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Trends in Rapid Detection Methods for Marine Organism-derived Toxins (해양 생물 유래 독소의 나노 기술 기반 신속 진단법 개발 동향)

  • Park, Chan Yeong;Kweon, So Yeon;Moon, Sunhee;Kim, Min Woo;Ha, Sang-Do;Park, Jong Pil;Park, Tae Jung
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.291-303
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    • 2020
  • Marine organism-derived toxins have negative effects not only on human health but also in aquaculture, fisheries, and marine ecosystems. However, traditional analytical methods are insufficient in preventing this threat. In this paper, we reviewed new rapid methods of toxin detection, which have been improved by adopting diverse types of nanomaterials and technologies. Moreover, we herein describe the main strategies for toxin detection and their related sensing performance. Notably, to popularize and commercialize these newly developed technologies, simplifying the process of pre-treating real samples real samples is very important. As part of these efforts, numerous studies have reported pretreatment methods based on the antibody-immobilized magnetic nanoparticles, and some cases have applied nanoparticles to enhance the sensing performance by utilizing the intrinsic catalytic activity. Furthermore, some reports have introduced fluorescent nanoparticles, such as quantum dots, to represent the lower detection limits of conventional enzyme-based colorimetric methods and lateral flow assays. Some studies using electrochemical measurements based on aptamer-nanoparticle complexes have also been announced. In addition, as the response to new toxins generated by changes in the marine environment is still lacking, further research on diagnostic and detection is also greatly needed for these kinds of marine toxins and their derivatives.

Detection of Point Mutations in the rpoB Gene Related to Drug Susceptibility in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis using an Oligonucleotide Chip (올리고뉴클레오티드 칩(Oligonucleotide Chip)을 이용한 항결핵제 감수성과 관련된 Mycobacterium tuberculosis rpoB 유전자의 점돌연변이 판별 방법)

  • Kim, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Seong-Keun;Shim, Tae-Sun;Park, Yong-Doo;Park, Mi-Sun
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.29-41
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    • 2001
  • Background : The appearance of multiple-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains has been seriously compromising successful control of tuberculosis. Rifampin-resistance, caused by mutations in the rpoB gene, can be indicative of multiple-drug-resistance, and its detection is of great importance. The present study aimed to develop an oligonucleotide chip for accurate and convenient screening of drug-resistance. Methods : In order to detect point mutations in the rpoB gene, an oligonucleotide chip was prepared by immobilizing specific probe DNA to a microscopic slide glass by a chemical reaction. The probe DNA that was selected from the 81 bp core region of the rpoB gene was designed to have mutation sites at the center. A total of 17 mutant probes related to rifampin-resistance including 8 rifabutin-sensitive mutant probes were used in this study. For accurate determination, wild type probes were prepared for each mutation position with an equal length, which enabled a direct comparison of the hybridization intensities between the mutant and wild type. Results : Mycobacterial genomic DNA from clinical samples was tested with the oligonucleotide chip and the results were compared with those of the drug-susceptibility test in addition to sequencing and INNO-LiPA Rif. TB kit test in some cases. Out of 15 samples, the oligonucleotide chip results of 13 samples showed good agreement with the rifabutin-sensitivity results. The two samples with conflicting result also showed a discrepancy between the other tests, suggesting such possibilities as existence of mixed strains and difference in drug-sensitivity. Further verification of these samples in addition to more case studies are required before the final evaluation of the oligonucleotide chip can be made. Conlcusion : An oligonucleotide chip was developed for the detection of rpoB gene mutations related to drugsusceptibility. The results to date show the potential for using the oligonucleotide chip for accurate and convenient screening of drug-resistance to provide useful information in antituberculosis drug therapy.

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Study on Radioactive Material Management Plan and Environmental Analysis of Water (I) Study of Radioactive Substances in Water Management and Analysis to Eat of the US Environmental Protection Agency (Envirionmental Protection Agency) (물 환경의 방사성 물질 관리 방안과 분석법에 관한 연구 (I) 미국환경보호청(Envirionmental Protection Agency)의 먹는 물 방사성물질 관리와 분석법에 관한 고찰)

  • Her, Jae;Kim, Jung-Min;Min, Hye-Lim;Han, Seong-Gyu;Lim, Hyun-Jong;Jo, Han-Byeol;Noh, Young-Hoon;Lee, Ho-Sun;Park, Min-Suk
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.163-170
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    • 2015
  • The interest of the people in the radioactive contamination of the water has increased significantly and the study about analysis and management of radioactive materials are being actively conducted. And monitoring spots have been expanded to the range of public water as well as drinking water by publishing the rule of drinking water quality standards and examination in the Environmental Enforcement Ordinance No. 553 of Korea. In this study, US EPA was investigated as the foreign advanced cases and the way that is appropriate for the Korea was sought by analyzing investigate radionuclide, interval and management. As a result, in the selection part of investigate radionuclide, geological survey, status of nuclear power plants and the presence of the use of artificial radionuclides of the Korea should be investigated and additionally after the selection of a few radionuclides, the systems should be extended to cover all possible radionuclides by considering radioactive pollution levels in humans may be exposed due to the annual drinking water. In the part of the investigate interval, the concept(MCL, DL) should be set up for preventing concentration detection of above MCL and it needs to the maintenance and management. For example, when the concentration is more than MCL, it should be investigated on a quarterly and when the concentration is lower than MCL, it should be investigated to each different interval and management. And the US EPA divided the management area and make the roadmap for managing drinking water. The each classified area has been organized to match the state budget and labor force and the individual data have been managed effectively by HPGe, the NaI, TLD and so on.

Effect of Air Temperature on Growth and Phytochemical Content of Beet and Ssamchoo (온도처리가 비트와 쌈추의 생육과 생리활성 물질 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sang Gyu;Choi, Chang Sun;Lee, Hee Ju;Jang, Yoon Ah;Lee, Jun Gu
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.303-308
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    • 2015
  • The consumption of leaf vegetables has been steadily increasing in Korea. Leaf vegetables are used for "Ssam (vegetable wrap-up), eaf vegetables has been steadily increasing in Korea. Leaf vegetables are used for asoned condiments inside several layers of young vegetable leaves. This study investigated the effect of air temperature on the growth and phytochemical contents of beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and Ssamchoo (Brassica lee L. ssp. namai) grown in a closed-type plant factory system where fluorescent lamps were used as an artificial light source. Seeds of beet and Ssamchoo were sown in a peat-lite germination mix. The roots of 20-day-old seedlings were washed, and the seedlings were planted on a styrofoam board and grown in hydroponic beds for 25 days under fluorescent light. Plants were exposed to one of three different air temperature regimes (20, 25 and $30^{\circ}C$ during the day combined with $18^{\circ}C$ during the night), which were monitored with a sensor at 30 cm above the plant canopy. Increased plant height and leaf area were observed in beet at $25^{\circ}C$ and $30^{\circ}C$ compared to $20^{\circ}C$. For Ssamchoo, the greatest plant height, leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight were obtained at $20^{\circ}C$. Ascorbic acid content of beet and Ssamchoo leaves were highest at $30^{\circ}C$. In beet, total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were higher at $20^{\circ}C$ (42.4, $197.0mg{\cdot}g^{-1}DW$) and $25^{\circ}C$ (46.9, $217.0mg{\cdot}g^{-1}DW$) than $30^{\circ}C$ (22.4, $88.0mg{\cdot}g^{-1}DW$). In Ssamchoo, total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were also higher at $20^{\circ}C$ (79.2, $268.2mg{\cdot}g^{-1}DW$) and $25^{\circ}C$ (66.3, $258.3mg{\cdot}g^{-1}DW$), respectively, than $30^{\circ}C$ (53.7, $134.7mg{\cdot}g^{-1}DW$). Hence, the optimum temperature appears to be $20^{\circ}C$ for growing both beet and Ssamchoo in a closed-type plant factory system with fluorescent light.

The Analysis of Dose in a Rectum by Multipurpose Brachytherapy Phantom (근접방사선치료용 다목적 팬톰을 이용한 직장 내 선량분석)

  • Huh, Hyun-Do;Kim, Seong-Hoon;Cho, Sam-Ju;Lee, Suk;Shin, Dong-Oh;Kwon, Soo-Il;Kim, Hun-Jung;Kim, Woo-Chul;K. Loh John-J.
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.223-229
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: In this work we designed and made MPBP(Multi Purpose Brachytherapy Phantom). The MPBP enables one to reproduce the same patient set-up in MPBP as the treatment of the patient and we tried to get an exact analysis of rectal doses in the phantom without need of in-vivo dosimetry. Materials and Methods: Dose measurements were tried at a point of rectum 1, the reference point of rectum, with a diode detector for 4 patients treated with tandem and ovoid for a brachytherapy of a cervix cancer. Total 20 times of rectal dose measurements were made with 5 times a patient. The set-up variation of the diode detector was analyzed. The same patient set-ups were reproduced in self-made MPBP and then rectal doses were measured with TLD. Results: The measurement results of the diode detector showed that the set-up variation of the diode detector was the maximum $11.25{\pm}0.95mm$ in the y-direction for Patient 1 and the maximum $9.90{\pm}4.50mm,\;20.85{\pm}4.50mm,\;and\;19.15{\pm}3.33mm$ in the z-direction for Patient 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Un analyzing the degree of variation in 3 directions the more variation was showed in the z-direction than x- and y-direction except Patient 1. The results of TLD measurements in MPBP showed the relative maximum error of 8.6% and 7.7% at a point of rectum 1 for Patient 1 and 4, respectively and 1.7% and 1.2% for Patient 2 and 3, respectively. The doses measured at R1 and R2 were higher than those calculated except R point of Patient 2. this can be thought to related to the algorithm of dose calculation, whcih corrects for air and water but is guessed not to consider the correction for the scattered rays, but by considering the self-error (${\pm}5%$) TLD has the relative error of values measured and calculated was analyzed to be in a good agreement within 15%. Conclusion: The reproducibility of dose measurements under the same condition as the treatment could be achieved owing to the self-made MPMP and the dose at the point of interest could be analyzed accurately. If a treatment is peformed after achieving dose optimization using the data obtained in the phantom, dose will be able to be minimized to important organs.

The Effect of Seminal Plasma on Chilling and Freezing of Canine Spermatozoa (개 정액의 정장이 개정자의 냉각과 동결에 미치는 영향)

  • You, Myung-Jo;Lee, John-Hwa;Kim, In-Shik;Park, Jin-Ho;Kwon, Jung-Kee;Kim, Jong-Hoon;Kim, Bum-Seok;Yu, Il-Jeoung
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.486-492
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    • 2007
  • Seminal plasma(SP) is usually removed from semen that is to be cryopreserved. However, some reports indicate that SP has beneficial effects on spermatozoa during chilling and freezing. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of SP on sperm survival by adding SP to the extender before cooling and freezing canine spermatozoa. In replicate experiments, ejaculates obtained from four healthy dogs(1-4 years old) of various breeds were pooled, centrifuged at $300{\times}g$ for 10 min at $25^{\circ}C$, and the supernatant of seminal plasma was decanted. Spermatozoa were suspended in egg yolk-Tris(EYT) buffer. The study comprised two experiments: [Exp 1] Sperm were suspended in EYT extender containing either 0, 20, 40, 80 or 100% SP and were slowly cooled to $4^{\circ}C$ for 2h or held at $25^{\circ}C$ as controls. Sperm concentration was adjusted to $2{\times}10^8/ml$. [Exp II] Sperm samples, each of which contained $1{\times}10^8/ml$, were assigned to nine groups to be frozen. In the first four groups, sperm in EYT containing either 20, 40, 80 or 100% SP were cooled to $4^{\circ}C$, then diluted to contain final concentrations of EYT+0.6M glycerol and then were frozen. The final concentrations of SP were 10, 20, 40 or 50%. In the other four groups, sperm in EYT alone were first cooled slowly to $4^{\circ}C$, then diluted to contain final concentrations of EYT+0.6M glycerol plus 10, 20, 40 or 50% SP and then were frozen. Spermatozoa, which chilled in EYT alone and diluted to contain final concentrations of EYT+0.6M glycerol without seminal plasma, and then frozen, was regarded as control. Spermatozoa were frozen at $25^{\circ}C/min$ of cooling rate in plastic straws that were suspended above liquid nitrogen and thawed in water at $38^{\circ}C$ for 1 min. Sperm survival was assayed by determining progressive motility and integrity of plasma and acrosome membranes. Progressive motility was determined by microscopic examination at $200{\times}$ magnification. Membrane integrity was assessed by use of a double fluorescent dye, and acrosome integrity by staining sperm with Pisum sativum agglutinin. The results of the first experiment showed that adding SP did not improve motility of spermatozoa compared to those incubated without SP regardless of temperature. The results of the second experiment showed that spermatozoa suspended in EYT+0.6M glycerol containing SP exhibited the higher progressive motility before being frozen(P<0.05). However, frozen-thawed spermatozoa that had suspended in EYT+0.6M glycerol containing SP showed the similar or lower viability(P<0.05). In summary, although seminal plasma did not affect spermatozoa that were chilled in EYT without cryoprotectant(CPA), addition of seminal plasma to EYT containing CPA did significantly improved progressive motility of canine spermatozoa that were chilled.

Clinical and Pathologic Analysis of Thin Glomerular Basement Membrane Disease in Children (소아 비박형 기저막신증의 임상 및 병리학적 분석)

  • Ko Myoung Jin;Yang Tae Jin;Kim Young Ju;Chung Woo Yeong
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : Clinical manifestations and pathologic findings of thin glumerular basement membrane disease, recognized as a common underlying disease of benign, familaiar and asymptomatic hematuria has not been reported systemically in Korera. We analyzed clinical and pathologic findings of patients who were diagnosed as thin glomerular basement membrane disease Methods : We analyzed clinical and pathologic findings of twenty-six patients who were diagnosed as thin glomerular basement membrane disease by renal biopsy among who complained asymptomatic hematuria from 1990 to 2000. Results : The subjects were aged 9.4${\pm}$3.2 (3.0-15.8) years-old at onset of hematuria, and 11.1${\pm}$2.2 (4.7-16.3) years-old at renal biopsy. Sexual discrepancy was more common in girls (eight boys and eighteen girls). A family history of hematuria was found in 8 patients(30.7$\%$). Major clinical manifestation on admission was microscopic hematuria according to the findings of 3case(11.5$\%$) of gross hematuria, 23cases(88.5$\%$9) of microscopic hematuria, and 1 case(3.8$\%$) of proteinuria. Microscopic hematuria persisted in all cases. Kidney biopsy showed few changes by light microscopy, but IgM, C3 and fibrinogen deposit in mesangium was found by immunofluorescent microscopy in a few cases. Electron microscopic findings have revealed thinning of the glomerular basement membrane varied from 180.9${\pm}$35.8nm. Conclusion : Thin glomerular basement membrane disease might be a common cause of microscopic hematuria of children and family history was revealed in about 30$\%$. Clinical progression was good in majorities.(J. Korean Soc Pediatr Nephrol 5 : 1-8, 2001)

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The study on cytotoxicity of cytokines produced by the activated human NKT cells on neuroblastoma (활성화된 자연살상 T 세포(NKT)에서 생성된 사이토카인에 의한 신경모세포종의 세포독성에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Jin Young;Yoon, Young Wook;Yoon, Hyang Suk;Kim, Jong Duk;Choi, Du Young
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.439-445
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    • 2006
  • Purpose : ${\alpha}$-Galactosylceramide (${\alpha}$-GalCer)-stimulated human $V{\alpha}24$ natural killer T (NKT) cells exert antitumor activity against some leukemia in a CD1d dependent and TCR-mediated manner, but could not kill CD1d - negative neuroblastoma (NB) cells. There are few reports about the direct antitumor effect of highly secreted cytokines by these cells on activation. In this study, using a cell-free supernatant (SPN) collected from plate bound hCD1d/${\alpha}$ GalCer tetramers-stimulated NKT cells, we examined whether they could be helpful in the immunotherapeutic treatment of NB. Methods : Cells were cultured in IMDM. The cytokines produced by NKT cells were measured with Cytometric Bead Array (CBA) analysis. Cell viability was evaluated by calcein-AM fluorescence with digital image microscopy scanning (DIMSCAN). The percentage of specific apoptosis was calculated by flow cytometric detection of apoptosis using annexin V and 7-AAD. Results : The activated NKT cells secreted high levels of IL-2, INF-${\gamma}$, TNF-${\alpha}$. The SPN was significantly cytotoxic against four out of eight tested NB cell lines, through mainly apoptosis as evidenced by annexin-V staining and inhibition with the pretreatment of pancaspase blocker. This apoptosis was significantly inhibited when anti-TNF-${\alpha}$ and anti-IFN-${\gamma}$ neutralizing mAbs were used separately and it was completely abolished when the two mAbs were combined. Conclusion : IFN-${\gamma}$ and TNF-${\alpha}$ produced by NKT cells could exert synergistically direct antitumor activity through apoptosis on some NB cell lines.

Effect of Elevated Ultraviolet-B Radiation on Yield and Differential Expression of Proteome in Perilla (perilla frutescens L.) (잎들깨 수량과 단백질체 발현에 미치는 UV-B의 영향)

  • Hong, Seung-Chang;Hwang, Seon-Woong;Chang, An-Cheol;Shin, Pyung-Gyun;Jang, Byoung-Choon;Lee, Chul-Won
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.7-13
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    • 2006
  • Plastichouse cultivation for crops and vegetables in the winter has been widely popularized in Korea. In the vinylhouse Ultraviolet B penetration is lower than in the field, and so some problems, as plant overgrowth and outbreak of disease, occurred frequently. The effect of artificial supplement ultraviolet B $(UV-B:280{\sim}320nm)$ radiation on the physiological responses and yield of perilla (perilla frutescens) was investigated UV-B ray was radiated on perilla with the 10th leaf stage at the distance of 90, 120 and 150 cm from the plant canopy for 30 days after planting in the vinylhouse. The production of fresh perilla leaves was high in the order of plastic house, ambient+50% of supplemental UV-B, ambient ambient+100% of supplemental UV-B. Enhanced UV-B radiation affected the intensity of thirty-three proteins in 2-dimensional electrophoretic analysis of proteins and ten proteins out of them seemed to be responsive to UV-B : a protein was, ATP synthase CF1 alpha chain, down regulated and nine proteins (Chlorophyll a/b bindng protein type I, Chlorophyll a/b binding protein type II precursor, Photosystem I P700 chlorophyll a apoprotein A2, DNA recombination and repair protein recF, Galactinol synthase, S-adenosyl-L-methionine, Heat shock protein 21, Calcium-dependent protein kinase(CDPK)-like, Catalase) were up-regulated.

Apoptotic Effect of Co-Treatment with Valproic Acid and HS-1200 on Human Osteosarcoma Cells (Valproic acid와 HS-1200의 병용처리가 사람골육종세포에 미치는 세포자멸사 효과에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Duck-Han;Lee, Kee-Hyun;Kim, In-Ryoung;Kwak, Hyun-Ho;Park, Bong-Soo;Jeong, Sung-Hee;Ko, Myung-Yun;Ahn, Yong-Woo
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.165-175
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    • 2010
  • Valproic acid (VPA) is a well-known anticonvulsive agent and has been used in the treatment of epilepsy for almost 30 years. VPA emerged in 1997 as an antineoplastic agent as well, when findings indicated the substance inhibited proliferation and induced differentiation of primitive neuroectocdermal tumor cells in vivo (Cinatl et al., 1997). Antitmor activity of VPA is associated with its targeting histone deacetylases. Bile acids and their synthetic derivatives induced apoptosis in various kinds of cancer cells and anticancer effects. It has been reported that the synthetic chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) derivatives showed apoptosis-inducing activity on various cancer cells in vitro. This study was undertaken to investigate the synergistic apoptotic effect of co-treatment with the histone deacetylases inhibitor, VPA and a CDCA derivative, HS-1200 on human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells. Cell viability was evaluated by trypan-blue exclusion. Induction and augmentation of apoptosis were confirmed by Hoechst staining, flow cytometry (DNA hypoploidy and MMP change), Westen blot analysis and immunofluorescent staining. In this study, HOS cells co-treated with VPA and HS-1200 showed several lines of apoptotic manifestation such as nuclear condensations, the reduction of MMP, the decrease of DNA content, the release of cytochrome c into cytosol, the translocation of AIF onto nuclei, and activation of caspase-7, caspase-3 and PARP whereas each single treated HOS cells did not. Although the single treatment of 1 mM VPA or $25\;{\mu}M$ HS-1200 for 48 h did not induce apoptosis, the co-treatment of them induced prominently apoptosis. Therefore our data provide the possibility that combination therapy of VPA and HS-1200 could be considered as a novel therapeutic strategy for human osteosarcoma.