• Title, Summary, Keyword: 현상학적 연구

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Mytilin B, an Antimicrobial Peptide from the Hemocyte of the Hard-shelled Mussel, Mytilus coruscus : Isolation, Purification, and Characterization (참담치(Mytilus coruscus) 혈구(hemocyte) 유래 항균 펩타이드 mytilin B의 정제 및 특성 분석)

  • Lee, Min Jeong;Oh, Ryunkyoung;Kim, Young-Ok;Nam, Bo-Hye;Kong, Hee Jeong;Kim, Joo-Won;Park, Jung Youn;Seo, Jung-Kil;Kim, Dong-Gyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.28 no.11
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    • pp.1301-1315
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    • 2018
  • We purified an antimicrobial peptide from the acidified hemocyte extract of Mytilus coruscus by $C_{18}$ reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The peptide was 4041.866 Da based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrophotometer (MALDI-TOF/MS) and the 25 amino acids of the N-terminus sequence were identified. Comparison of this sequence of the purified peptide with the N-terminus sequences of other antimicrobial peptides revealed 100% identity with the mytilin B precursor of Mytilus coruscus. We also identified a 312 bp open-reading frame (ORF) encoding 103 amino acids based on the obtained amino acid residues. The nucleotide sequence of this ORF and the amino acid sequence also revealed 100% identity with the mytilin B precursor of Mytilus coruscus. We synthesized two antimicrobial peptides with an alanine residue in the C-terminus, and designated them mytilin B1 and B2. These two antimicrobial peptides showed antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus cereus and Streptococcus parauberis (minimal effective concentration, MECs $41.6-89.7{\mu}g/ml$), gram-negative bacteria, including Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia stuartii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio ichthyoenteri (MECs $7.4-39.5{\mu}g/ml$), and the fungus Candida albicans (MECs $26.0-31.8{\mu}g/ml$). This antimicrobial activity was stable under heat and salt conditions. Furthermore, the peptides did not exhibit significant hemolytic activity or cytotoxic effects. These results suggest that mytilin B could be applied as alternative antibiotic agent, and they add to the understanding of the innate immunity of hard-shelled mussels.

Effect of treadmill exercise on autophagy related protein expression in the cardiac muscle of high-fat diet fed rats (트레드밀 운동이 고지방 식이 쥐 심근세포의 자가포식 관련 단백질 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeong, Jae-Hoon;Kang, Eun-Bum
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.91-101
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of obesity on the expression of autophagy-related proteins in cardiac muscle. To this end, obesity was induced in rats through 20 weeks of high-fat diet, and the animals were then subjected to 8 weeks of treadmill exercise. Subsequently, the expression of proteins that regulate the induction of autophagy, formation of autophagosome, and fusion of autophagosome and lysosome was confirmed. Obesity was induced in the experimental animals (SD rats) through 20 weeks of high-fat diet (carbohydrate: 20%, fat: 60%, and protein: 20%), and they were subsequently subjected to 8 weeks of treadmill exercise (5 days/week, 30 min/day, 5 minutes; 8m/min, 5 minutes; 11m/min, 20 minutes; 14m/min). The experimental groups comprised the normal diet control group (ND-CON, n=10), high-fat diet comparison group (HFD-CON, n=10), and high-fat exercise group (HFD-TE, n=10). Oral glucose tolerance test was conducted before and after 8 weeks of treadmill exercise, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Through fasting insulin and fasting glucose levels, HOMA-IR, which is an index of insulin resistance, and abdominal visceral fat/body weight (AVF/BW) were calculated for comparison. Moreover, autophagy-related proteins were analyzed from cardiac tissue to investigate the effects of exercise training. Obesity was successfully induced in the HFD-CON group through long-term high-fat diet, and the HFD-CON group had higher body weight, AUC, HOMA-IR, and AVF/BW compared to the ND-CON group. The HFD-TE group, which underwent 8 weeks of treadmill exercise, showed improvements in AUC, HOMA-IR, and AVF/BW. Although the body weight tended to decrease as well, there was no statistically significant difference. mTOR and AMPK, which are involved in the induction of autophagy, both decreased in obesity but increased upon exercise. Beclin-1, BNIP3, ATG-7, p62, and LC3, which are related to the formation of autophagosomes, all increased in obesity and decreased after exercise. Cathepsin L and LAMP2, which regulate the fusion of autophagosome and lysosome, both decreased in obesity and increased upon exercise. Physical activity, including treadmill exercise, was found to induce normal autophagy and improve pathological phenomena observed in metabolic diseases. Therefore, the findings suggest the need to consider treadmill exercise as a primary means to achieve effective prevention and treatment of cardiac diseases.

Induction of Apoptosis by Ethanol Extract of Lythrum anceps (Koehne) Makino in Human Leukemia U937 Cells (인체백혈병 U937 세포에서 부처꽃 에탄올추출물에 의한 apoptosis 유도)

  • Jeong, Jin-Woo;Kim, Chul Hwan;Lee, Young-Kyung;Hwang, Yong;Lee, Ki Won;Choi, Kyung-Min;Kim, Jung Il
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.279-286
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    • 2020
  • Purple loosestrife-Lythrum anceps (Koehne) Makino is a herbaceous perennial plant belonging to the Lythraceae family. It has been used for centuries in Korea and other Asian traditional medicine. It has been showed pharmacological effects, including anti-oxidant and anti-microbial effects. However, the mechanisms underlying its anti-cancer effect are not yet understood. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of apoptosis signaling pathways by ethanol extract of Lythrum anceps (Koehne) Makino (ELM) in human leukemia U937 cells. Treatment with ELM significantly inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner by inducing apoptosis, as evidenced by the formation of apoptotic bodies (ApoBDs), DNA fragmentation and increased populations of sub-G1 ratio. Induction of apoptosis by ELM was connected with up-regulation of death receptor (DR) 4 and DR5, pro-apoptotic Bax protein expression and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein, and inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family proteins, depending on dosage. This induction was associated with Bid truncation, mitochondrial dysfunction, proteolytic activation of caspases (-3, -8 and -9) and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase protein. Therefore, our data indicate that ELM suppresses U937 cell growth by activating the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways, and thus may have applications as a potential source for an anti-leukemic chemotherapeutic agent.

Studies on the Effects of Caponization and Various Hormone Treatment on the Meat Production and Quality in Growing Chicken (닭에 있어서 거세(去勢) 및 Hormone 처리(處理)가 산육성(産肉性) 및 육질(肉質)에 미치는 영향(影響)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Ra, Kwang Yon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.9-47
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    • 1975
  • These experiments were caried out to study the effects of caponization and various hormone treatments upon meat production and improvement of meat quality of growing chicken. Sixtyseven days old 160 New Hampshire cockerels were treated and growth rate, carcass yield, change of weight of individual organs, meat composition and change of amino acid were measured and analysed. Otherwise change of testis and thyroid gland by hormone treatment were investigated histologically. The results obtained were as follows. 1. The effectst of caponization and hormone treatment upon meat production were; 1) Body weight of cockerels in D. E. S. group without caponization was increased. upon 96.86% than initial period and A. C. T. H. group was 104.22% but other groups and all carponization groups were lighter than those of control group. 2) Weekly body gain of D. E. S. group without caponization was best showing the significance (102.69 g) and the group with caponization were lower than those groups without caponization. 3) Carcass yield was best in Testo. group without caponization (831.2 g) and the group with caponization were lower than the group without caponization. 4) Carcass rate was highest in A. C. T. H. group with caponization and (67.22%) lowest in Testo. group without caponization (63.37%), but any significance was not recognized. 2. The effects of caponizatitn and hormone treatments upon the coposition of meat and amino acids were; 1) Any significance was not recognized between treated and untreated group about change of moisture, crude protein, crude ash and glycogen contents in meat. 2) Fat co tent in muscle in the all treated groups were higher than that of control group. 3) Extracts of group without caponization were higher than those of groups with caponization. 4) Lysin contents were highest in D. E. S. group with caponization (11. 12/ 16.0 g N) and generelly Testo. group was lower compared with D. E. S. group. 5) Histidine and Arginine contents were higher in the groups with caponization than without caponization. 6) Aspartic acid content were higher in D. E. S. group and A. C. T. H. group without depend on caponization. 7) Treonine content was higher in Testo. group without caponization and in the group with caponization and without hormone treatment compared with those of control group without caponization. 8) Serine content was decreased in the group with caponization and increased by D. E. S. and A. C. T. H treatment groups and glutamic acid was also decreased in Testo. group with out caponization. 9) Cystine content was decreased by Testo. treatment and was not appeared in Testo. group without caponization. 10) Valine content was lower in control group with caponization but significance was not recognized between other groups and control group without caponization. 11) Glycine, Alanine, Methionine. Isoleucine, Leucine, Thyrosine and Phenylalanine contents were not so difference between hormone treated groups and control group without caponization. 3. The effects of caponization and hormone treatment upon the change of organs were: 1) The weight of all organs were heaviest in D. E. S. group without caponization (18.5g) and lightest in A. C. T. H. group without caponization (155. 3g) but no significance was recognized between hormone treatment groups. 2) Heart weight was heaviest in D. E. S. group without caponization (7.46 g) and lightest in Testo. group without caponization (5.95 g). 3) Liver weight was heaviest in D. E. S. group without caponization(32.89g) and lightest in hormone untreated group with caponization(29.66g). Significance was not recognized. 4) Spleen weight was heaivest in Testo. group with caponization (3.22 g) and lightest in D. E. S. group without caponization(2.00g) in contrast with the other groups. High significance was recognized among the groups (P<0.01). 5) Cloacal thymus weight was lightest in D. E. S. group with or without caponization compared with control group without caponization. High significance was recognized among the groups. 6) Muscle fat content was not appeared in A. C. T. H. group with caponization, but it was highly increased in D. E. S. group with or without caponization. 7) Testis weight was lightest in D. E. S. group (0.38g) compared with control group (2.66g). Significance was recognized among the groups. 8) Large intestine, small intestine and cecum weight and length were heavier and longer in D. E. S. group without caponization and control group without caponization was lighter than those of hormone treated groups. 4. The effects of caponization and hormone treatment upon histological change of testis and thyroid gland: 1) The histological change of testis was significantly appeared in D. E. S. group that seminifirous tubles was slowly atrophied, the funtion of spernatogenesis was ceased, spermatocyte was changed as degeneration by pyknosis and karyorrhexis and interstitial cell was also atrophied, but in Testo. and A. C. T. H. group were similar as control group. 2) The histological change of thyroid gland in Testo. and A. C. T. H. groups without caponization were similar to that of control group without caponization, but in D. E. S. group without caponization, was changed squamously. Thyroid gland of the groups with caponization, epithelium of was atrophied and changed squamously as degeneration by pyknosis and karyorrhexis and the function of thyroid gland was slowly ceased in colloid and in hormone treated group with caponization.

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THE EFFECTS OF THE PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR-BB ON THE PERIODONTAL TISSUE REGENERATION OF THE FURCATION INVOLVEMENT OF DOGS (혈소판유래성장인자-BB가 성견 치근이개부병변의 조직재생에 미치는 효과)

  • Cho, Moo-Hyun;Park, Kwang-Beom;Park, Joon-Bong
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.535-563
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    • 1993
  • New techniques for regenerating the destructed periodontal tissue have been studied for many years. Current acceptable methods of promoting periodontal regeneration alre basis of removal of diseased soft tissue, root treatment, guided tissue regeneration, graft materials, biological mediators. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is one of polypeptide growth factor. PDGF have been reported as a biological mediator which regulate activities of wound healing progress including cell proliferation, migration, and metabolism. The purposes of this study is to evaluate the possibility of using the PDGF as a regeneration promoting agent for furcation involvement defect. Eight adult mongrel dogs were used in this experiment. The dogs were anesthetized with Pentobarbital Sodium (25-30 mg/kg of body weight, Tokyo chemical Co., Japan) and conventional periodontal prophylaxis were performed with ultrasonic scaler. With intrasulcular and crestal incision, mucoperiosteal flap was elevated. Following decortication with 1/2 high speed round bur, degree III furcation defect was made on mandibular second(P2) and fourth(P4) premolar. For the basic treatment of root surface, fully saturated citric acid was applied on the exposed root surface for 3 minutes. On the right P4 20ug of human recombinant PDGF-BB dissolved in acetic acid was applied with polypropylene autopipette. On the left P2 and right P2 PDGF-BB was applied after insertion of ${\beta}-Tricalcium$ phosphate(TCP) and collagen (Collatape) respectively. Left mandibular P4 was used as control. Systemic antibiotics (Penicillin-G benzathine and penicillin-G procaine, 1 ml per 10-25 1bs body weight) were administrated intramuscular for 2 weeks after surgery. Irrigation with 0.1% Chlorhexidine Gluconate around operated sites was performed during the whole experimental period except one day immediate after surgery. Soft diets were fed through the whole experiment period. After 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed by perfusion technique. Tissue block was excised including the tooth and prepared for light microscope with H-E staining. At 2 weeks after surgery, therer were rapid osteogenesis phenomenon on the defected area of the PDGF only treated group and early trabeculation pattern was made with new osteoid tissue produced by activated osteoblast. Bone formation was almost completed to the fornix of furcation by 8 weeks after surgery. New cementum fromation was observed from 2 weeks after surgery, and the thickness was increased until 8 weeks with typical Sharpey’s fibers reembedded into new bone and cementum. In both PDGF-BB with TCP group and PDGF-BB with Collagen group, regeneration process including new bone and new cementum formation and the group especially in the early weeks. It might be thought that the migration of actively proliferating cells was prohibited by the graft materials. In conclusion, platelet-derived growth factor can promote rapid osteogenesis during early stage of periodontal tissue regeneration.

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The Mechanism of Interferon-$\gamma$ Induced Cytotoxicity on the Lung Cancer Cell Line, A549 (인터페론감마에 의한 A549 폐암세포주 세포독성의 기전)

  • Oh, Yeon-Mok;Yoo, Chul-Gyu;Chung, Hee-Soon;Kim, Young-Whan;Han, Sung-Koo;Shim, Young-Soo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.63-68
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    • 1996
  • Background: Interferon-$\gamma$ has various biologic effects, including antiviral effect, antitumor proliferative effect, activation of macrophage and B lymphocyte, and increased expression of major histocompatibility complex. Especially, antitumor proliferative effect of interferon-$\gamma$ has already been proved to be important in vivo as well as in vitro. And, clinical studies of interferon-$\gamma$ have been tried in lung cancer patients. However, the mechanism of antitumor effect of interferon-$\gamma$ has not yet been established despite of many hypotheses. "Necrosis" is a type of cell death which is well known to occur in the circumstances of severe stresses. In contrast, "apoptosis" is another type of cell death which occurs in such biological circumstances as embryonic development, regression of organs, and self-tolerance of lymphocytes. And, apoptosis is an active process of cell death in which cells are dying with fragmentations of their cytoplasms and nuclei. And, in the process of apoptosis the DNAs of cells are cleaved between nucleosomes by unidentified endonuclease and therefore DNAs of apoptotic cells result in a typical electrophoresis pattern known as DNA ladder pattern. Recently it has been suggested that cytotoxic effect of interferon-$\gamma$ occurs via apoptosis. To elucidate the mechanism of antitumor cytotoxic effect of interferon-$\gamma$, we microscopically observed a lung cancer cell line, A549 which was treated with interferon-$\gamma$. We observed A545 treated with interferon-$\gamma$ was dying fragmented. And so, we performed this study to find out that the mechanism of antitumor cytotoxic effect of interferon-$\gamma$ be apoptosis. Method: We treated A549, human lung cancer cell line with various concentration of interferon-$\gamma$ and quantified its cytotoxic effect of various periods, 24 hours, 72 hours and, 120 hours by MTT(dimethylthiazolyl diphenyltetrazolium bromide) bioassay. Also, after we treated A549 with 100 units/mi of interferon-$\gamma$ for 120 hours, we observed the pattern of cell death with inverted microscope and we extracted DNAs from the dead A549 cells and observed the pattern of 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis with ethidium bromide staining. Result: 1) Cytotoxic effect of interferon-$\gamma$ on A549: For the first 24 hours, threre was little cytotoxic effect and for between 24 hours and 72 hours, there was the beginning of cytotoxic effect and for 120 hours there was increased cytotoxic effect. 2) Pattern of A549 cell death by interferon-$\gamma$: We observed with inverted microscope that A549 cells were dying fragmented. 3) DNA ladder pattern of gel electrophoresis: We observed DNA ladder pattern of gel electrophoresis of extracted DNAs from dead A549 cells. Conclusion: We concluded that the mechanism of interferon-$\gamma$induced cytotoxicity on lung cancer cell line, A549 be via apoptosis.

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Regulatory Mechanism of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (비소세포성 폐암에서 인슐린 양 성장 인자 결합 단백질-3의 발현 조절 기전)

  • Chang, Yoon Soo;Lee, Ho-Young;Kim, Young Sam;Kim, Hyung Jung;Chang, Joon;Ahn, Chul Min;Kim, Sung Kyu;Kim, Se Kyu
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.56 no.5
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    • pp.465-484
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    • 2004
  • Background : Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) inhibits the proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells by inducing apoptosis. Methods : In this study, we investigated whether hypermethylation of IGFBP-3 promoter play an important role in the loss of IGFBP-3 expression in NSCLC. We also studied the mechanisms that mediate the silencing of IGFBP-3 expression in the cell lines which have hypermethylated IGFBP-3 promoter. Results : The IGFBP-3 promoter has hypermethylation in 7 of 15 (46.7%) NSCLC cell lines and 16 (69.7%) of 23, 7 (77.8%) of 9, 4 (80%) of 5, 4 (66.7 %) of 6, and 6 (100%) of 6 tumor specimens from patients with stage I, II, IIIA, IIIB, and IV NSCLC, respectively. The methylation status correlated with the level of protein and mRNA in NSCLC cell lines. Expression of IGFBP-3 was restored by the demethylating agent 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5'-aza-dC) in a subset of NSCLC cell lines. The Sp-1/ Sp-3 binding element in the IGFBP-3 promoter, important for promoter activity, was methylated in the NSCLC cell lines which have reduced IGFBP-3 expression and the methylation of this element suppressed the binding of the Sp-1 transcription factor. A ChIP assay showed that the methylation status of the IGFBP-3 promoter influenced the binding of Sp-1, methyl-CpG binding protein-2 (MeCP2), and histone deacetylase (HDAC) to Sp-1/Sp-3 binding element, which were reversed by by 5'-aza-dC. In vitro methylation of the IGFBP-3 promoter containing the Sp-1/Sp-3 binding element significantly reduced promoter activity, which was further suppressed by the overexpression of MeCP2. This reduction in activity was rescued by 5'-aza-dC. Conclusion : These findings indicate that hypermethylation of the IGFBP-3 promoter is one mechanism by which IGFBP-3 expression is silenced and MeCP2, with recruitment of HDAC, may play a role in silencing of IGFBP-3 expression. The frequency of this abnormality is also associated with advanced stages among the patients with NSCLC, suggesting that IGFBP-3 plays an important role in lung carcinogenesis/progression and that the promoter methylation status of IGFBP-3 may be a marker for early molecular detection and/or for monitoring chemoprevention efforts.

'Yongyudam of Hamyang', the Significance and Value as a Traditional Scenic Place ('함양 용유담(咸陽 龍遊潭)', 전래명승으로서의 의의와 가치 구명)

  • Rho, Jae-hyun
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.82-101
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to survey and analyze the origin story and the legends associated with Yongyudam(龍遊潭, Dragon Creek), its scenic and spatial description in Climbing Writings(遊山記: Yusangi Notes), its geographical and geological features, its surrounding remains and letters chiseled on the rocks through the field study and the study on literatures associated with it so to identify its significance and value and then to ensure justification on preservation of Yongyudam scenic site. Conclusions of this study are as follow. As the traditional scenic place 'Geumdae-Jiri(金臺智異)' representing Hamyang-gun(咸陽郡) depicts Mount Cheonwangbong and 'Yongyudong Village(龍遊洞)', ancient maps and literatures have positioned Yongyudam as the center of Eomcheon-river Creek as well as the representing scenic site of Yongyudong Village. Core images in the spatial awareness of Yongyudam described in our ancestors' Climbing Writings Notes on Jirisan Mount are 'geographical and scenic peculiarity associated with swimming dragons', 'potholes in various shapes and sizes scattered on rocks', 'loud sound generated by swirling from shoals' and 'the scenic metaphor from the dragon legend', which have led scenic features of Yongyudam scenic site. In addition, significant scenic metaphors from legends such as 'Nine Dragons and Ascetic Majeog' and 'Kasaya Fish' as well as 'the Holy Place of Dragon God', the rain calling magic god have descended not only as the very nature of Yongyudam scenic site but also the catalyst deepening its mystic and place nature. On the other hand, Jangguso Place(杖?所, Place of Scholars) in the vicinity of Yongyudam was the place of resting and amusement for scholars from Yeongnam Province, to name a few, Kim Il-son, Cho Sik, Jung Yeo-chang and Kang Dae-su, where they experienced and recognized Jirisan Mount as the scenic living place. Letters Carved on the rocks at Jangguso Place are memorial tributes and monumental signs. Around Yongyudam, there are 3 stairs, letters chiseled on the rocks and the water rock artificially built to collect clean water, which are traditional scenic remains detectable of territoriality as the ritual place. In addition, The letters on the rock at Yongyudong-mun(龍遊洞門) discovered for the first time by this study are the sign promoting Yongyudam as the place of splendid landscape. The laconism, 'It is the Greatest Water in Jirisan Mount(方丈第一山水)' on a rock expresses the pride of Yongyudam as the representing scenic place of Mount Jirisan. Other than those, standing rocks such as Simjindae Rock, Yeong-gwidae Rock and Ganghwadae Rock show the sign that they are used as amusement and gathering places for ancestor scholars, which add significance to Yongyudam. By this study, it was possible to verify that Yongyudam in Mount Jirisan is not simply 'the scenic place in the tangible reality' but also has seamlessly inherited as the traditional scenic attraction spiritualized by overlapped historical and cultural values. Yongyudam, as the combined heritage by itself, shows that it is the product of the place nature as well as unique ensemble of cultural scenic attraction inherited through long history based on natural scenery. It is certain that not only the place value but also geographical, geological, historical and cultural values of Yongyudam are the essence of traditional scenic attraction, which should not be disparaged or damaged by whatever political or economic interests and logics.

Studies on the Breeding of the Response to short photoperiod, Fiber weight, and Qualitative characters and of the Associations Among these characters in Kenaf (섬유용양마의 육종에 관한 연구 -단일반응성과 섬유종의 유전 및 연소)

  • Johng-Moon Park
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.115-124
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    • 1968
  • It was shown that the most desirable characters for kenaf are high-fiber weight and moderately early maturity. Therefore, the objectives of this research on this crop is to find varieties possessing these characteristics. The experiments covered in this report provided new information relative to segregation, mode of inheritance, estimate of the number of genes involved in fiber weight and their response to short day length of 10 hours and the qualitative characters, such as, color of stem, capsule, petiole and shape of leaves. The associations which exist among these characters are also indicated. Fiber weight per plant, days to flowering, Stem color, Petiole color, Capsule color, and shape of leaves were studied in parental, $F_1$.$F_2$and backcross populations of a cross between Dashkent, a low-fiber weight but early maturing kenaf variety, and G 38 F-1, a high-fiber weight but late maturing kenaf variety. Crosses were made using the varieties, Dashkent and G 38 F-1 as parents. The Dashkent parent had the following characteristics: green stems, capsules and petioles and lobed shaped leaves; 105.8234 mean-days to flowering in the field, and 106.9222 mean-days under 10 hours short day treatment. The other parent, G 38 F-1 had red stems yellow capsules and red petioles and unlobed shaped leaves; 149.8921 mean-days to flowering in the field, and 62.3684 mean-days under 10 hours short day treatment. Both of the parents, $F_1$, $F_2$, $BC_1$ ($F_1$ X Dashkent, ) and $BC_2$($F_1$ ${\times}$ G38F-1) of the kenaf cross were grown at the Crops Experiment Station, Suwon, Korea in 1965. Color of stems, petioles and capsules, and shape of leaves were noted to be simply inherited as a single factor. Red stem color was dominant over green stem color, red petiole color was dominant over green petiole, lobed shaped leaves were dominant over unlobed shaped leaves and yellow capsules were dominant over green capsule. It was, also, noted that the factor for color of petiole was linked with the factor for shape of leaf with a 11.9587 percent recombination value, however no interaction or linkage were found among the color of stem and capsule color. Using Powers partitioning method, theoretical means and frequency distributions for each population, the days to flowering were calculated with the assumption that two gene pairs were involved. The values obtained fitted the theoretical values. In general this would indicate that Dashkent and G 38 F -1 were differentiated by two gene pairs. Heritability values were calculated as the percent of additive genetic variance. Heritability value of days to flowering, 89.5% in the broad sense and 79.91% in the narrow sense, indicated that the selection for this character would be effective in relatively early generations. Particularly, high positive correlations were found between days to flowering and the color of petioles and shape of leaves. However, there was no relation between days to flowering and capsule color nor between these and stem color. On the basis of the results of this experiment there is evidence that the hereditary factor for shape of leaves and the color of petioles is linked with an effective factor or factors for the characters of days to flowering. The association was sufficiently close to offer a possible simple and efficient means of selection for moderately early mat. uring plants by leaf shape and petiole color selection. Again using Powers partitioning method the frequency distribution for each population to the fiber weight were calculated with the assumption that two gene pairs, AaBb, were involved. Both phenotypic and genotypic dominance were complete. The obtained value did not agree with the theoretical value for $F_2$ and $BC_1$ ($F_1$ ${\times}$ Dashkent.) It seems that Dashkent and G 38 F-1 were differentiated by two major gene pairs but some the other minor genes are necessary. It is certain that the hereditary factor for shape of leaves and color of petioles is linked with an effective factor or factors for fiber weight. Also, high. yielding plants with moderately early maturity were found in the $F_2$ population. Thus, simultaneous selection for high-fiber yield and moderately early maturing plants should be possible in these populations. Phenotypic and genotypic correlation coefficients between fiber weight per plant and days to flowering, stem height and stem diameter were calculated. In general, genotypic correlations are higher than the phenotypic correlation. The highest correlation is found between stem height and fiber weight per plant (0.7852 in genotypic and 0.4103 in phenotypic) and between days to flowering and fiber weight per plant (0.7398 in genotypic and 0.3983 in phenotypic.) It was also expected that the selection of high stem height and moderately early maturing plants were given the efficient means of selection for high fiber weight.

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ON THE EFFECTS CHLORINITIES UPON GROWTH OF EARLIER LARVAE AND POST-LARVA OF A FRESH WATER PRAWN, MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGI(DE MAN) (담수산새우 Macrobrachium rosenbergi (de Man)의 초기유생 및 Post-larva.의 성장에 미치는 염분량에 관하여)

  • KWON Chin Soo;UNO Yutaka;OGASAWARA Yohismitsu
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.97-114
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    • 1977
  • The fresh water prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergi(de Man) is a very common species in Indopacific region, which inhaits both fresh and brackish water in low land area, most of rivers and especially aboundant in the lower reaches which are influenced by sea water. It is one of the largest and commercial species of genus Macrobrachium, which is commonly larger than $18\~21cm$ in body length, from the basis of eye-stalked to the distal of telson. As a part of the researches in order to investigate the possibilities on transplantation and propagation of this species, this work dealt with the problems on the effects of chlorinities upon zoeal larvae and post-larvae 1). metamorphosis rate and optimum chlorinity for metamorphosis to post-larve, 2). tolerance and comparative survival rate on various chlorinties, from fresh water to sea water $(19.38\%_{\circ}\;Cl)$, which reared for six days upon each stage of zoeal larvae, 3). accomodation rate on chlonities which reared for twelve days after transmigration into variant chlorinities of the range from $3.68\%_{\circ}$ Cl to $1.53\%_{\circ}$ Cl in the way of rearing of the range from $3.82\%_{\circ}$ Cl to $11.05\%_{\circ}$ upon each stage of zoea, 4). tolerance on both of fresh and sea water upon zoeal larva and post-larva under the condition of $28^{\circ}C{\pm}1$ in temperature and feeding on Artenia salina nauplii, 5). relationship between various chlorinities and grwth of post-larvae under the condition of $28^{\circ}C$ in tmperature and feeding on meat of clam. Thus these investigations were performed in order to grope for a comfortable method on seedmass production. Up to the present, the study on the effects of chlorinity upon earlier zoeal larvae and post-larvae of Macrobrachium species has been scarcely performed by workers with the exception of Lewis(1961) and Ling (1962,, 1967), even so their works were not so detailed. On the other hand, larvae of several species of this genus were reared at the water which mixed sea water so as to carry out complete metamorphosis to post-larva by workers in order to investigate on earlier 1 arval and earlier post-larval development, such as Macrobrachium lamerrei (Rajyalakshmi, 1961), M. rosenbergi and M. nipponense (Uno and Kwoa, 1969; Kwon and Uno, 1969), M. acanthurs (Choudhury, 1970; Dobkin, 1971), M. carcinus(Choudhury, 1970), M. formosense(Shokita, 1970), M. olfersii (Duggei et al., 1975), M. novaehallandiae (Greenwood et al., 1976), M. japonicum (Kwon, 1974) and M. lar (Shokita, personal communication), and there fore it is regarded that chlorinity is, generally, one of absolute factors to rear zoeal larvae of brackish species of Macrobrachium genus. Synthetic results on this work is summarized as the follwings: 1) Zoeal larvae required different chlorinities to grow according to each stage, and generally, it is regarded that optimum range of living and growing is from $7.63\%_{\circ}Cl\to\;7.63\%_{\circ}Cl$, and while differences of metamorphsis rate, from first zoea to post-larva, is rarely found in this range, and however it occurs apparently in both of situation at $7.63\%_{\circ}Cl$ below and $16.63\%_{\circ}Cl$ above and moreover, metamorphosis rate is delayed somewhat in case of lower chlorinity as compared with high chlorinity in these situations. 2) Accomodation in each chlorinity on the range, from fresh water to sea water, is different according to larval stages and while the best of it is, generally, on the range from $14.24\%_{\circ}Cl$ to $8.28\%_{\circ}Cl$ and favorite chlorinity of zoea have a tendency to remove from high chlorinity to lower chlorinity in order to advance larval age throughout all zoeal stages, setting a conversional stage for eighta zoea stage. 3) Optimum chlorinity of living and growth upon postlarvae is on the range of $4.25\%_{\circ}Cl$ below, and in proportion as approach to fresh water, growth rate is increased. 4) Post-large are able to live better in fresh water in comparison with zoeal larvae, which are only able to live within fifteen hours, and by contraries, post-larvae are merely able to live for one day as compared with ?미 larvar, which are able to live for six days more in sea water $19.38\%_{\circ}Cl\;above$. 5) Also, in case of transmigration into higher and lower chlorinities in the way of rearing in the initial chlorinities $ 3.82\%_{\circ}Cl,\;7.14%_{\circ}Cl\;and\;11.05%_{\circ}Cl$, accoodation rate is a follow: accomodation capacity in ease of removing into higher chlorinities from lower chlorinities is increased in proportion as earlier stages, setting a conversional stage for eighth zoea stage, and by contraries, in case of advanced stages from eighth zoea it is incraesed in proportion as approach to post-larva stage in the case of transmigration into lower chlorinity from higher chlorinity. On the other hand, it is interesting that in case of reciprocal transmigration between two different chlorinitiess, each survival rate is different, and in this case, also, its accomodation in each zoea stage has a tendency to vary according to larval stages as described above, setting a conversional stage for eighth zoea stage. 6) It is likely that expension of radish pigments on body surface is directly proportional to chlorinity during the period of zoea rearing, and therefore it seems like all body surfacts of zoea larvae be radish coloured in case of higher chlorinity. 7) By the differences that each zoeal larvae, postlarvae, juvaniles and adult prawn are required different chlorinity for inhabiting in each, it is regarded that this species migrats from up steam to near the estuary of the river which the prawns inhabits commonly in natural field for spawning and growth migration. 8) It had better maintainning chlorinities according to zoeal stage for a comfortable method on seed-mass production that earlier larva stages than eighth zoea are maintained on the range from $8\%_{\circ}Cl\;to\;12\%_{\circ}Cl$ to rear, and later larva stages than eighth zoea, by contraries, are gradually regula ted-to love chlorininity of the range from $7\%_{\circ}Cl\;to\;4\%_{\circ}Cl$ according to advance for post-larva stage.

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