• Title, Summary, Keyword: 확률론적 노출평가

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Evaluation of Service Life in RC Column under Chloride Attack through Field Investigation: Deterministic and Probabilistic Approaches (염해 실태조사를 통한 철근 콘크리트 교각의 내구수명 평가 - 결정론적 및 확률론적 해석방법)

  • Kwon, Seung-Jun
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 2015
  • RC (Reinforced Concrete) structures are considered as cost-benefit and durable however performances of structural safety and durability are degraded due to steel corrosion. Service life in RC structure is differently evaluated due to different local environmental conditions even if it is exposed to the same chloride attack. In the paper, 25 concrete cores from field investigation are obtained from 4 RC columns with duration of 3.5~4.5 years exposed to sea water. Through total chloride content measurement, surface chloride contents and apparent diffusion coefficients are evaluated. Service life of the target structure is estimated through deterministic method based on Fick's $2^{nd}$ Law and probabilistic method based on durability failure probability, respectively. Probability method is evaluated to be more conservative and relatively decreased service life is evaluated in tidal zone and splash zone over 40.0 m. Chloride penetration behavior with coring location from sea level and the present limitations of durability design method are investigated in the paper.

Probabilistic Analysis of Repairing Cost Considering Random Variables of Durability Design Parameters for Chloride Attack (염해-내구성 설계 변수에 변동성에 따른 확률론적 보수비용 산정 분석)

  • Lee, Han-Seung;Kwon, Seung-Jun
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.32-39
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    • 2018
  • Repairing timing and the extended service life with repairing are very important for cost estimation during operation. Conventionally used model for repair cost shows a step-shaped cost elevation without consideration of variability of extended service life due to repairing. In the work, RC(Reinforced Concrete) Column is considered for probabilistic evaluation of repairing number and cost. Two mix proportions are prepared and chloride behavior is evaluated with quantitative exterior conditions. The repairing frequency and cost are investigated with varying service life and the extended service life with repairing which were derived from the chloride behavior analysis. The effect of COV(Coefficient of Variation) on repairing frequency is small but the 1st repairing timing is shown to be major parameter. The probabilistic model for repairing cost is capable of reducing the number of repairing with changing the intended service life unlike deterministic model of repairing cost since it can provide continuous repair cost with time.

Service Life Evaluation through Probabilistic Method Considering Time-Dependent Chloride Behavior (염해 시간의존성을 고려한 확률론적 내구수명 평가)

  • Kwon, Seung-Jun
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.149-156
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    • 2016
  • The service life in RC (Reinforced Concrete) is very important and it is usually obtained through deterministic method based on Fick's 2nd law and probabilistic method. This paper presents an evaluation of $P_{df}$(durability failure probability) and the related service life considering time-dependent behaviors in chloride diffusion and surface chloride content. For the work, field investigation is performed for RC structures exposed to chloride attack for 3.5~4.5years, focusing tidal zone (6.0 m) and sea shore (9.0 m), respectively. Random variables like cover depth, chloride diffusion coefficient, and surface chloride content are obtained, and $P_{df}$ and the service life are evaluated. Unlike the results from deterministic method using LIFE 365, probabilistic method with time effects on diffusion and surface chloride shows a relatively rapid change in the result, which is a significant reductions of service life in the case with low surface chloride content. For probabilistic evaluation of durability, high surface chloride content over $10.0kg/m^3$ is required and reasonable service life can be derived with consideration of time-dependent diffusion coefficient.

Human Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Road Dust Sediments in Korea (국내 도로 노면 퇴적입자 내 PAHs의 인체 위해성 평가)

  • Lee, Gain;Kim, Hongkyoung;Ji, Seungmin;Jang, Yong-Chul
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.286-297
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    • 2020
  • This research studied human health risk assessment of PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) in road dust sediments collected from 6 sites in four different cities in Korea. PAHs are well known to be human carcinogens and toxic compounds that are commonly generated from incomplete combustion of fuels and energy products. Such compounds which is absorbed by atmospheric suspended dust can be emitted into air in gaseous form and often deposited on road dust sediments. The PAHs which is deposited on sediment particles can also be re-dispersed by vehicles or winds on the road surface. It can be harmful for humans when exposed via breathing, ingestion and dermal contact. This study examined human health risk assessment of PAHs in deposited road dust sediments. Results showed that the excess cancer risk estimates were above 1.0×10-6 at main traffic roads and resident area in Ulsan city. According to the result of deterministic risk assessment, dermal-contact was the major pathway, while the contribution of the risk from inhalation was less than 1%. The probabilistic risk assessment showed similar levels of cancer risk derived from the deterministic risk assessment. The result of sensitivity analysis reveal that exposure time is the most contributing factor (69%). Since the values of carcinogenic risk assessment were higher than 1.0 × 10-6, further detailed monitoring and refined risk assessment for PAHs may be required to identify more reliable and potential cancer risks for those who live in the study locations in Ulsan city.

Probability-Based LCCO2 Evaluation for Undergroung Structture with Repairing Timings Exposed to Carbonation (탄산화에 노출된 지하구조물의 보수횟수에 따른 LCCO2 평가)

  • Kwon, Seung-Jun
    • Journal of the Korean Recycled Construction Resources Institute
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.239-246
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    • 2017
  • RC(Reinforced Concrete) structures can keep their performance during intended service life through initial service life and extension of the life through repairs. In the deterministic repairing method, cost and the related $CO_2$ emission increase with step-shaped escalation, however continuous results can be obtained through probabilistic repairing technique, and this is capable of reducing $CO_2$ emission through $CO_2$ absorption. In the work, repairing timing and $CO_2$ emission/absorption are evaluated based on the different methods like deterministic and probabilistic manner. The probabilistic technique considering $CO_2$ absorption with carbonation progress is evaluated to be very effective to reduction of $CO_2$ emission through extension of initial and additional service life due to repairs. When the variations of the service life from initial construction and repair material can be determined, the proposed technique can contribute to reduction of cost and $CO_2$ with decreasing repairing number.

Analysis Technique on Time-dependent PDF (Probability of Durability Failure) Considering Equivalent Surface Chloride Content (균등 표면 염화물량을 고려한 시간 의존적 내구적 파괴확률 해석기법)

  • Lee, Hack-Soo;Kwon, Seung-Jun
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.46-52
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    • 2017
  • Recently durability design based on deterministic or probabilistic method has been attempted since service life evaluation in RC(Reinforced Concrete) structure exposed to chloride attack is important. The deterministic durability design contains a reasonable method with time effect on surface chloride content and diffusion coefficient, however the probabilistic design procedure has no consideration of time effect on both. In the paper, a technique on PDF(Probability of Durability Failure) evaluation is proposed considering time effect on diffusion and surface chloride content through equivalent surface chloride content which has same induced chloride content within a given period and cover depth. With varying period to built-up from 10 to 30 years and maximum surface chloride content from $5.0kg/m^3$ to $10.0kg/m^3$, the changing PDF and the related service life are derived. The proposed method can be reasonably applied to actual durability design with preventing conservative design parameters and considering the same analysis conditions of the deterministic method.

The Local Drought Risk Assessment Framework Using Vulnerability and Hazard Index (가뭄 취약성 및 노출성 지표를 활용한 지역 가뭄 위험도 평가 방안)

  • Yu, Jisoo;Kim, Jieun;Lee, Joo-Heon;Kim, Tae-Woong
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.5-5
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    • 2020
  • 가뭄은 일반적으로 기상학적, 수문학적, 농업적 및 사회·경제적 가뭄으로 분류된다. 그 중 강수량 부족으로 인해 야기되는 기상학적 가뭄은 지역 사회에 직접적인 피해를 유발하는 도화선이 된다. 그러나 강우량 부족이 경제적, 사회적 피해로 전파되는 과정은 단순하지 않으며, 정량화가 어려운 실정이다. 가뭄 위험도는 수문기상학적 요인뿐만 아니라 자연재해에 대한 지역의 취약성의 맥락에서 파악되어야하므로, 가뭄 위험도 평가 방안은 위험도와 지역사회 사이의 관계를 규명하는 과정을 포함해야 한다. 이러한 문제를 해결하기 위해 가뭄 취약성(vulnerability)과 노출성(hazard)을 정량화하여 나타내는 지표를 적용한 가뭄 위험도 분석 방법이 주로 사용된다. 일반적으로 수용되는 취약성 개념은 개인 또는 그룹이 자연재해의 영향에 대처하고 이에 저항할 수 있는 능력을 의미하며, 노출성은 자연적 또는 인간이 유발할 수 있는 물리적 사건의 가능성을 나타낸다. 따라서 취약성은 지역의 문화적, 사회적 및 경제적 인자를 이용하여 정의된다. 반면 노출성은 주어진 시간 또는 영역 내에서의 특정 현상의 발생 확률에 따라 결정된다. 본 연구에서는 가뭄 취약성 지수 (Drought Vulnerability Index, DVI)와 가뭄 노출성 지수(Drought Hazard Index, DHI)를 이용하여 지역 가뭄 위험도를 평가하였다. 취약성 및 노출성 지수를 활용한 선행연구에서의 주요 쟁점은 연구자의 주관성을 배제하고 지역의 상황을 반영할 수 있도록 (1) 객관적이고 합리적인 변수의 선택과 (2) 각 인자들의 관계를 규정하는 가중치 정의 방법이다. 본 연구에서는 확률론적 접근방법을 적용한 위험도 평가 방안을 제시하고자 하였다. DVI를 산정 시 지역에서 지배적인 사회경제적 인자를 선택하기 위해 주성분분석(PCA) 기법을 활용하였으며, DHI는 이변량 가뭄 빈도 분석에 의해 산정된 특정 가뭄사상의 발생 확률로 정의되었다. 본 연구에서는 국내에서 가뭄 위험도가 가장 높은 것으로 평가되는 충청북도 및 충청남도를 대상지역으로 선정하고 지역 위험도를 평가하였다. 그 결과 가장 가뭄 위험도가 높은 지역은 충청북도에서는 청주시, 충청남도에서는 공주시로 분석되었다. 특히 청주시는 DVI가 매우 높지만 DHI는 상대적으로 작게 나타났으며, 반면 공주시는 DHI와 DVI가 지역 내에서 가장 높게 산정되었다.

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Probabilistic Exposure Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Agricultural Products in Gyeonggi-do (경기도내 유통 농산물 중 잔류농약의 확률론적 노출평가 연구)

  • Do, Young-Sook;Kim, Jung-Boem;Kang, Suk-Ho;Kim, Nan-Young;Eom, Mi-Na;Yoon, Mi-Hye
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.117-125
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    • 2013
  • A probabilistic exposure assessment was performed on the monitoring data of pesticides were assessed in agricultural products in Gyeonggi-do from 2006 to 2010. Chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, dicofol, endosulfan, EPN, ethoprophos, fenitrothion, methidathion, phenthoate and tebupirimfos were assessed. For this assessment, we used Monte Carlo simulation software and the distribution of concentration and intake were assumed to lognormal distribution by inputting mean and standard deviation. The hazard index (HI, %ADI) of average value and the $95^{th}$ percentile based on a probabilistic method were usually lower than those by a deterministic one. For the whole population, when non-detects data were assigned 0 mg/kg, HI of the average value and the $95^{th}$ percentile showed 0.05~0.70% and 0.11~1.94%, respectively. When nondetects data were assigned 0.005 mg/kg, HI of the average value and the $95^{th}$ percentile were 0.41~4.42% and 0.98~13.81%. For only consumers, when non-detects data were assigned 0 mg/kg, HI of the average value and the $95^{th}$ percentile were 1.24~10.16% and 3.72~33.81%, respectively. When non-detects data were assigned 0.005 mg/kg, HI of the average value and the $95^{th}$ percentile were 3.43~18.26% and 9.45~54.99%, respectively. Methidathion had highest values when both of 0 and 0.005 were assigned to non-detecs data for consumers only. This study showed that agricultural products in Gyeonggi-do were safe because they had less than 100 of HI (%ADI) based on probabilistic exposure assessment.

Probabilistic Approach on Dietary Exposure Assessment of Neonicotinoid Pesticide Residues in Fruit Vegetables (과채류 섭취를 통한 Neonicotinoid계 농약의 노출평가에 대한 확률적 접근)

  • Paik, Min-Kyoung;Park, Byung-Jun;Son, Kyung-Ae;Kim, Jin-Bae;Hong, Su-Myeong;Kim, Won-Il;Im, Geon-Jae;Hong, Moo-Ki
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.110-115
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    • 2010
  • The aim of this study is to investigate the exposure assessment of Korean consumers to five neonicotinoid pesticides in fruit vegetables cultivated in Korea, using a probabilistic approach. We used five neonicotionid pesticides residues(acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam) data in fruit vegetables reported by Rural Development Administration for the 2009 monitoring programme. Total exposure of five neonicotinoid pesticides for Korean consumer ranged from 0.087 to 0.236 ${\mu}g$/kg/day at the $95^{th}$ percentile. The $95^{th}$ percentile values of total exposure of five neonicotinoid pesticides by probabilistic approach were lower than those by deterministic approach, although mean values of total exposure by probabilistic approach were similar with those of total exposure by deterministic approach. Total exposure to acetamiprid residue may be mainly due to the exposure to acetamiprid through the consumption of strawberry. Also, acetamiprid residues in strawberry were considered as much more contributory factor to total exposure of acetamiprid than consumption data of strawberry. This contributory properties of acetamiprid were similar with those of all other neonicotinoid pesticides, excluding thiacloprid.

Service Life Evaluation of RC Column Exposed to Carbonation Considering Time-dependent Crack Pattern (시간의존성 균열 패턴을 고려한 탄산화에 노출된 콘크리트의 확률론적 내구수명 평가)

  • Kwon, Seung-Jun
    • Journal of the Korean Recycled Construction Resources Institute
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.10-18
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    • 2016
  • RC(Reinfored Concrete) structures exposed to carbonation in urban city have durability degradation with extended service life and cracks in concrete causes a local accelerated carbonation. In the present work, crack effect on carbonation depth is investigated and the service life of RC structure is evaluated considering cracks from early age and time-dependent cracks based on the previous field investigation. DFP(Durability Failure Probability), safety index, and the related service life are calculated considering the time to crack width reaches to maximum crack width(0.3mm). The results with time effect on crack width show lower DFP and longer service life, which seems to be reasonable compared with conservative results from crack effect from initial stage. Furthermore, crack effect is evaluated to be insignificant on DFP and service life. The technique with time-dependent crack effect on carbonation can be effectively used for RC structure containing cracking in use.