-OCH_3$) at the benzne ring, and much less enhanced by the addition of electron-withdrawing substituents (e.g., -COOH, -CHO). The presence of HA showed that removal efficiencies of 1-ID in the birnessite-phenolic mediator systems decreased with increasing HA concentrations. However at low concentration of HA (< 2 mg/L), it caused some enhancement in the removals of 1-ID as compared to the control.

Change of Flora of Damaged Land in Juwangsan National Park for Five Years (2010~2014) (주왕산국립공원 내 훼손지의 5년간(2010~2014년) 식물상 변화)

  • You, Juhan;Kim, Mijin
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.233-247
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study is to offer the basic data for management of National Park by surveying and analysing the change of flora of damaged lands in Juwangsan National Park, Korea. In cause of occurring the damaged lands, site-1 was the vegetation damage by stamping, the removing Gwangamsa of site-2, 3, 4 and the removing Naewon village of site-5, 6, 7. Whole sites are caused by the artificial disturbance and interference. The numbers of flora were summarized as 135 taxa including 52 families, 109 genera, 116 species, 2 subspecies and 17 varieties in whole sites. The status of flora by sites, site-6 is the largest number of 52 taxa, site-1 is the lowest of 23 taxa. The rare plant is 1 taxa, 4 taxa of endemic plants, 10 taxa of specific plants by floristic region, 9 taxa of naturalized plants and 1 taxa of invasive alien plant. In the results of analysis about the change of coverage ratio, for this shrub layer, site-7 was changed to the most $0%{\rightarrow}50%$, and the herb layer, site-5 was changed to the most $75%{\rightarrow}95%$. In case of the change of species numbers, most sites tended to increase in the sites introduced different species or generated by the growth. It is contemplated that is similar to the restoration with the surrounding natural vegetation that is in progress is a transition occurs with the passage of time. In the dominant species, the shrub layer is Fraxinus sieboldiana, Lespedeza bicolor, Rhus javanica, Lespedezamaximowiczii, Salix koreensis and Zelkova serrata, and Miscanthus sinensis var. purpurascens, Oplismenus undulatifolius, Artemisia princeps, Bothriochloa ischaemum and Erigeron annuus of herb layer. In the results of analysing Naturalized Index(NI) and Urbanized Index(UI), NI was increased or decreased this phenomenon with the lapse of time, UI was the most increase. In particular, the increase in UI is due to the transition process, the pioneering plant, naturalized plant was imported to continue.

Floristic study and conservation management strategies of algific talus slopes on the Korean peninsula (한반도 풍혈지의 관속식물상과 보전관리 방안)

  • Kim, Jin-Seok;Chung, Jae-Min;Kim, Jung-Hyun;Lee, Woong;Lee, Byoung-Yoon;Pak, Jae-Hong
    • Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.213-246
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    • 2016
  • Algific talus slopes tend to occur on steep north-facing slopes with bedrock that retains ice and emits cold air throughout the growing season. Algific talus slopes provide a suitable microclimate for disjunct or relict populations of northern plant species at low altitude habitats in temperate zones. The purpose of this study is to suggest a strategy for the comprehensive conservation of the vegetation of algific talus slopes through studies of the floristics and plant species compositions and threat factors at present and in the future of 15 major algific talus slopes in Korea. As a result, the vascular plants surveyed on 15 major algific talus slopes were recorded, with a total of 587 taxa, 109 families, 323 genera, 531 species, 7 subspecies, 47 varieties 1 form and 1 hybrid. Of them, endemic plants numbered 26 taxa, and threatened species according to the IUCN valuation basis numbered 8 taxa. Fourth (IV) and fifth (V) degree indicator species as specified by floristic subregions numbered 31 taxa. Peculiarly, several subalpine-native plant species, in this case Cystopteris fragilis, Gymnocarpium dryopteris, Huperzia selago, Rosa koreana, Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Woodsia hancockii, were distributed on algific talus slopes at 100-600 m above sea level. Numerous and diverse biological resources native to algific talus slopes in Korea have been consistently disturbed or damaged by human activities without some form of protection. An all-taxa biodiversity inventory should be surveyed to provide more information about all biological species living on algific talus slopes. In addition, conservation strategies to ensure biodiversity and effective management of algific talus slopes are discussed in detail.

Effect of Soybean Curd Residue Fermented by Monascus pilosus on the High fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice (Monascus pilosus로 발효시킨 비지의 항비만 효과)

  • Lee, Sang-Il;Lee, Ye-Kyung;Kim, Soon-Dong;Lee, In-Ae;Choi, Jongkeun;Suh, Joo-Won
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.57 no.1
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    • pp.7-15
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    • 2014
  • This study investigated anti-obesity and antioxidant effects of dietary non-fermented soybean crud residue (SCR) and fermented SCR by Monascus pilosus (FSCR) in high-fat induced-obese mice. SCR and FSCR were supplemented with high-fat diet at 2% (wt/wt) dose for 8 weeks. Both SCR and FSCR significantly lowered body weight, epididymal fat weight and weight gain rate compared to high-fat diet control (HC) group and FSCR group showed lowest weight gain rate. In addition, it was observed that serum and hepatic lipid profiles including triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were significantly improved by supplementing SCR or FSCR. Furthermore, SCR and FSCR administration showed increase of glutathione content and decrease of hepatic lipid peroxide content, serum aminotransferase activity, and hepatic xanthine oxidase activity. On the other hand, activities of reactive oxygen species scavenging enzyme such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase in two test groups were higher than those of HC. Lastly, in comparison with SCR, FSCR was more effective in restoring obesity-related biomarkers to normal level in high-diet induced obese mice. In conclusion, the present study indicates that FSCR could have not only anti-obese effects such as inhibition of abdominal fat accumulation, but also protective effects of cardiovascular disease such as atherosclerosis by decreasing serum and hepatic lipid contents. Furthermore, these results suggest that experimental diets in this study could alleviate hepatic damage caused by overproduction of reactive oxygen spices (ROS) due to obesity via inhibition of ROS generating activities and induction of ROS scavenging activities.

Effect of treadmill exercise on autophagy related protein expression in the cardiac muscle of high-fat diet fed rats (트레드밀 운동이 고지방 식이 쥐 심근세포의 자가포식 관련 단백질 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeong, Jae-Hoon;Kang, Eun-Bum
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.91-101
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of obesity on the expression of autophagy-related proteins in cardiac muscle. To this end, obesity was induced in rats through 20 weeks of high-fat diet, and the animals were then subjected to 8 weeks of treadmill exercise. Subsequently, the expression of proteins that regulate the induction of autophagy, formation of autophagosome, and fusion of autophagosome and lysosome was confirmed. Obesity was induced in the experimental animals (SD rats) through 20 weeks of high-fat diet (carbohydrate: 20%, fat: 60%, and protein: 20%), and they were subsequently subjected to 8 weeks of treadmill exercise (5 days/week, 30 min/day, 5 minutes; 8m/min, 5 minutes; 11m/min, 20 minutes; 14m/min). The experimental groups comprised the normal diet control group (ND-CON, n=10), high-fat diet comparison group (HFD-CON, n=10), and high-fat exercise group (HFD-TE, n=10). Oral glucose tolerance test was conducted before and after 8 weeks of treadmill exercise, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Through fasting insulin and fasting glucose levels, HOMA-IR, which is an index of insulin resistance, and abdominal visceral fat/body weight (AVF/BW) were calculated for comparison. Moreover, autophagy-related proteins were analyzed from cardiac tissue to investigate the effects of exercise training. Obesity was successfully induced in the HFD-CON group through long-term high-fat diet, and the HFD-CON group had higher body weight, AUC, HOMA-IR, and AVF/BW compared to the ND-CON group. The HFD-TE group, which underwent 8 weeks of treadmill exercise, showed improvements in AUC, HOMA-IR, and AVF/BW. Although the body weight tended to decrease as well, there was no statistically significant difference. mTOR and AMPK, which are involved in the induction of autophagy, both decreased in obesity but increased upon exercise. Beclin-1, BNIP3, ATG-7, p62, and LC3, which are related to the formation of autophagosomes, all increased in obesity and decreased after exercise. Cathepsin L and LAMP2, which regulate the fusion of autophagosome and lysosome, both decreased in obesity and increased upon exercise. Physical activity, including treadmill exercise, was found to induce normal autophagy and improve pathological phenomena observed in metabolic diseases. Therefore, the findings suggest the need to consider treadmill exercise as a primary means to achieve effective prevention and treatment of cardiac diseases.

Taesil Seokham Styles of the Joseon Royal Family (조선왕실(朝鮮王室) 태실석함(胎室石函)의 현황(現況)과 양식변천(樣式變遷))

  • Shim, Hyun Yong
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.208-241
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to examine the chronology of Taesil Seokham(Taesil Stone Boxes) stored in Taesil of the Joseon Palace and classify the styles to discuss how these boxes have developed. By doing so, this study defined the archaeological styles of taesil seokhams in the chronological order. Although taesil seokhams are placed when taesil are first created, they do not have any texts engraved on them and it is difficult to gain information only from examining taesil seokham. However, Taejiseok(memorial stones buried in Taesil) and Agibi(gravestones buried in Taesil) were created along with taesil. These resources were examined and compared with literature records to find when each taesil seokhams was created. The critical elements to consider for the chronological arrangement were both the cover and container of the boxes and the transition of their style could be classified into four major stages. In detail, the Joseon Dynasty's taesil seokhams initially inherited the style of the Goryeo Dynasty to be formed into rectangular boxes. Through the transition of the mid and late 15th Century, the semi-circular cover with cylindrical container became the popular style in the late 15th Century. In the late 16th Century, the style of the previous period was further developed to add some decorative elements, such as projecting ornaments, but the ornaments were added for functional purposes rather than artistic purposes. However, the style went back to the semi-circular cover with cylindrical container in the early 17th Century. From the mid 17th Century, various styles appeared with ornaments only on the cover, cone-shaped cover with no ornament, or mortar-like container. However, a new style of cone-shaped cover with ornament emerged between the early and mid 18th Century and continued to stay until the mid 18th Century. In the mid 18th Century, the cover remained unchanged, but the container became a keyhole-shaped space with one side forming a "ㄷ" shape. However, in the late 18th Century, the most typical style of the semi-circular cover with cylindrical container reappeared to show that this is the most universal style. Last, in the mid 19th Century, the cover changed from semi-circular to rectangular with flat top. After this, the taesil seokhams began to disappear. In terms of style, it can be classified into four stages. In the early Joseon Dynasty, the taesil seokhams were underdeveloped and inherited the style of the Goryeo Dynasty (Stage I; 1401~mid-15C), but Joseon's unique style began to develop from the late 15th Century (Stage II; 1477~1641). After that, partial ornaments were added for adornment (Stage III; 1660~1754), but the typical style reappeared in the late 18th Century to finally degrade in the late Joseon Dynasty of the mid 19th Century (Stage IV; 1790~1874). This arrangement of style and chronology would greatly help archaeologists anticipate the time and owner of taesil seokhams even if only taesil seokhams are discovered without any records. * Tae(胎) : Placenta and umbilical cord * Taesil(胎室) : A facility(chamber) of burying Tae(胎) in rite when royal descendants are born.

THE EFFECTS OF THE PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR-BB ON THE PERIODONTAL TISSUE REGENERATION OF THE FURCATION INVOLVEMENT OF DOGS (혈소판유래성장인자-BB가 성견 치근이개부병변의 조직재생에 미치는 효과)

  • Cho, Moo-Hyun;Park, Kwang-Beom;Park, Joon-Bong
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.535-563
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    • 1993
  • New techniques for regenerating the destructed periodontal tissue have been studied for many years. Current acceptable methods of promoting periodontal regeneration alre basis of removal of diseased soft tissue, root treatment, guided tissue regeneration, graft materials, biological mediators. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is one of polypeptide growth factor. PDGF have been reported as a biological mediator which regulate activities of wound healing progress including cell proliferation, migration, and metabolism. The purposes of this study is to evaluate the possibility of using the PDGF as a regeneration promoting agent for furcation involvement defect. Eight adult mongrel dogs were used in this experiment. The dogs were anesthetized with Pentobarbital Sodium (25-30 mg/kg of body weight, Tokyo chemical Co., Japan) and conventional periodontal prophylaxis were performed with ultrasonic scaler. With intrasulcular and crestal incision, mucoperiosteal flap was elevated. Following decortication with 1/2 high speed round bur, degree III furcation defect was made on mandibular second(P2) and fourth(P4) premolar. For the basic treatment of root surface, fully saturated citric acid was applied on the exposed root surface for 3 minutes. On the right P4 20ug of human recombinant PDGF-BB dissolved in acetic acid was applied with polypropylene autopipette. On the left P2 and right P2 PDGF-BB was applied after insertion of ${\beta}-Tricalcium$ phosphate(TCP) and collagen (Collatape) respectively. Left mandibular P4 was used as control. Systemic antibiotics (Penicillin-G benzathine and penicillin-G procaine, 1 ml per 10-25 1bs body weight) were administrated intramuscular for 2 weeks after surgery. Irrigation with 0.1% Chlorhexidine Gluconate around operated sites was performed during the whole experimental period except one day immediate after surgery. Soft diets were fed through the whole experiment period. After 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed by perfusion technique. Tissue block was excised including the tooth and prepared for light microscope with H-E staining. At 2 weeks after surgery, therer were rapid osteogenesis phenomenon on the defected area of the PDGF only treated group and early trabeculation pattern was made with new osteoid tissue produced by activated osteoblast. Bone formation was almost completed to the fornix of furcation by 8 weeks after surgery. New cementum fromation was observed from 2 weeks after surgery, and the thickness was increased until 8 weeks with typical Sharpey’s fibers reembedded into new bone and cementum. In both PDGF-BB with TCP group and PDGF-BB with Collagen group, regeneration process including new bone and new cementum formation and the group especially in the early weeks. It might be thought that the migration of actively proliferating cells was prohibited by the graft materials. In conclusion, platelet-derived growth factor can promote rapid osteogenesis during early stage of periodontal tissue regeneration.

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The Mechanism of Interferon-$\gamma$ Induced Cytotoxicity on the Lung Cancer Cell Line, A549 (인터페론감마에 의한 A549 폐암세포주 세포독성의 기전)

  • Oh, Yeon-Mok;Yoo, Chul-Gyu;Chung, Hee-Soon;Kim, Young-Whan;Han, Sung-Koo;Shim, Young-Soo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.63-68
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    • 1996
  • Background: Interferon-$\gamma$ has various biologic effects, including antiviral effect, antitumor proliferative effect, activation of macrophage and B lymphocyte, and increased expression of major histocompatibility complex. Especially, antitumor proliferative effect of interferon-$\gamma$ has already been proved to be important in vivo as well as in vitro. And, clinical studies of interferon-$\gamma$ have been tried in lung cancer patients. However, the mechanism of antitumor effect of interferon-$\gamma$ has not yet been established despite of many hypotheses. "Necrosis" is a type of cell death which is well known to occur in the circumstances of severe stresses. In contrast, "apoptosis" is another type of cell death which occurs in such biological circumstances as embryonic development, regression of organs, and self-tolerance of lymphocytes. And, apoptosis is an active process of cell death in which cells are dying with fragmentations of their cytoplasms and nuclei. And, in the process of apoptosis the DNAs of cells are cleaved between nucleosomes by unidentified endonuclease and therefore DNAs of apoptotic cells result in a typical electrophoresis pattern known as DNA ladder pattern. Recently it has been suggested that cytotoxic effect of interferon-$\gamma$ occurs via apoptosis. To elucidate the mechanism of antitumor cytotoxic effect of interferon-$\gamma$, we microscopically observed a lung cancer cell line, A549 which was treated with interferon-$\gamma$. We observed A545 treated with interferon-$\gamma$ was dying fragmented. And so, we performed this study to find out that the mechanism of antitumor cytotoxic effect of interferon-$\gamma$ be apoptosis. Method: We treated A549, human lung cancer cell line with various concentration of interferon-$\gamma$ and quantified its cytotoxic effect of various periods, 24 hours, 72 hours and, 120 hours by MTT(dimethylthiazolyl diphenyltetrazolium bromide) bioassay. Also, after we treated A549 with 100 units/mi of interferon-$\gamma$ for 120 hours, we observed the pattern of cell death with inverted microscope and we extracted DNAs from the dead A549 cells and observed the pattern of 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis with ethidium bromide staining. Result: 1) Cytotoxic effect of interferon-$\gamma$ on A549: For the first 24 hours, threre was little cytotoxic effect and for between 24 hours and 72 hours, there was the beginning of cytotoxic effect and for 120 hours there was increased cytotoxic effect. 2) Pattern of A549 cell death by interferon-$\gamma$: We observed with inverted microscope that A549 cells were dying fragmented. 3) DNA ladder pattern of gel electrophoresis: We observed DNA ladder pattern of gel electrophoresis of extracted DNAs from dead A549 cells. Conclusion: We concluded that the mechanism of interferon-$\gamma$induced cytotoxicity on lung cancer cell line, A549 be via apoptosis.

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