• Title, Summary, Keyword: 혼잡통행료

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Comparison of Area Pricing and Cordon Pricing in General Equilibrium Models (구역혼잡통행료와 진입통행료의 비교)

  • Yu, Sang-Gyun;Jeong, Chang-Mu;Lee, Hyeok-Ju
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.145-155
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    • 2009
  • This paper compares the relative performances of area and cordon tolls as opposed to the first-best congestion tolls with respect to alleviation of traffic congestion and social welfare. The comparison is done in the monocentric city where all the jobs are located at the city center. The study shows that the size of charging zones is similar in the two second-bests, but that the optimal toll level is higher in area pricing than in cordon pricing. Area pricing schemes turn out to perform better than cordon pricing schemes as measured by average speeds and daily average travel time. Accordingly, the former is shown to increase the social welfare more than the latter. In the case of the cordon tolls, the residents at the charging zones are exempted from the tolls. In this way, cordon tolls invite people into the most congested areas over the optimal level while partially negating the whole spirit of the congestion tolls.

A Multiple User Class Congestion Pricing Model and Equity (혼잡통행료 산정모형의 개발 및 계층간 형평성 연구)

  • Im, Yong-Taek;Kim, Byeong-Gwan
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.183-193
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    • 2007
  • Traditionally, a congestion charge based on first-best congestion pricing theory, namely, the theory of marginal cost pricing theory, is equal to the difference between marginal social cost and marginal private cost. It is charged on each link so as to derive a user equilibrium flow pattern to a system optimal one. Based on this theory this paper investigates on the characteristics of first-best congestion pricing of multiple user class on road with variable demand, and presents two methods for analysis of social and spatial equity. For these purposes, we study on the characteristics of first-best congestion pricing derived from system optimal in time and in monetary unit, and analyze equity from this congestion pricing with an example network.

고속도로에서의 혼잡통행료 도입방안 검토

  • Lee, Jeong-Yun;Lee, Gi-Yeong;Jang, Myeong-Sun
    • 도로교통
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    • pp.14-27
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    • 2004
  • 도로에 있어 교통량이 일정한 수준을 초과하여 증가되는 경우 통행시간과 운행비용이 과도하게 증대되는 혼잡현상이 발생하게 된다. 이러한 혼잡은 경제적 관점에서 추가분의 통행자가 기존 이용자의 통행비용을 증가시키는 유형으로 해석되고 있고, 이에 대한 대응으로 많이 사용되어 왔던 방법이 개별 통행자에게 다른 이용자들의 통행비용 증가분에 상응하는 요금을 혼잡통행료로서 부과하는 방법이다. 이와 같은 혼잡통행료는 국내의 경우 도심부로 진입하는 특정 도로에 국한하여 시행되는 것을 일반적인 것으로 인식하고 시행해왔으나(서울시 남산1, 3호 터널) 국외의 경우에는 환경보호 및 수요조절 측면에서 고속도로까지 확대 시행하고 있는 사례를 찾아볼 수 있다. 이에 본 연구에서는 국내의 고속도로 요금체계 현황에서 혼잡 통행료의 도입방안 및 가능성을 검토하고자 한다. 고속도로의 현행 통행료 부과 방법 및 제도를 고려할 때 통행요금에 혼잡통행료를 도입할 경우 1)시간대별 차등요금제, 2)폐쇄식 및 개방식 구간에서의 차등요금제, 3)노선별, 구간별 차등요금제, 4)요일별, 계절별 차등요금제를 고려할 수 있다. 현재의 고속도로에서 혼잡통행료를 도입할 경우 현행 이부요금제의 주행요금에 혼잡통행료 개념을 도입하는 것이 타당할 것으로 검토된다. 시간대별 차등요금제는 그 시간대를 주간(06시~24시)과 야간(24시~06시)으로 구분함이 타당할 것으로 판단되고 폐쇄식 구간의 경우 혼잡도를 고려한 주행요금을 이용거리에 비례하여 부과하며 개방식 구간의 경우 최단 이용거리를 기준으로 혼잡도를 고려한 주행요금을 부과하는 것이 타당할 것으로 판단된다. 또한 혼잡도를 고려한 주행요금을 부과하는데 있어 노선별, 구간별 차등을 두는 것이 바람직할 것으로 기대된다. 그러나 요일별 차등요금제는 주 5일 근무제가 확산됨에 따라 증가하는 비업무 승용차의 통행에 의해 고속도로의 비효율적인 운영이 발생할 경우를 제외하고는 적용하지 않는 것이 타당할 것으로 검토된다.

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The Efficiency and Equity Analysis of Cordon Pricing in the Capital Region (흔잡통행료 부과방안의 효율성과 형평성 분석(수도권을 대상으로))

  • Jo, Eun-Gyeong;Kim, Seong-Su
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.7-21
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the transportation, equity and efficiency impacts of cordon pricing schemes in the Seoul Capital Region of Korea. Autos would be required to pay a toll of 2.000 Won each time they enter cordons around the CBD or the subcenters during morning peak periods. The imposition of the toll would produce a substantial decrease in traffic volumes within the cordons as well as throughout the Capital Region. The lower the income level of commuters is, the more the share of auto decreases and that of transit increases. For equity impacts, the welfare of commuters would increase or decrease according to the cordon pricing schemes but would produce progressive impacts irrespective of the schemes. However, the commuters who have the highest value of time would experience welfare gains and it would result in regressive impacts. The schemes would result in a substantial net social welfare gain for the efficiency impacts. When the toll is charged at the CBD cordon only, the net social welfare would increase more.

Development of a Model for Calculating Road Congestion Toll with Sensitivity Analysis (민감도 분석을 이용한 도로 혼잡통행료 산정 모형 개발)

  • Kim, Byung-Kwan;Lim, Yong-Taek;Lim, Kang-Won
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.139-149
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    • 2004
  • As the expansion of road capacity has become impractical in many urban areas, congestion pricing has been widely considered as an effective method to reduce urban traffic congestion in recent years. The principal reason is that the congestion pricing may lead the user equilibrium (UE) flow pattern to system optimum (SO) pattern in road network. In the context of network equilibrium, the link tolls according to the marginal cost pricing principle can user an UE flow to a SO pattern. Thus, the pricing method offers an efficient tool for moving toward system optimal traffic conditions on the network. This paper proposes a continuous network design program (CNDP) in network equilibrium condition, in order to find optimal congestion toll for maximizing net economic benefit (NEB). The model could be formulated as a bi-level program with continuous variable(congestion toll) such that the upper level problem is for maximizing the NEB in elastic demand, while the lower level is for describing route choice of road users. The bi-level CNDP is intrinsically nonlinear, non-convex, and hence it might be difficult to solve. So, we suggest a heuristic solution algorithm, which adopt derivative information of link flow with respect to design parameter, or congestion toll. Two example networks are used for test of the model proposed in the paper.

An Estimation of Congestion Pricing Using Speed-Flow Relationship (Gangbyeon Expressway) (속도-밀도 모형을 적용한 흔잡통행료 산정 (강변북로를 중심으로))

  • Gang, Gyeong-U;Guk, U-Gak
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.31-41
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    • 2006
  • The main purpose of this paper is to develop the practical method to estimate the congestion price in odor to overcome the difficulty of traditional microeconomics approach for demand and cost function concepts. In this paper, we estimate the theoretical congestion toll which reflecting the real traffic conditions such as a speed-density functions using a traffic engineering methods We calculates the optimal congestion toll based on the real traffic conditions assuming that the electronic road pricing (ERP) systems ave installed for the study road. After evaluating the various speed-density relationship methods. we found that the Drake model is best suited for the Gangbyeon Expressway Using the Drake model, the optimal congestion toll will be 94 to 3,255 Won for the traffic speed between 44km/h to 68 km/h based on wage rate method and 107 to 6,381 Won for the marginal substitution method for the Gangbyeon Expressway in city of Seoul, Korea.

Optimal Congestion Charges in General Equilibrium (일반균형에서 최적 혼잡통행료)

  • 문동주
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.91-101
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    • 2000
  • The optimal congestion charge in transportation economics corresponds to the solution to the welfare maximization Problem for users of a certain road link where congestion takes Place. This congestion charge is in nature the optimal Price of the transportation facility, which is derived by the Partial equilibrium analysis on that facility. Therefore it is not certain that this congestion charge can maximize the well-being of all the users of the total transportation network, since the analysis does not count the impact of the congestion charge on traffic volumes of other links. This study suggests an alternative approach to estimate the optimal congestion charge. The key difference of this study from Previous ones is to derive the solution through the general equilibrium analysis on a market where several transportation facilities as well as Private goods are available to consumers. This approach shows a set of solutions a little different from the Previous one, which are explained below. The optimal congestion charge is derived for two different cases. One is the situation of which the congestion charge is levied on every transportation facility In this case, the optimal solution of each facility should equate the marginal utility of every user to the marginal cost of the corresponding facility. This analysis result in general equilibrium coincides with the Previous analysis result in partial equilibrium. However this result cannot apply to another case of which the charge is imposed only on a certain transportation facility. In this case, the optimal charge on a certain transportation facility should be less than the optimal congestion charge of partial equilibrium analysis.

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An Estimation of the Congestion Tolls Considering External Costs in Seoul (외부비용을 반영한 도시내 도로의 혼잡통행료 추정: 서울시를 대상으로)

  • PARK, Chanwoon;KIM, Sungsoo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.520-530
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    • 2015
  • This paper formulates the methodologies to estimate optimal congestion tolls from long-run and short-run perspectives and applies them to the highways of Seoul. An optimal long-run congestion toll is estimated with an optimal volume-capacity-ratio to minimize the total costs which consist of two components: road construction and maintenance costs and traveler costs. By contrast, an optimal short-run congestion toll is estimated with a supply-demand equilibrium which is determined by using a speed-flow function and a disaggregate modal choice model. The results of a long-run analysis for the Seobu urban expressway suggest the optimal volume-capacity-ratio of 1.35 and the optimal congestion toll of 503 Won per automobile kilometer. By contrast, those of a short-run analysis for the Mia-ro urban arterial suggest 1.31 and 420 Won, respectively. Although our results are to some degree dependent on the interest rate and time value assumed, one basic conclusion holds up: the congestions toll tested could generate substantial gains in social welfare if applied to Seoul.

The Relationship Between Congestion Pricing and In-vehicle Crowding Level in Public Transport (혼잡통행료 징수와 대중교통 차내 혼잡수준의 관계)

  • YU, Sang-Gyun;BAE, Gi-Mok
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.510-522
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    • 2016
  • In studies involving public transport, social welfare improvement is simply explained by the increase in public transport demand. However, the increase in the demand for public transport is mostly observed by the change in the frequency of public transport service, and in-vehicle crowding in public transport has not been an object of concern. This study examines and tries to reveal the cause of the changes of the social welfare and in-vehicle crowding of the changing public transport from imposing congestion pricing. We observe that congestion pricing increases in-vehicle crowding in public transport. This predictable phenomenon is more exacerbated in case of not operating bus-only lane. It should be noted that in-vehicle crowding is more increased in suburban, but in First-best toll system it tends to get worse less than it in other congestion pricing systems. We identify that the change of in-vehicle crowding is affected by the change of proximity of the housing to workplace, the number of commuting trips, and unpredictable distortion effect of the congestion charge.

Analysis of Congestion Tolls Using the Land Use-Transportation Model When Toll Revenues Are Recycled (세수 재순환과 토지이용-교통모형을 이용한 혼잡통행료 분석방법론)

  • Rhee, Hyok-Joo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.357-368
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    • 2014
  • So far, land use-transportation models have been used exclusively for numerical analysis. A recent theoretical endeavor now enables us to derive the first-order derivative of the model's welfare function with respect to policy variables. I extend this methodology into the institutional setting where toll revenues are recycled through labor income tax. In this setting, the first-order derivative is composed of (1) the increase in welfare due to reduced congestion, and (2) the decrease in welfare due to interaction with the existing labor income tax. This result coincides with existing theory in the non-spatial model.