• Title, Summary, Keyword: 확산강조영상

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The Principles of Diffusion MR

  • 장용민
    • Proceedings of the KSMRM Conference
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    • pp.49-53
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    • 2003
  • 확산텐서영상(Diffusion Tensor Imaging)의 개념은 1980년대 중반 확산강조영상(Diffusion Weighted Imaging)의 개념이 도입되면서 거의 동시에 도입되었지만 MR 장비의 기계적 한계등으로 인해 최근에야 임상적으로 사용되기 시작했다. 확산텐서영상(DTI)과 확산강조영상(DWI)의 방법론적인 차이점은 단순히 확산강조영상의 경우 세 개의 다른방향 (X-, Y-, Z-축)으로 확산측정용 경사자장을 가하는 반면 확산텐서영상의 경우 이보다 많은 방향 (최소한 6 방향)으로 확산측정용 경사자장을 가한다는 점이다. 이러한 차이로부터 금방 알 수 있는 점은 확산강조영상은 확산텐서영상의 일부라는 점이다. 즉, 확산텐서영상의 경우 더 많은 방향으로 확산측정용 경사자장을 가했으므로 더 많은 정보를 획득할 수 있고 이중 세 개의 방향 (주로 X,Y,Z)에 대한 정보만을 이용하게 되면 확산강조영상이다. 이러한 이유로 확산텐서영상을 획득하면 확산강조영상에서 얻게 되는 방향별 확산강조영상, 등방성(isotropic) 확산강조영상, ADC (Apparent Diffusion Coefficient) map등도 기본적으로 얻게 되므로 추가로 확산강조영상을 획득할 필요가 없다. 본 강의에서는 이러한 확산(텐서)영상의 물리적 원리를 복잡한 수학적 설명보다는 개념 위주로 설명해 보고자 한다.

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Analysis of Magnetic Resonance Signals from Diffusion Weighted Imaging using Compressed Sensitivity Encoding Technique (압축감도 부호화를 사용한 확산강조영상에서의 자기공명신호 분석)

  • Jang, ji-sung;Choi, kwan-woo;Jeong, mi-ae
    • Proceedings of the Korea Contents Association Conference
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    • pp.231-232
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    • 2019
  • 최근 압축감도 부호화라는 새로운 기술의 개발로 인하여 기존보다 더 빠른 검사시간에 자기공명영상 검사가 가능하게 되었다. 감도 부호화를 이용한 터보 스핀 에코 확산강조 자기공명영상과 비교하였을 때, 압축감도 부호화를 사용한 확산강조영상에서 영상평가와 자기공명 신호 분석을 통해 적절한 영상품질을 유지하면서, 검사시간을 줄 일수 있어 확산강조영상에서에 유용하게 사용되리라 사료된다.

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Detection of Hepatic Lesion: Comparison of Free-Breathing and Respiratory-Triggered Diffusion-Weighted MR imaging on 1.5-T MR system (국소 간 병변의 발견: 1.5-T 자기공명영상에서의 자유호흡과 호흡유발 확산강조 영상의 비교)

  • Park, Hye-Young;Cho, Hyeon-Je;Kim, Eun-Mi;Hur, Gham;Kim, Yong-Hoon;Lee, Byung-Hoon
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.22-31
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    • 2011
  • Purpose : To compare free-breathing and respiratory-triggered diffusion-weighted imaging on 1.5-T MR system in the detection of hepatic lesions. Materials and Methods: This single-institution study was approved by our institutional review board. Forty-seven patients (mean 57.9 year; M:F = 25:22) underwent hepatic MR imaging on 1.5-T MR system using both free-breathing and respiratory-triggered diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at a single examination. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed respiratory-triggered and free-breathing sets (B50, B400, B800 diffusion weighted images and ADC map) in random order with a time interval of 2 weeks. Liver SNR and lesion-to-liver CNR of DWI were calculated measuring ROI. Results : Total of 62 lesions (53 benign, 9 malignant) that included 32 cysts, 13 hemangiomas, 7 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), 5 eosinophilic infiltration, 2 metastases, 1 eosinophilic abscess, focal nodular hyperplasia, and pseudolipoma of Glisson's capsule were reviewed by two reviewers. Though not reaching statistical significance, the overall lesion sensitivities were increased in respiratory-triggered DWI [reviewer1: reviewer2, 47/62(75.81%):45/62(72.58%)] than free-breathing DWI [44/62(70.97%):41/62(66.13%)]. Especially for smaller than 1 cm hepatic lesions, sensitivity of respiratory-triggered DWI [24/30(80%):21/30(70%)] was superior to free-breathing DWI [17/30(56.7%):15/30(50%)]. The diagnostic accuracy measuring the area under the ROC curve (Az value) of free-breathing and respiratory-triggered DWI was not statistically different. Liver SNR and lesion-to-liver CNR of respiratory-triggered DWI ($87.6{\pm}41.4$, $41.2{\pm}62.5$) were higher than free-breathing DWI ($38.8:{\pm}13.6$, $24.8{\pm}36.8$) (p value < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Respiratory-triggered diffusion-weighted MR imaging seemed to be better than free-breathing diffusion-weighted MR imaging on 1.5-T MR system for the detection of smaller than 1 cm lesions by providing high SNR and CNR.

Diffus ion-Weighted MR Imaging of Spinal Cord Infarction (척수경색의 확산강조자기공명영상)

  • 김윤정;서정진;임남열;정태웅;김윤현;박진균;정광우;강형근
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.166-172
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    • 2002
  • Purpose : To evaluate the usefulness of diffusion-weighted imaging(DWI) and quantitative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps in the patients with spinal cord infarction. Materials and methods : We studied 6 patients presented symptoms with spinal cord infarction, retrospectively (3 men and 3 women). We obtained multi-shot echo planar-based, DWI using 1.5T MR scanner at 5.4 mean days after the onset of ischemic symptoms. In six patients, signal intensity was acquired at conventional b value $1000s/\textrm{mm}^2$). The ADC value for the normal spinal cord and for infarcted lesions was measured from the trace ADC maps by using regions of interest positioned over the spinal cord. We analyzed signal intensity of lesion on MRI and DWI, and compared with ADC values in infarcted lesions and normal site. Results : T1-weighted MR image showed isosignal intensity in four of six patients and low signal intensity in two of six. T2-weighted MR image demonstrated high signal intensity in all of six. All DWI were considered to be diagnostic. All of six depicted a bright signal intensity on DWI. ADC values of infarcted lesion were measured lower than that of normal spinal cord on ADC map. The differences in ADC values between infarcted and normal spinal cord were significantly different (p<0.05). Conclusion : It is possible to obtain DWI and ADC map of the spinal cord and DWI may be useful in the early diagnosis and localization of lesion site in patients with spinal cord infarction.

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The quantitative analysis of Diffusion Weighted Imaging in Breast MRI (유방 MRI 검사에서 확산강조영상의 정량적 분석)

  • Cho, Jae-Hwan;Kim, Hyeon-Ju;Hong, Yin-Sik;Lee, Hae-Kag
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.149-154
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of diffusion weighted images in breast MRI by performing a quantitative comparative analysis in patients diagnosed with DCIS. On a 3.0T MR scanner, diffusion weighted images and ADC map images were obtained from 20 patients histologically diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). The findings from the quantitative image analysis are the following: The diffusion weighted images showed higher SNR and CNR at the lesion area. In addition, the ADC values were lower at the lesion area.

Development of the Line Scan Diffusion Weighted Imaging at Low Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging System (저자장 자기공명영상시스템에서 선주사확산강조영상기법 개발)

  • Hong, Cheol-Pyo;Lee, Dong-Hoon;Lee, Do-Wan;Lee, Man-Woo;Paek, Mun-Young;Han, Bong-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 2008
  • Line scan diffusion weighted imaging (LSDI) pulse sequence for 0.32 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system was developed. In the LSDI pulse sequence, the imaging volume is formed by the intersection of the two perpendicular planes selected by the two slice-selective $\pi$/2-pulse and $\pi$-pulse and two diffusion sensitizing gradients placed on the both side of the refocusing $\pi$-pulse and the standard frequency encoding readout was followed. Since the maximum gradient amplitude for the MR system was 15 mT/m the maximum b value was $301.50s/mm^2$. Using the developed LSDI pulse sequence, the diffusion weighted images for the aqueous NaCl solution phantom and triacylglycerol solution phantom calculated from the line scan diffusion weighted images gives the same results within the standard error range (mean diffusivities = $963.90{\pm}79.83({\times}10^{-6}mm^2/s)$ at 0.32 T, $956.77{\pm}4.12({\times}10^{-6}mm^2/s)$ at 1.5 T) and the LSDI images were insensitive to the magnetic susceptibility difference and chemical shift.

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In Vivo and In Vitro Studies of the Steady State Free Precession-Diffusion-Weighted MR Imagings on Low b-value : Validation and Application to Bone Marrow Pathology

  • Byun, Woo-Mok
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.119-128
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    • 2007
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study was a phantom study to measure the diffusion properties of water molecules by steady-state free precession diffusion-weighted imaging (SSFP- DWI) with a low b-value and to determine if this sequence might be useful for application to the evaluation of bone marrow pathology. Materials and methods : 1. The phantom study: A phantom study using two diffusion weighted sequences for the evaluation of the diffusion coefficient was performed. Three water-containing cylinders at different temperatures were designed: phantom A was $3^{\circ}C$, B was $23^{\circ}C$ and C was $63^{\circ}C$. Both SSFP and echo planar imaging (EPI) sequences (b-value: $1000s/mm^2$) were performed for comparison of the diffusion properties. The Signal to noise ratios (SNR) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the three phantoms using each diffusion-weighted sequence were assessed. 2. The Clinical study: SSFP-DWI was performed in 28 patients [sacral insufficiency fractures (10), osteoporotic lumbar compression fractures (10), malignant compression fractures (8)]. To measure the ADC maps, a diffusion-weighted single shot stimulated echo-acquisition mode sequence ($650s/mm^2$) was obtained using the same 1.5-T MR imager Results : For the phantom study, the signal intensity on the SSFP as well as the classic EPI-based DWI was decreased as the temperature increased in phantom A to C. The ADC values of the phantoms on EPI-DWI were $0.13{\times}10^{-3}mm^2/s$ in phantom A, $0.22{\times}10^{-3}mm^2/s$ in B and $0.37{\times}10^{-3}mm^2/s$. in C. The SSFP can be regarded as a DWI sequence in view of the series of signal decreases. Conclusion : Bone marrow pathologies with different diffusion coefficients were evaluated by SSFP-DWI. All benign fractures were hypointense compared to the adjacent normal bone marrow where as the malignant fractures were hyperintense compared to the adjacent normal bone marrow.

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SNR and ADC Value Change before and after the injection of contrast medium during DWI test on metastatic spinal cancer patients (전이성 척추암 환자의 확산강조영상 검사 시 조영제 주입 전.후 ADC값의 변화에 대한 고찰)

  • Kim, Eng-Chan;Kim, Ki-Hong;Park, Cheol-Soo;Lee, Sun-Yeob;Yoo, Heung-Joon;Cho, Jae-Hwan;Jang, Hyun-Cheol;Kim, Bo-Hui;Han, Man-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.37-49
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    • 2011
  • To examine the possible changes in the SNRs, CNRs, and ADC values for lumbar spines with metastasis based on the DW images before and after contrast agent injection taken from metastatic spinal cancer patients using a 1.5 T MR machine. The quantitative analysis revealed that in case of spinal cancer subjects, both SNRs and CNRs at all of those assessed locations significantly increased on the DWI after contrast agent injection compared to before, while on the ADC map images, SNRs significantly decreased. On the other hand, significantly decreased ADC values at all the assessed locations were found on the ADC map images. With reference to the normal group, significantly increased SNRs were found at all of the assessed locations on the DWI image after injection compared to before, while significantly decreased SNRs were found on the ADC map images. Also, significantly decreased ADC values at all the assessed locations were found on the ADC map images. For the qualitative analysis, after contrast agent injection, significantly increased signal intensities were found at the locations with spinal cancer on the DWI. In contrast, significantly decreased signal intensities were found on the ADC map images. The implication from the results showing that SNR and CNR significantly increased while ADC value significantly decreased at, above, and below the location of metastatic spinal cancer on DWI after contrast agent injection is that DWI obtained after contrast agent injection can be made available for wider application to vertebral disorders.

Diffusion-weighted MR imaging findings of intracerebral hematoma (뇌실질내의 확산강조영상 소견)

  • 박창숙;최순섭;오종영;박병호;김기욱;남경진;이영일
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.21-27
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    • 2002
  • Purpose : To evaluate diffusion-weighted imaging findings of intracerebral hematoma according to the time sequence. Materials and methods : Seventeen patients with intracerebral hematoma were studied. Diffusion weighted images using 1.5 tesla MRI machine were obtained with b-value of $1000{\;}sec/\textrm{mm}^2$. The patients were grouped as hyperacute stage(within 12 hours, 5 patients), acute stage(within 3 days, 4 patients), subacute stage(within 3 weeks, 4 patients), and chronic stage(after 3 weeks,4 patients). The signal intensities were analysed as bright, high, iso, low and dark at the central and peripheral portions of the hematoma in each stage, and compared with those of T2 and T1 weighted images. Results : The signal intensities of the central and peripheral portion of the intracerebral hematoma on diffusion-weighted images were high and dark in hyperacute stage, dark and high-bright in acute stage, and high-bright and dark in subacute and chronic stages. The patterns of signal change of hematoma on diffusion-weighted image according to the time sequence were similar to those on T2-weighted image, but changed early and prominently. Conclusion : The intracerebral hematoma on diffusion-weighted image showed unique central and peripheral signal intensity according to the time sequence. Central portions show high to bright signals in hyperacute, subacute and chronic stage, and dark signal in acute stage, and peripheral portions show dark signals in hyperacute, subacute and chronic stage, and high to bright signal in acute stage.

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Effect of Gd-DTPA on Diffusion in Canine Brain with Hyperacute Stroke (초급성 뇌경색을 일으킨 개에서 Gd-조영제의 주입이 뇌의 확산에 미치는 영향)

  • 김범수;정소령;신경섭
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.158-165
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    • 2002
  • Purpose : To evaluate the effect of Gd-DTPA on signal intensity of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance(MR) image and apparent diffuse coefficient (ADC) in dog brain with hype racute stroke. Materials and methods : Experimental canine model of hyperacute cerebral infarction was made by selective intraarterial embolization with particulate embolic material. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging was performed in five dogs at 1 hour after the embolization of internal carotid artery. After intravenous bolus injection of Gd- DTPA, additional 11 diffusion-weighted MR images were serially obtained from 2 minutes to 90 minutes after injection in each dog. The author evaluated findings of hyperacute cerebral infarction on diffusion-weighted MR imaging, and calculated mean signal intensity and mean ADC in infarcted region and contralateral normal region. Statistical analysis of mean signal intensity, mean ADC and contrast-noise ratio before and after Gd-DTPA injection was performed. Results : Hyperacute cerebral infarction developed in all five dogs on diffusion-weighted MR images obtained 1 hour after embolization. The area of hyperacute infarction had steady increase in signal intensity on diffusion-weighted MR image and decrease in ADC. In normal perfusion area, decrease in signal intensity was observed at 2 minutes the Gd-DTPA injection, whereas ADC did not changed. Conclusion : Intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA had no influence on ADC in both hyperacute infarction and normally perfused are a, but caused initial transient signal reduction in normally perfused area on diffusion-weighted MR image due to susceptibility effect of Gd-DTPA. It is important to calculate ADC in evaluating the effect of diffusion after injection of Gd-DTPA.

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