• Title, Summary, Keyword: 형상 최적설계

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Formation Control of Calcium and Magnesium Compounds by Electrodeposition Process in Seawater (해수 중 전착 프로세스에 의한 칼슘 및 마그네슘 화합물의 형성 제어)

  • Park, Jun-Mu;Hwang, Seong-Hwa;Choe, In-Hye;Gang, Jun;Lee, Myeong-Hun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Surface Engineering Conference
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    • pp.164-164
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    • 2017
  • 해양환경 중 많이 사용되는 철강재료들은 그 가혹한 부식환경에 대응하기 위하여 일반적으로 피복 도장방식법이나 음극방식법이 적용되고 있다. 여기서 음극방식법은 선박 및 해양구조물의 해중부 부식에 대해 가장 효과적인 방식법으로 알려져 있다. 한편, 이와 같이 해수 중 철강재에 음극방식을 적용할 경우, 피방식체인 그 강재 표면에 해수 중 용존된 산소의 음극환원 반응이 일어나며 국부적인 알카리 표면 조건을 형성시켜 $Mg(OH)_2$$CaCO_3$의 막을 석출시킨다. 이와같이 음극방식 중 형성된 전착물은 방식해야 될 표면적을 감소시켜 방식전류밀도를 감소시키는 효과가 있는 것으로 보고되고 있다. 이렇게 석출된 전착물은 음극표면에 부분적으로 형성되고, 여러 가지 환경 조건 등의 영향을 받아 그 피막의 형성 정도도 가늠하기 어렵기 때문에 음극방식 설계 시 그 정도에 따른 영향을 고려-반영하기가 곤란하다. 또한 이 전착물은 그 형성 메커니즘에 관한 해석이나 강도, 균일한 밀착성, 장기적인 방식효과 및 효율성 등이 아직 충분히 입증되어 있지 않은 실정에 있다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 해수 중 다양한 전착 프로세스에 의해 제작된 전착물의 기간별, 도장코팅 종류별 특성변화를 분석 및 평가하고, 전착물에 의한 희생양극 소모전류 변화 측정 분석을 통해 전착막을 균일하고 치밀하게 형성시키기 위한 최적의 조건을 찾고자 하였다. 또한 석출속도, 밀착성 및 내식특성을 향상시키기 위해 해수 중 기체를 용해시켜 제작한 막의 특성을 분석-평가하였다. 본 연구에 사용된 강 기판은 일반구조용강(KS D 3503, SS400)으로 ${\varnothing}42.7{\times}1,000mm{\times}4.0t$의 형상으로 제작하였다. 인가된 전류밀도는 1, 3 및 $5A/m^2$이고 도장 코팅 종류별 전착 석출물의 형성차이 비교 분석을 위한 실험은 선박 및 해양구조물에 많이 사용되는 Universal Epoxy 도료 2종을 선정하여 진행하였다. 또한 Steel Wire Mesh의 영향을 알아보기 위해 Mesh를 설치하여 실험을 진행하였다. 기간별-도장 종류별 외관관찰, 전착물의 두께 측정, SEM, EDS 및 XRD를 통해 막의 모폴로지, 조성원소 및 결정구조를 분석하였으며, 전착물의 내식성과 내구성을 평가하기 위해 테이핑 테스트(Taping Test) 및 전기화학적 양극분극 시험을 실시하였다. 희생양극 소모율에 대한 전착물의 영향을 확인하기 위해 외부전원을 인가하여 전착 피막을 형성시킨 강 기판에 희생양극을 연결하여 희생양극 소모효율 측정 시험을 진행하였다. 전착물의 석출량은 시간 및 전류밀도의 증가에 따라 비례하여 증가하였으며, 음극전류 인가 시 금속과 용액 계면 사이의 확산층에서 발생한 $OH^-$ 이온으로 인해 금속과 용액 계면 사이 pH가 부분적으로 증가하여 $Mg(OH)_2$ 화합물이 많이 생성되는 것으로 확인되었다. 또한 Mesh의 부착으로 평활하지 않게 형성된 미세한 굴곡구조 및 표면적 증가로 인하여 단계적으로 피복되는데 필요한 시간이 지연되면서 $CaCO_3$에 비해 $Mg(OH)_2$ 화합물이 상대적으로 증가한 것으로 사료된다. $CaCO_3$(Aragonite) 구조는 견고한 피막으로 치밀하고 화학적 친화력이 높아 우수한 밀착성을 보였으며 전착물의 영향으로 양극 전류가 감소하였고, 이로인해 방식전류 절감효과를 얻을 수 있을 것으로 기대된다.

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The Study on Application of Regional Frequency Analysis using Kernel Density Function (핵밀도 함수를 이용한 지역빈도해석의 적용에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, Tae-Suk;Kim, Jong-Suk;Moon, Young-Il;Yoo, Seung-Yeon
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.39 no.10
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    • pp.891-904
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    • 2006
  • The estimation of the probability precipitation is essential for the design of hydrologic projects. The techniques to calculate the probability precipitation can be determined by the point frequency analysis and the regional frequency analysis. The regional frequency analysis includes index-flood technique and L-moment technique. In the regional frequency analysis, even if the rainfall data passed homogeneity, suitable distributions can be different at each point. However, the regional frequency analysis can supplement the lacking precipitation data. Therefore, the regional frequency analysis has weaknesses compared to parametric point frequency analysis because of suppositions about probability distributions. Therefore, this paper applies kernel density function to precipitation data so that homogeneity is defined. In this paper, The data from 16 rainfall observatories were collected and managed by the Korea Meteorological Administration to achieve the point frequency analysis and the regional frequency analysis. The point frequency analysis applies parametric technique and nonparametric technique, and the regional frequency analysis applies index-flood techniques and L-moment techniques. Also, the probability precipitation was calculated by the regional frequency analysis using variable kernel density function.

A Study on the Injection Molding Analysis of the Metal Powder Material (금속분말재료의 사출 성형해석에 관한 연구)

  • Ro, Chan-Seung;Park, Jong-Nam;Jung, Han-Byul
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.18 no.10
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    • pp.42-47
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    • 2017
  • In this study,we conducted an injection molding analysis of metal powder materials for the development of flanges, which are necessary adapters for optical communication. The metal powder injection molding process is a technique for producing an injection molded article having a complicated shape by mixing ceramic or stainless powder and binders. It is used to produce products which require complex processing technology or for which the productivity is low. The purpose of this study is to minimize the manufacturing processing of products which are manufactured through existing mechanical processing procedures. For the injection molding analysis, we mixed stainless STS316 metal powder with binders at a ratio of 6 to 4 to make molding materials consisting of granular pellets. Then, three-dimensional modeling and meshing were carried out to obtain the optimal injection molding analysis conditions(molding temperature, melting temperature, injection time, injection temperature, injection pressure, packing time and cooling time). As a result of the analysis, it was discovered that the inlet became available 13.29 seconds after the first injection. Also, as the flowing and packing in the melt through the sprue, runner and gate were stable, it is expected that good molds can be manufactured.

The Optimization of FCBGA thermal Design by Micro Pattern Structure (마이크로 패턴 구조를 이용한 플립칩 패키지 BGA의 최적 열설계)

  • Lee, Tae-Kyoung;Kim, Dong-Min;Jun, Ho-In;Ha, Sang-Won;Jeong, Myung-Yung
    • Journal of the Microelectronics and Packaging Society
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.59-65
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    • 2011
  • According to the trends of electronic package to be smaller, thinner and more integrative, Flip Chip Ball Grid Array (FCBGA) become more used for mobile phone. However, the flip chip necessarily generate the heat by the electrical resistance and generated heat is increased due to reduced distribution area of the heat in accordance with the miniaturization trend of the package. Thermal issues can result in problems of devices that are sensitive to temperature and stress. Then the heat can generate problems to the system. In this paper, in order to improve the thermal issues of FCBGA, thermal characteristics of FCBGA was analyzed qualitatively by using the general heat transfer module of Comsol 3.5a and In order to solve thermal issues, flip chip with new micro structure is proposed by the simulation. and also by comparing existing model and analyzing variables such as pitch, height of the pattern and shape of the heat spreader, the improvement of heat dissipation characteristics about 18% was confirmed.

The Effect of NH3 Concentration during Co-precipitation of Precursors from Leachate of Lithium-ion Battery Positive Electrode Active Materials (리튬이차전지 양극활물질의 암모니아 침출액에서 공침법에 의한 활물질 전구체의 합성에 대한 암모니아 농도의 영향)

  • Park, Sanghyuk;Ku, Heesuk;Lee, Kyoung-Joon;Song, Jun Ho;Kim, Sookyung;Sohn, Jeongsoo;Kwon, Kyungjung
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.9-16
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    • 2015
  • In a recycling scheme of spent lithium ion batteries, a co-precipitation process for the re-synthesis of precursor is essential after the leaching of lithium ion battery scraps. In this study, the effect of ammonia as impurity during the co-precipitation process was investigated in order to re-synthesize a precursor of Ni-rich cathode active material $LiNi_{0.6}Co_{0.2}Mn_{0.2}O_2$ (NCM 622). As ammonia concentration increases from 1 M (the optimum condition for synthesis of the precursors based on 2 M of metal salt solution) to 4 M, the composition of obtained precursors deviates from the designed composition, most notably for Ni. The Ni co-precipitation efficiency gradually decreases from 100% to 87% when the concentration of ammonia solution increases from 1 M to 4 M. Meanwhile, the morphological properties of the obtained precursors such as sphericity, homogeneity and size distribution of particles were also investigated.

Applicability Estimation of Ballast Non-exchange-type Quick-hardening Track Using a Layer Separation Pouring Method (층 분리주입을 이용한 도상자갈 무교환방식 급속경화궤도의 적용성 평가)

  • Lee, Il Wha;Jung, Young Ho;Lee, Min Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.543-551
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    • 2015
  • Quick-hardening track (QHT) is a construction method which is used to change from old ballast track to concrete track. Sufficient time for construction is important, as the construction should be done during operational breaks at night. Most of the time is spent on exchanging the ballast layer. If it is possible to apply the ballast non-exchange type of quick-hardening track, it would be more effective to reduce the construction time and costs. In this paper, pouring materials with high permeability are suggested and a construction method involving a layer separation pouring process considering the void condition is introduced in order to develop ballast non-exchange type of QHT. The separate pouring method can secure the required strength because optimized materials are poured into the upper layer and the lower layer for each void ratio condition. To ensure this process, a rheology analysis was conducted on the design of the pouring materials according to aggregate size, the aggregate distribution, the void ratio, the void size, the tortuosity and the permeability. A polymer series was used as the pouring material of the lower layer to secure the void filling capacity and for adhesion to the fine-grained layer. In addition, magnesium-phosphate ceramic (MPC) was used as the pouring material of the upper layer to secure the void-filling capacity and for adhesion of the coarse-grained layer. As a result of a mechanics test of the materials, satisfactory performance corresponding to existing quick-hardening track was noted.

A Study of Frangibility of 9MM Bullet Related to Material Composition and Sinter Condition (합금 조성 및 소결 조건에 따른 9MM 탄자의 파쇄성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Bo-Ram;Seo, Jung-Hwa;Jung, Hee-Chur;Kim, Kyu-Young
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.615-622
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    • 2020
  • Frangible bullets, which are shredded after impact on a target, reduce the possibility of both ricochet and unexpected injury in shooting training and in mission acts in dams, nuclear power plants, and cultural properties. Reducing the levels of hazardous materials in shooting ranges, such as lead, has become an important agenda for the government and environmental groups. In this study, the shape of a frangible bullet was designed for efficient shredding, and the safety and reliability were confirmed by actual firing under different process conditions. In addition, the physical characteristics, such as compaction pressure, density, and frangibility of each process, were compared by analyzing the microstructure of the sintered frangible bullet. The experiment revealed the smallest fragmentation after impact on the target under the following conditions: Cu-Sn 85:15; sintering temperature, 600℃; sintering time, one hour. Further development of the process conditions and experimental methods will contribute to the performance and environmental improvement of a frangible bullet.

Numerical and Experimental Study on the Coal Reaction in an Entrained Flow Gasifier (습식분류층 석탄가스화기 수치해석 및 실험적 연구)

  • Kim, Hey-Suk;Choi, Seung-Hee;Hwang, Min-Jung;Song, Woo-Young;Shin, Mi-Soo;Jang, Dong-Soon;Yun, Sang-June;Choi, Young-Chan;Lee, Gae-Goo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.165-174
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    • 2010
  • The numerical modeling of a coal gasification reaction occurring in an entrained flow coal gasifier is presented in this study. The purposes of this study are to develop a reliable evaluation method of coal gasifier not only for the basic design but also further system operation optimization using a CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) method. The coal gasification reaction consists of a series of reaction processes such as water evaporation, coal devolatilization, heterogeneous char reactions, and coal-off gaseous reaction in two-phase, turbulent and radiation participating media. Both numerical and experimental studies are made for the 1.0 ton/day entrained flow coal gasifier installed in the Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER). The comprehensive computer program in this study is made basically using commercial CFD program by implementing several subroutines necessary for gasification process, which include Eddy-Breakup model together with the harmonic mean approach for turbulent reaction. Further Lagrangian approach in particle trajectory is adopted with the consideration of turbulent effect caused by the non-linearity of drag force, etc. The program developed is successfully evaluated against experimental data such as profiles of temperature and gaseous species concentration together with the cold gas efficiency. Further intensive investigation has been made in terms of the size distribution of pulverized coal particle, the slurry concentration, and the design parameters of gasifier. These parameters considered in this study are compared and evaluated each other through the calculated syngas production rate and cold gas efficiency, appearing to directly affect gasification performance. Considering the complexity of entrained coal gasification, even if the results of this study looks physically reasonable and consistent in parametric study, more efforts of elaborating modeling together with the systematic evaluation against experimental data are necessary for the development of an reliable design tool using CFD method.

Comparison of Heating Characteristics of Electric Heating Element Heater and Oil Hot Air Heater in Single Span Greenhouses (전기발열체 난방기 및 유류온풍 난방기의 단동온실 난방 특성 비교)

  • Kwon, Jin Kyung;Kim, Seung Hee;Shin, Young An;Lee, Jae Han;Park, Kyeong Sub;Kang, Youn Koo
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.324-332
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    • 2017
  • The comparative experiments were conducted for single span greenhouses where cucumbers were cultivated to analyze the effect of heating between a carbon fiber electric heating element heater and an oil hot air heater in terms of the inside climate, energy consumption and plant growth. In order to analyze the effect of heating capacity, 6, 9, and 16 kW of electric powers were supplied to the electric heating element for same setting temperature of 15?. As a result, as the heating capacity increased, the number of ON-OFF cycles of the electric heating element and the temperature inside the greenhouse increased proportionally. In the comparison of two heaters, it was shown that the temperature and relative humidity distributions of the electric heating element installed greenhouse was much uniform than those of the oil hot air heater installed greenhouse. The heating energy consumptions during the heating period of 79 days were 867L for the oil hot air heater and 8,959 kWh for the electric heating element heater, and the heating costs were 607 and 403 thousand won respectively. In the electric heating element installed greenhouse, the cucumber growth was slightly better and the yield was 4.3% higher than those of the oil hot air heater installed greenhouse, but there were no statically significant difference in the cucumber growth and yield between greenhouses.

Development of Optimum Grip System in Developing Design Tensile Strength of GFRP Rebars (GFRP 보강근의 설계 인장강도 발현을 위한 적정 그립시스템 개발)

  • You Young-Chan;Park Ji-Sun;You Young-Jun;Park Young-Hwan;Kim Keung-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.947-953
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    • 2005
  • Previous test results showed that the current ASTM(American Standard for Testing and Materials) grip adapter for GFRP(Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer) rebar was not fully successful in developing the design tensile strength of GFRP rebars with reasonable accuracy. It is because the current ASTM grip adapter which is composed of a pair of rectangular metal blocks of which inner faces are grooved along the longitudinal direction does not take into account the various geometric characteristics of GFRP rebar such as surface treatment, shape of bar cross section as well as physical characteristics such as poisson effect, elastic modulus in the transverse direction and so on. The objective of this paper is to provide how to proportion the optimum diameter of inner groove in ASTM grip adapter to develop design tensile strength of GFRP rebar. The proportioning of inner groove in ASTM grip adapter is based on the force equilibrium of GFRP rebar between tensile capacity and minimum frictional resistance required along the grip adapter. The frictional resistance of grip adapter is calculated based on the compressive strain compatibility in radial direction induced by the difference between diameter of GFRP rebar and inner groove In ASTM grip. All testing procedures were made according to the CSA S806-02 recommendations. From the preliminary test results on round-type GFRP rebars, it was found that maximum tensile loads acquired under the same testing conditions is highly affected by the diameter of inner groove in ASTM grip adapter. The grip adapter with specific dimension proportioned by proposed method recorded the highest tensile strength among them.