• Title, Summary, Keyword: 현상학적 연구

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Regulatory Mechanism of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (비소세포성 폐암에서 인슐린 양 성장 인자 결합 단백질-3의 발현 조절 기전)

  • Chang, Yoon Soo;Lee, Ho-Young;Kim, Young Sam;Kim, Hyung Jung;Chang, Joon;Ahn, Chul Min;Kim, Sung Kyu;Kim, Se Kyu
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.56 no.5
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    • pp.465-484
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    • 2004
  • Background : Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) inhibits the proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells by inducing apoptosis. Methods : In this study, we investigated whether hypermethylation of IGFBP-3 promoter play an important role in the loss of IGFBP-3 expression in NSCLC. We also studied the mechanisms that mediate the silencing of IGFBP-3 expression in the cell lines which have hypermethylated IGFBP-3 promoter. Results : The IGFBP-3 promoter has hypermethylation in 7 of 15 (46.7%) NSCLC cell lines and 16 (69.7%) of 23, 7 (77.8%) of 9, 4 (80%) of 5, 4 (66.7 %) of 6, and 6 (100%) of 6 tumor specimens from patients with stage I, II, IIIA, IIIB, and IV NSCLC, respectively. The methylation status correlated with the level of protein and mRNA in NSCLC cell lines. Expression of IGFBP-3 was restored by the demethylating agent 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5'-aza-dC) in a subset of NSCLC cell lines. The Sp-1/ Sp-3 binding element in the IGFBP-3 promoter, important for promoter activity, was methylated in the NSCLC cell lines which have reduced IGFBP-3 expression and the methylation of this element suppressed the binding of the Sp-1 transcription factor. A ChIP assay showed that the methylation status of the IGFBP-3 promoter influenced the binding of Sp-1, methyl-CpG binding protein-2 (MeCP2), and histone deacetylase (HDAC) to Sp-1/Sp-3 binding element, which were reversed by by 5'-aza-dC. In vitro methylation of the IGFBP-3 promoter containing the Sp-1/Sp-3 binding element significantly reduced promoter activity, which was further suppressed by the overexpression of MeCP2. This reduction in activity was rescued by 5'-aza-dC. Conclusion : These findings indicate that hypermethylation of the IGFBP-3 promoter is one mechanism by which IGFBP-3 expression is silenced and MeCP2, with recruitment of HDAC, may play a role in silencing of IGFBP-3 expression. The frequency of this abnormality is also associated with advanced stages among the patients with NSCLC, suggesting that IGFBP-3 plays an important role in lung carcinogenesis/progression and that the promoter methylation status of IGFBP-3 may be a marker for early molecular detection and/or for monitoring chemoprevention efforts.

Studies on the Effects of Caponization and Various Hormone Treatment on the Meat Production and Quality in Growing Chicken (닭에 있어서 거세(去勢) 및 Hormone 처리(處理)가 산육성(産肉性) 및 육질(肉質)에 미치는 영향(影響)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Ra, Kwang Yon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.9-47
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    • 1975
  • These experiments were caried out to study the effects of caponization and various hormone treatments upon meat production and improvement of meat quality of growing chicken. Sixtyseven days old 160 New Hampshire cockerels were treated and growth rate, carcass yield, change of weight of individual organs, meat composition and change of amino acid were measured and analysed. Otherwise change of testis and thyroid gland by hormone treatment were investigated histologically. The results obtained were as follows. 1. The effectst of caponization and hormone treatment upon meat production were; 1) Body weight of cockerels in D. E. S. group without caponization was increased. upon 96.86% than initial period and A. C. T. H. group was 104.22% but other groups and all carponization groups were lighter than those of control group. 2) Weekly body gain of D. E. S. group without caponization was best showing the significance (102.69 g) and the group with caponization were lower than those groups without caponization. 3) Carcass yield was best in Testo. group without caponization (831.2 g) and the group with caponization were lower than the group without caponization. 4) Carcass rate was highest in A. C. T. H. group with caponization and (67.22%) lowest in Testo. group without caponization (63.37%), but any significance was not recognized. 2. The effects of caponizatitn and hormone treatments upon the coposition of meat and amino acids were; 1) Any significance was not recognized between treated and untreated group about change of moisture, crude protein, crude ash and glycogen contents in meat. 2) Fat co tent in muscle in the all treated groups were higher than that of control group. 3) Extracts of group without caponization were higher than those of groups with caponization. 4) Lysin contents were highest in D. E. S. group with caponization (11. 12/ 16.0 g N) and generelly Testo. group was lower compared with D. E. S. group. 5) Histidine and Arginine contents were higher in the groups with caponization than without caponization. 6) Aspartic acid content were higher in D. E. S. group and A. C. T. H. group without depend on caponization. 7) Treonine content was higher in Testo. group without caponization and in the group with caponization and without hormone treatment compared with those of control group without caponization. 8) Serine content was decreased in the group with caponization and increased by D. E. S. and A. C. T. H treatment groups and glutamic acid was also decreased in Testo. group with out caponization. 9) Cystine content was decreased by Testo. treatment and was not appeared in Testo. group without caponization. 10) Valine content was lower in control group with caponization but significance was not recognized between other groups and control group without caponization. 11) Glycine, Alanine, Methionine. Isoleucine, Leucine, Thyrosine and Phenylalanine contents were not so difference between hormone treated groups and control group without caponization. 3. The effects of caponization and hormone treatment upon the change of organs were: 1) The weight of all organs were heaviest in D. E. S. group without caponization (18.5g) and lightest in A. C. T. H. group without caponization (155. 3g) but no significance was recognized between hormone treatment groups. 2) Heart weight was heaviest in D. E. S. group without caponization (7.46 g) and lightest in Testo. group without caponization (5.95 g). 3) Liver weight was heaviest in D. E. S. group without caponization(32.89g) and lightest in hormone untreated group with caponization(29.66g). Significance was not recognized. 4) Spleen weight was heaivest in Testo. group with caponization (3.22 g) and lightest in D. E. S. group without caponization(2.00g) in contrast with the other groups. High significance was recognized among the groups (P<0.01). 5) Cloacal thymus weight was lightest in D. E. S. group with or without caponization compared with control group without caponization. High significance was recognized among the groups. 6) Muscle fat content was not appeared in A. C. T. H. group with caponization, but it was highly increased in D. E. S. group with or without caponization. 7) Testis weight was lightest in D. E. S. group (0.38g) compared with control group (2.66g). Significance was recognized among the groups. 8) Large intestine, small intestine and cecum weight and length were heavier and longer in D. E. S. group without caponization and control group without caponization was lighter than those of hormone treated groups. 4. The effects of caponization and hormone treatment upon histological change of testis and thyroid gland: 1) The histological change of testis was significantly appeared in D. E. S. group that seminifirous tubles was slowly atrophied, the funtion of spernatogenesis was ceased, spermatocyte was changed as degeneration by pyknosis and karyorrhexis and interstitial cell was also atrophied, but in Testo. and A. C. T. H. group were similar as control group. 2) The histological change of thyroid gland in Testo. and A. C. T. H. groups without caponization were similar to that of control group without caponization, but in D. E. S. group without caponization, was changed squamously. Thyroid gland of the groups with caponization, epithelium of was atrophied and changed squamously as degeneration by pyknosis and karyorrhexis and the function of thyroid gland was slowly ceased in colloid and in hormone treated group with caponization.

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'Yongyudam of Hamyang', the Significance and Value as a Traditional Scenic Place ('함양 용유담(咸陽 龍遊潭)', 전래명승으로서의 의의와 가치 구명)

  • Rho, Jae-hyun
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.82-101
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to survey and analyze the origin story and the legends associated with Yongyudam(龍遊潭, Dragon Creek), its scenic and spatial description in Climbing Writings(遊山記: Yusangi Notes), its geographical and geological features, its surrounding remains and letters chiseled on the rocks through the field study and the study on literatures associated with it so to identify its significance and value and then to ensure justification on preservation of Yongyudam scenic site. Conclusions of this study are as follow. As the traditional scenic place 'Geumdae-Jiri(金臺智異)' representing Hamyang-gun(咸陽郡) depicts Mount Cheonwangbong and 'Yongyudong Village(龍遊洞)', ancient maps and literatures have positioned Yongyudam as the center of Eomcheon-river Creek as well as the representing scenic site of Yongyudong Village. Core images in the spatial awareness of Yongyudam described in our ancestors' Climbing Writings Notes on Jirisan Mount are 'geographical and scenic peculiarity associated with swimming dragons', 'potholes in various shapes and sizes scattered on rocks', 'loud sound generated by swirling from shoals' and 'the scenic metaphor from the dragon legend', which have led scenic features of Yongyudam scenic site. In addition, significant scenic metaphors from legends such as 'Nine Dragons and Ascetic Majeog' and 'Kasaya Fish' as well as 'the Holy Place of Dragon God', the rain calling magic god have descended not only as the very nature of Yongyudam scenic site but also the catalyst deepening its mystic and place nature. On the other hand, Jangguso Place(杖?所, Place of Scholars) in the vicinity of Yongyudam was the place of resting and amusement for scholars from Yeongnam Province, to name a few, Kim Il-son, Cho Sik, Jung Yeo-chang and Kang Dae-su, where they experienced and recognized Jirisan Mount as the scenic living place. Letters Carved on the rocks at Jangguso Place are memorial tributes and monumental signs. Around Yongyudam, there are 3 stairs, letters chiseled on the rocks and the water rock artificially built to collect clean water, which are traditional scenic remains detectable of territoriality as the ritual place. In addition, The letters on the rock at Yongyudong-mun(龍遊洞門) discovered for the first time by this study are the sign promoting Yongyudam as the place of splendid landscape. The laconism, 'It is the Greatest Water in Jirisan Mount(方丈第一山水)' on a rock expresses the pride of Yongyudam as the representing scenic place of Mount Jirisan. Other than those, standing rocks such as Simjindae Rock, Yeong-gwidae Rock and Ganghwadae Rock show the sign that they are used as amusement and gathering places for ancestor scholars, which add significance to Yongyudam. By this study, it was possible to verify that Yongyudam in Mount Jirisan is not simply 'the scenic place in the tangible reality' but also has seamlessly inherited as the traditional scenic attraction spiritualized by overlapped historical and cultural values. Yongyudam, as the combined heritage by itself, shows that it is the product of the place nature as well as unique ensemble of cultural scenic attraction inherited through long history based on natural scenery. It is certain that not only the place value but also geographical, geological, historical and cultural values of Yongyudam are the essence of traditional scenic attraction, which should not be disparaged or damaged by whatever political or economic interests and logics.

Studies on the Breeding of the Response to short photoperiod, Fiber weight, and Qualitative characters and of the Associations Among these characters in Kenaf (섬유용양마의 육종에 관한 연구 -단일반응성과 섬유종의 유전 및 연소)

  • Johng-Moon Park
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.115-124
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    • 1968
  • It was shown that the most desirable characters for kenaf are high-fiber weight and moderately early maturity. Therefore, the objectives of this research on this crop is to find varieties possessing these characteristics. The experiments covered in this report provided new information relative to segregation, mode of inheritance, estimate of the number of genes involved in fiber weight and their response to short day length of 10 hours and the qualitative characters, such as, color of stem, capsule, petiole and shape of leaves. The associations which exist among these characters are also indicated. Fiber weight per plant, days to flowering, Stem color, Petiole color, Capsule color, and shape of leaves were studied in parental, $F_1$.$F_2$and backcross populations of a cross between Dashkent, a low-fiber weight but early maturing kenaf variety, and G 38 F-1, a high-fiber weight but late maturing kenaf variety. Crosses were made using the varieties, Dashkent and G 38 F-1 as parents. The Dashkent parent had the following characteristics: green stems, capsules and petioles and lobed shaped leaves; 105.8234 mean-days to flowering in the field, and 106.9222 mean-days under 10 hours short day treatment. The other parent, G 38 F-1 had red stems yellow capsules and red petioles and unlobed shaped leaves; 149.8921 mean-days to flowering in the field, and 62.3684 mean-days under 10 hours short day treatment. Both of the parents, $F_1$, $F_2$, $BC_1$ ($F_1$ X Dashkent, ) and $BC_2$($F_1$ ${\times}$ G38F-1) of the kenaf cross were grown at the Crops Experiment Station, Suwon, Korea in 1965. Color of stems, petioles and capsules, and shape of leaves were noted to be simply inherited as a single factor. Red stem color was dominant over green stem color, red petiole color was dominant over green petiole, lobed shaped leaves were dominant over unlobed shaped leaves and yellow capsules were dominant over green capsule. It was, also, noted that the factor for color of petiole was linked with the factor for shape of leaf with a 11.9587 percent recombination value, however no interaction or linkage were found among the color of stem and capsule color. Using Powers partitioning method, theoretical means and frequency distributions for each population, the days to flowering were calculated with the assumption that two gene pairs were involved. The values obtained fitted the theoretical values. In general this would indicate that Dashkent and G 38 F -1 were differentiated by two gene pairs. Heritability values were calculated as the percent of additive genetic variance. Heritability value of days to flowering, 89.5% in the broad sense and 79.91% in the narrow sense, indicated that the selection for this character would be effective in relatively early generations. Particularly, high positive correlations were found between days to flowering and the color of petioles and shape of leaves. However, there was no relation between days to flowering and capsule color nor between these and stem color. On the basis of the results of this experiment there is evidence that the hereditary factor for shape of leaves and the color of petioles is linked with an effective factor or factors for the characters of days to flowering. The association was sufficiently close to offer a possible simple and efficient means of selection for moderately early mat. uring plants by leaf shape and petiole color selection. Again using Powers partitioning method the frequency distribution for each population to the fiber weight were calculated with the assumption that two gene pairs, AaBb, were involved. Both phenotypic and genotypic dominance were complete. The obtained value did not agree with the theoretical value for $F_2$ and $BC_1$ ($F_1$ ${\times}$ Dashkent.) It seems that Dashkent and G 38 F-1 were differentiated by two major gene pairs but some the other minor genes are necessary. It is certain that the hereditary factor for shape of leaves and color of petioles is linked with an effective factor or factors for fiber weight. Also, high. yielding plants with moderately early maturity were found in the $F_2$ population. Thus, simultaneous selection for high-fiber yield and moderately early maturing plants should be possible in these populations. Phenotypic and genotypic correlation coefficients between fiber weight per plant and days to flowering, stem height and stem diameter were calculated. In general, genotypic correlations are higher than the phenotypic correlation. The highest correlation is found between stem height and fiber weight per plant (0.7852 in genotypic and 0.4103 in phenotypic) and between days to flowering and fiber weight per plant (0.7398 in genotypic and 0.3983 in phenotypic.) It was also expected that the selection of high stem height and moderately early maturing plants were given the efficient means of selection for high fiber weight.

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ON THE EFFECTS CHLORINITIES UPON GROWTH OF EARLIER LARVAE AND POST-LARVA OF A FRESH WATER PRAWN, MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGI(DE MAN) (담수산새우 Macrobrachium rosenbergi (de Man)의 초기유생 및 Post-larva.의 성장에 미치는 염분량에 관하여)

  • KWON Chin Soo;UNO Yutaka;OGASAWARA Yohismitsu
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.97-114
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    • 1977
  • The fresh water prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergi(de Man) is a very common species in Indopacific region, which inhaits both fresh and brackish water in low land area, most of rivers and especially aboundant in the lower reaches which are influenced by sea water. It is one of the largest and commercial species of genus Macrobrachium, which is commonly larger than $18\~21cm$ in body length, from the basis of eye-stalked to the distal of telson. As a part of the researches in order to investigate the possibilities on transplantation and propagation of this species, this work dealt with the problems on the effects of chlorinities upon zoeal larvae and post-larvae 1). metamorphosis rate and optimum chlorinity for metamorphosis to post-larve, 2). tolerance and comparative survival rate on various chlorinties, from fresh water to sea water $(19.38\%_{\circ}\;Cl)$, which reared for six days upon each stage of zoeal larvae, 3). accomodation rate on chlonities which reared for twelve days after transmigration into variant chlorinities of the range from $3.68\%_{\circ}$ Cl to $1.53\%_{\circ}$ Cl in the way of rearing of the range from $3.82\%_{\circ}$ Cl to $11.05\%_{\circ}$ upon each stage of zoea, 4). tolerance on both of fresh and sea water upon zoeal larva and post-larva under the condition of $28^{\circ}C{\pm}1$ in temperature and feeding on Artenia salina nauplii, 5). relationship between various chlorinities and grwth of post-larvae under the condition of $28^{\circ}C$ in tmperature and feeding on meat of clam. Thus these investigations were performed in order to grope for a comfortable method on seedmass production. Up to the present, the study on the effects of chlorinity upon earlier zoeal larvae and post-larvae of Macrobrachium species has been scarcely performed by workers with the exception of Lewis(1961) and Ling (1962,, 1967), even so their works were not so detailed. On the other hand, larvae of several species of this genus were reared at the water which mixed sea water so as to carry out complete metamorphosis to post-larva by workers in order to investigate on earlier 1 arval and earlier post-larval development, such as Macrobrachium lamerrei (Rajyalakshmi, 1961), M. rosenbergi and M. nipponense (Uno and Kwoa, 1969; Kwon and Uno, 1969), M. acanthurs (Choudhury, 1970; Dobkin, 1971), M. carcinus(Choudhury, 1970), M. formosense(Shokita, 1970), M. olfersii (Duggei et al., 1975), M. novaehallandiae (Greenwood et al., 1976), M. japonicum (Kwon, 1974) and M. lar (Shokita, personal communication), and there fore it is regarded that chlorinity is, generally, one of absolute factors to rear zoeal larvae of brackish species of Macrobrachium genus. Synthetic results on this work is summarized as the follwings: 1) Zoeal larvae required different chlorinities to grow according to each stage, and generally, it is regarded that optimum range of living and growing is from $7.63\%_{\circ}Cl\to\;7.63\%_{\circ}Cl$, and while differences of metamorphsis rate, from first zoea to post-larva, is rarely found in this range, and however it occurs apparently in both of situation at $7.63\%_{\circ}Cl$ below and $16.63\%_{\circ}Cl$ above and moreover, metamorphosis rate is delayed somewhat in case of lower chlorinity as compared with high chlorinity in these situations. 2) Accomodation in each chlorinity on the range, from fresh water to sea water, is different according to larval stages and while the best of it is, generally, on the range from $14.24\%_{\circ}Cl$ to $8.28\%_{\circ}Cl$ and favorite chlorinity of zoea have a tendency to remove from high chlorinity to lower chlorinity in order to advance larval age throughout all zoeal stages, setting a conversional stage for eighta zoea stage. 3) Optimum chlorinity of living and growth upon postlarvae is on the range of $4.25\%_{\circ}Cl$ below, and in proportion as approach to fresh water, growth rate is increased. 4) Post-large are able to live better in fresh water in comparison with zoeal larvae, which are only able to live within fifteen hours, and by contraries, post-larvae are merely able to live for one day as compared with ?미 larvar, which are able to live for six days more in sea water $19.38\%_{\circ}Cl\;above$. 5) Also, in case of transmigration into higher and lower chlorinities in the way of rearing in the initial chlorinities $ 3.82\%_{\circ}Cl,\;7.14%_{\circ}Cl\;and\;11.05%_{\circ}Cl$, accoodation rate is a follow: accomodation capacity in ease of removing into higher chlorinities from lower chlorinities is increased in proportion as earlier stages, setting a conversional stage for eighth zoea stage, and by contraries, in case of advanced stages from eighth zoea it is incraesed in proportion as approach to post-larva stage in the case of transmigration into lower chlorinity from higher chlorinity. On the other hand, it is interesting that in case of reciprocal transmigration between two different chlorinitiess, each survival rate is different, and in this case, also, its accomodation in each zoea stage has a tendency to vary according to larval stages as described above, setting a conversional stage for eighth zoea stage. 6) It is likely that expension of radish pigments on body surface is directly proportional to chlorinity during the period of zoea rearing, and therefore it seems like all body surfacts of zoea larvae be radish coloured in case of higher chlorinity. 7) By the differences that each zoeal larvae, postlarvae, juvaniles and adult prawn are required different chlorinity for inhabiting in each, it is regarded that this species migrats from up steam to near the estuary of the river which the prawns inhabits commonly in natural field for spawning and growth migration. 8) It had better maintainning chlorinities according to zoeal stage for a comfortable method on seed-mass production that earlier larva stages than eighth zoea are maintained on the range from $8\%_{\circ}Cl\;to\;12\%_{\circ}Cl$ to rear, and later larva stages than eighth zoea, by contraries, are gradually regula ted-to love chlorininity of the range from $7\%_{\circ}Cl\;to\;4\%_{\circ}Cl$ according to advance for post-larva stage.

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Potential Study for the Sedimentary Exhalative Pb-Zn Mineralization in Dyusembay Area, Kazakhstan (카자흐스탄 듀셈바이지역의 퇴적분기형 연-아연 광화작용에 대한 잠재력 연구)

  • No, Sang-gun;Lee, Seung-han;Park, Ki-woong;Jeong, Hyeon-guk;Yun, Ji-seong;Kim, Sun-ok;Park, Maeng-eon
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.213-222
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    • 2018
  • Metasediment-hosted Pb-Zn mineralized zone has been found in Dyusembay of Kazakhstan. Its petrological properties, metal index, alteration index and redox-sensitivity are compared with those of SEDEX type deposit. Mineralization is developed along foliation of host rock (graphitic phyllite) and controlled by folds and faults; major ore minerals including pyrite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, and galena are disseminated or interlayered with fine-grained quartz. The margin of the mineralized zone is metamorphosed accompanying sericite and chlorite. Hydrothermal brecciation and Pb-Zn mineralization formed in quartz-calcite stockworks are confirmed at the around of Maytyubin granitoid intrusions. The mineralization is classified into three types according to those of occurrence, paragenesis, chemical composition and isotopic characteristics. Type 1 whose fine-grained pyrite, pyrrhotite and sphalerite are formed in parallel yet discontinuous to well-developed foliations of the host rock; its geochemistry is similar to those of the earlier stage in SEDEX-type mineralization. In case of type 2, the ore minerals of which are concentrated being parallel to a foliation by regional metamorphism, and most of them associated with quartz and muscovite (${\pm}$ biotite) paragenetically. Type 3 is formed in the hydrothermal breccia zone whose ore minerals are controlled by foliation and breccia and developed in quartz ${\pm}$ calcite veins having a form such as stratification, stockwork or veinlets. Host rocks in the mineralized zone indicate homogeneous metamorphic grade and there is no specific alteration zonation. Also, all types (type 1, type 2, and type 3) represent similar REEs patterns, it can be interpreted that these are originated from a same source. Sulphides occurred in mineralized zone indicate a limited range of sulphur isotope values (type 2, ${\delta}^{34}S=-13.3{\sim}-11.7$‰; type 3, ${\delta}^{34}S=-13.9{\sim}-8.2$‰), and a result of geothermometry presents different temperature ranges: type 2($251{\pm}38^{\circ}C{\sim}277{\pm}40^{\circ}C$); type 3($360{\pm}2^{\circ}C$ to $537{\pm}29^{\circ}C$). It is estimated to be due to the effect of metamorphism and Maytyubin granitoid intrusions, respectively. In addition, ternary chart of thorium, scandium, and zircon for discrimination of tectonic setting and redox sensitivity using V/Mo values indicate that hydrothermal sediments put on reduction environment after precipitation, before being affected by metamorphism and intrusion activity. Geochemical data are plotted on a distal trend of SEDEX-type with discrimination plot using SEDEX index. As a result, petrological-geochemical properties demonstrate that Dyusembay Pb-Zn mineralized zone is comparable to distal-type of SEDEX deposit.

Experimental Investigation of Stannite-Sphalerite System In Relation to Ores (황석석일섬아연석계(黃錫石一閃亞鉛石系)의 실험연구(實驗硏究)와 천연건물(天然鍵物)에의 활용(活用))

  • Lee, Jae Yeong
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.1-23
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    • 1975
  • The subject of this study deals with phase relations between stannite ($Cu_2FeSnS_4$) and sphalerite (${\beta}-ZnS$)/wurtzite (${\alpha}-ZnS$). The phase relations were systematically investigated from liquidus temperature to $400^{\circ}C$ under controlled conditions. ${\beta}-stannite$ (tetragonal) is stable up to $706{\pm}5^{\circ}C$, where it inverts to a high-temperature polymorph ${\alpha}-stannite$ (cubic) melting congruently at $867{\pm}5^{\circ}C$. Sphalerite (cubic, ${\beta}-ZnS$) inverts at $1013{\pm}3^{\circ}C$ to wurtzite, which is the hexagonal hightemperature polymorph of ZnS. Between ${\alpha}-stannite$ and sphalerite a complete solid solution series exists above approximately $870^{\circ}C$ up to solidus temperature. The melting temperature of ${\alpha}-stannite$ rises towards sphalerite and reaches a maximum at $1074{\pm}3^{\circ}C$, which is the peritectic with the composition of 91 wt. % sphalerite and 9 wt. % ${\alpha}-stannite$. At this temperature, wurtzite takes only 5wt. % ${\alpha}-stannite$ in solid solution which decreases with increasing temperature. The inverson temperature of ${\alpha}/{\beta}-stannite$ is lowered with increasing amounts of sphalerite in solid solution down to $614{\pm}7^{\circ}C$, which is the eutectoid with the composition of 13 wt. % sphalerite and 87 wt. % ${\alpha}-stannite$. Here, ${\beta}-stannite$ contains only 10wt. % sphalerite in solid solution. With decreasing temperature, the ranges of the solid solution on both sides of the system narrow. The phase relations in the above pure system changed due to the FeS impurities in the sphalerite solid solution. The eutectoid increased from $614{\pm}7^{\circ}C$ up to $695{\pm}5^{\circ}C$ (5 wt. % FeS) and $700{\pm}5^{\circ}C$ (10wt. % FeS), while the peritectic decreased from $1074{\pm}3^{\circ}C$ down to $1036{\pm}3^{\circ}C$ (wt. %FeS) and $987{\pm}3^{\circ}C$ (10wt. %FeS). A most notable change is the appearance of non-binary regions. An important feature is the combination of this study system with the experimental results reported by Sprinfer (1972). If a stannite-kesterite solid solution is used in the place of stannite as a bulk composition, the inversion temperature is lowered to less than $400^{\circ}C$ which belongs to temperatures of the hydrothermal region.

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Alteration and Mineralization in the Xiaoxinancha Porphyry Copper Deposit, Yianbin, China: Fluid Inclusion and Sulfur Isotope Study (중국 연변 쇼시난차 반암동 광상의 광화작용 및 변질작용: 유체포유물 및 황동위원소 연구)

  • Seong-Taek Yun;Chil-Sup So;Bai-Lu Jin;Chul-Ho Heo;Seung-Jun Youm
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.211-220
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    • 2002
  • The Xiaoxinancha Cu-Au deposit in the Jilin province, located in NNE 800 km of Beijing, is hosted by diorite. The ore mineralization of Xiaoxinancha Cu-Au deposit show a stockwork occurrence that is concentrated on the potassic and phyllic alteration zones. The Xiaoxinancha Cu-Au deposit in the south is being mined with its reserves grading 0.8% Cu, 3.64 g/t Au and 16.8 g/t Ag and in the north, grading 0.63% Cu, 3.80 g/t Au and 6.8 glt Ag. The alteration assemblage occurs as a supergene blanket over deposit. Hydrothermal alteration at the Xiaoxinancha Cu-Au deposit is centered about the stock and was extensively related to the emplacement of the stock. Early hydrothermal alteration was dominantly potassic and followed by propylitic alteration. Chalcocite, often associated with hematite, account for the ore-grade copper, while chalcopyrite, bornite, quartz, epidote, chlorite and calcite constitute the typical gangue assemblage. Other minor opaque phases include pyrite, marcasite, native gold, electrum, hessite, hedleyite, volynskite, galenobismutite, covellite and goethite. Fluid inclusion data indicate that the formation of this porphyry copper deposit is thought to be a result of cooling followed by mixing with dilute and cooler meteoric water with time. In stage II vein, early boiling occurred at 497$^{\circ}$C was succeeded by the occurrence of halite-bearing type III fluid inclusion with homogenization temperature as much as 100$^{\circ}$C lower. The salinities of type 1II fluid inclusion in stage II vein are 54.3 to 66.9 wt.% NaCI + KCI equiv. at 383$^{\circ}$ to 495$^{\circ}$C, indicating the formation depth less than 1 km. Type I cupriferous fluids in stage III vein have the homogenization temperatures and salinity of 168$^{\circ}$ to 365$^{\circ}$C and 1.1 to 9.0 wt.% NaCI equiv. These fluid inclusions in stage III veins were trapped in quartz veins containing highly fractured breccia, indicating the predominance of boiling evidence. This corresponds to hydrostatic pressure of 50 to 80 bars. The $\delta$$^{34}S$ value of sulfide minerals increase slightly with paragenetic time and yield calculated $\delta$$^{34}S_{H2S}$ values of 0.8 to 3.7$\textperthousand$. There is no mineralogical evidence that fugacity of oxygen decreased, and it is thought that the oxygen fugacity of the mineralizing fluids have been buffered through reaction with magnetite. We interpreted the range of the calculated $\delta$$^{34}S_{H2S}$ values for sulfides to represent the incorporation of sulfur from two sources into the Xiaoxinancha Cu-Au hydrothermal fluids: (1) an isotopically light source with a $\delta$$^{34}S$ value of I to 2$\textperthousand$, probably a Mesozoic granitoid related to the ore mineralization. We can infer from the fact that diorite as the host rock in the Xiaoxinancha Cu-Au deposit area intruded plagiogranite; (2) an isotopically heavier source with a $\delta$$^{34}S$ value of > 4.0$\textperthousand$, probably the local porphyry.

Nutritional Effects of Paper Board Sludge on the Soybean(Glycine max. L.) (대두(大豆)에 대(對)한 제지(製紙) Sludge의 영양학적(營養學的) 연구(昭究))

  • Kim, Moon Kyu;Chang, Ki Woon;Choi, Woo Young;Ham, Suon Kyu;Nam, Yun Kyu;Lee, Chang Jun
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1990
  • The paper board sludge(PBS) itself and compost sludge manure(CSM) mixed with sawdust, fowl droppings and urea to the PBS were treated to soybean plants to find the effects of growing characters, yield components, and nutritional compounds in the plant tissues. 1. Percentages of missing plants were 5-9% and 3.6-4.1% in the treatments of PBS and CSM, respectively. After that, the plants were restored to normal conditions. Anyway it is not desirable to use the paper board sludge and immature compost sludge manure in seeding time or to young seedlings. 2. Growth of the plant height was retarded in early growing phase, but it was normal in later stages. And the width and length of the largest leaf, numbers of main stem nodes and pods were not significant among the treatments. 3. The yield intends to increase through the treatments of 1,200, 1,600, and 2,000Kg PBS per 10a. In the CSM treatments with high rate of sawdust, fowl droppings and urea, the numbers of pods and grains were higher than the treatment of high content of PBS. 100-grain and one liter weights were opposite intention. It was suggested that the excess nitrogen amounts from the compost sludge manure than conventional fertilization affected to the yield components. 4. The contents of the main chemical compounds such as N, $P_2O_5$, $K_2O$, Ca, Mg were determined. The concentrations of nitrogen were higher in the treatment of PBS and CSM than none and control. 5. In conclusion, the nutritional effects of PBS were in evidence. To use the sludges, it should be fermented with adequate additives to improve the aeration, C/N ratio, activity of microbial, and other conditions. The sludges could be used to crops as a fertilizers effectively.

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Anatomical Studies on Root Formation in Hypocotyl and Epicotyl Cuttings of Woody Plants (임목(林木)의 배축(胚軸) 및 유경삽수발근(幼茎揷穗発根)의 해부학적(解剖学的) 연구(研究))

  • Choi, Man Bong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.1-30
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    • 1981
  • The origin and development of adventitious roots was studied using hypocotyl and epicotyl cuttings of 34 species, 24 genus of woody plants. These cuttings obtained from young seedlings cultured in vials containing distilled water only. The several characteristics of cuttings materials studied are shown in Table 1. The results are summerized as follows: 1. The circumference shapes of cross-sections of hypocotyl and epicotyl cuttings can be divided into six categories, namely, round, irregular round, ellipse, irregular ellipse, square, and triangle. Species differences within a genus did not show any difference of hypocotyl and epicotyl cross-sections shape, however, a noticeable variation among genus or higher taxa. 2. The arrangements of vascular bundles in the cross-sections of hypocotyls or epicotyls were almost all collateral types and generally showed generic characteristics differing one to the other. However, there were some variations between species within the genus. Six models of vascular bundle arrangement were proposed for all the above speices. 3. The rooting portions of hypocotyl and epicotyl cuttings in this experimental materials can be grouped as follows: (1) Interfascicular parenchyma; (Thuja orientalis. T. orientalis for. sieboldii, Acer microsieboldianum, A. palmatum, A. saccharinum, Cercis chinensis, Lespedeza bicolor, Magnolia obovata, M. sieboldii, Mallotus japonicus, Staphylea bumalda) (2) Cambial and phloem parenchyma: (Chamaecyparis obtusa, C. pisifera, Albizzia julibrissin, Buxus microphylla var. Koreana, Cereis chinensis, Euonymus japonica, Firmiana platanifolia, Lagerstroemia indica, Ligustrum salicinum, L. obtusifolium, Magnolia kobus, M. obovata, Mallotus japonicus, Morus alba, Poncirus trifoliata, Quercus myrsinaefolia, Rosa polyantha, Styrax japonica, Styrax obassia) (3) Primary ray tissues; (Euonymus japonica, Styrax japonica) (4) Leaf traces; (Quercus acutissima, Q. aliena) (5) Cortex parenchyma; (Ailanthus altissima) (6) Callus tissues; (Castanea crenata, Quercus aliena, Q. myrsinaefolia, Q. serrata) 4. As a general tendency throughout the species studied, in hypocotyl cuttings, the adventitious root primordia were originated from the interfascicular parenchyma tissue, however, leaf traces and callus tissues were contributed to the root primordia formation in epicotyl cuttings. The hypocotyl cuttings of Ailanthus altissima exhibited a special performance in the root primordia formation, this means that cortex parenchyma was participated to the origin tissue. And in Firmiana platanifolia, differening from the other most species, the root primordia were formed at the phloem parenchyma adjacent outwardly to xylem tissue of vascular bundle system as shown photo. 48. 5. All the easy-to, or difficult-to root species developed adventitious roots in vials filled with distilled water. In the difficult-to-root species, however, root formations seemed to be delayed because they almost all had selerenchyma or phloem fiber which gave some mechanical hindrance to protrusion of root primordia. On the other hand, in the easy-to-root species they seemed to form them more easily because they did not have the said tissues. The rooting portions between easy-to-root and difficult-to-root species have not clearly been distinguished, and they have multitudinous variations. 6. The species structured with the more vascular bundles in number compared with the less vascular bundles exhibited delayed rooting. In the cuttings preparation, the proximal end of cuttings was closer to root-to-stem transition region, the adventitious root formation showed easier. 7. A different case occured however with the mature stem cuttings, in both the needle-leaved and the broad-leaved species. In the hypocotyl cuttings, parenchymatous tissues sited near the vascular bundles become the most frequent root forming portions in general and relevant distinctions between both species were hardly recognizable. 8. In the epicotyl cuttings, root primordia originated mainly in leaf traces in connection with cambial and phloems or callus tissues itself. In the hypocotyl cuttings, interfascicular parenchyma was the most frequent portion of the root primordia formation. The portions of root primordia had more connection with vascular cambium system, as the tissues were continuing to be developed.

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