• Title, Summary, Keyword: 확산계수

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Fractionation and Potential Mobility of Heavy Metals in Tailings and Paddy Soils near Abandoned Metalliferous Mines (폐광산 광미와 논토양의 중금속 분획화 및 잠재적인 이동도)

  • Jung, Goo-Bok;Lee, Jong-Sik;Kim, Won-Il;Kim, Jin-Ho;Shin, Joung-Du;Yun, Sun-Gang
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.259-268
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    • 2005
  • Most of the tailings have been left without any management in their mines and have become the main source of serious environmental problems in nearby groundwater, stream and cultivated lands. To compare fractionation and potential mobility of heavy metals in tailings and paddy soils near abandoned 10-metalliferous mines in Korea, the distribution and chemical fractions of heavy metal and their mobility in relation to chemical compositions were investigated. The pollution index of heavy metal in mine tailing calculated with the permissible levels were in the order Cheongyang>Dogok>Beutdeun>Baegwoul mine, which were considered sufficient to raise environmental problems. The rates of 0.1M-HCl extractable Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni to total content in paddy soils were 49.1, 50.7, 26.8, 18.4 and 2.9%, respectively, and their rates of heavy metals in paddy soils were higher than that of mine tailing. Dominant chemical forms of heavy metals in tailings were sulfide and residual form (63-91%), specially, the exchangeable portion of Cd (21%) was relatively higher than that of other metals in paddy soils. The mobility factor of heavy metals in tailings and paddy soils was in the order Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb, and the mobility factor in tailing varied considerably among the mines. The potential mobility of heavy metals in tailings showed significant positive correlation with water-soluble $Al^{3+}$ and $Fe^{3+}$ contents, while in paddy soils, it correlated negatively with soil pH values.

End-use Analysis of Household Water by Metering (가정용수의 용도별 사용 원단위 분석)

  • Kim, Hwa Soo;Lee, Doo Jin;Kim, Ju Whan;Jung, Kwan Soo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.28 no.5B
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    • pp.595-601
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the trends and patterns of various kind of water uses in a household by metering in Korea. Water use components are classified by toilet, washbowl, bathing, laundry, kitchen, miscellaneous. Flow meters are installed in 140 household selected by sampling in all around Korea. The data are gathered by web-based data collection system from the year 2002 to 2006, considering pre-investigated data such as occupation, revenue, family members, housing types, age, floor area, water saving devices, education, miscellaneous. Reliable data are selected by upper fence method for each observed water use component and statistical characteristics are estimated for each residential type to determine liter per capita per day. Estimated domestic per capita day show an indoor water use with the range from 150 lpcd to 169 lpcd for each housing type as the order of high rise apartment, multi-house, and single house. As the order of consuming amount among water use components, it is investigated that toilet (38.5 lpcd) is the first, and the second is laundry water (30.8 lpcd), the third is kitchen (28.4 lpcd), the fourth is bathtub (24.7 lpcd), the next is washbowl (15.4 lpcd). The results are compared with water uses in U.K. and U.S. As life style has been changed into western style, pattern of water use in Korea is tend to be similar with the U.S. water use pattern. Compared with the surveying results by Bradley, on 1985. Thirty liter of total use increased with the advancement of economic level, and a little change of water use pattern can be found. Especially, toilet water take almost half part of total water use and laundry water shows lowest as 11% in surveying at the year of 1985. But, this study shows that 39 liter, 28% of toilet water, has been decreased by the spread of saving devices and campaign. It is supposed that the spread large sized laundry machine make by-hand laundry has been decreased and water use increased. Unit water amount of each end-use in household can be applied to design factor for water and wastewater facilities, and it play a role as information in establishing water demand forecasting and conservation policy.

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Characteristics of Percutaneous Absorption of Glycol ethers (Glycol ethers에 대한 피부 투과 특성)

  • Lee, Han-Seob;Choi, Sung-Boo;Kim, Nac-Joo;Keun, Jang-Hyoun;Hwang, Hyun-Suk;Baek, Jung-Hun;Choi, Jin-Ho;Lee, Ho-Joon
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.116-126
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    • 2013
  • Glycol ethers are a group of solvents based on alkyl ethers of ethylene glycol commonly used in paints. These solvents typically have a higher boiling point, together with the favorable solvent properties of lower-molecular weight ethers and alcohols. The word "Glycol ethers" was registered as a United States trademark by Union Carbide Corp. Typically, glycol ethers are found in pharmaceuticals, sunscreens, cosmetics, inks, dyes and water based paints. On the other hand, glycol ethers are used in degreasers, cleaners, aerosol paints and adhesives. Most glycol ethers are relatively water soluble, biodegradable and only a few are considered toxic. Therefore, they are unlikely to pose an adverse risk to the environment. Recent study suggests that occupational exposure to glycol ethers is related to low motile sperm count in men, but the finding has been disputed by others. In this study, skin permeation of 3 types glycol ethers were studied in vitro using matrix such as solvent and detergent. The absorption of glycol ethers[methyl glycol ethers(MC), ethyl glycol ethers(EC) and butyl glycol ethers(BC)] has been measured in vitro through rat skin. Epidermal membranes were set up in Franz diffusion cells and their permeability to PBS measured to establish the integrity of the skin before the glycol ethers were applied to the epidermal surface. Absorption rates for each glycol ethers were determined and permeability assessment made to quantify any irreversible alterations in barrier function due to contact with the esters. Types of glycol ethers in vitro experimental results on MC> EC> BC quickly appeared in the following order: skin permeation was beneficial to the skin permeation small molecular weight, the difference in chemical structure, such as hydrophilic, because with the partition coefficient and solubility mechanisms and passive diffusion to increase the speed at which transmission is considered.

The study of quantitative analytical method for pH and moisture of Hanji record paper using non-destructive FT-NIR spectroscopy (비파괴 분석 방법인 푸리에 변환 근적외선 분광 분석을 이용한 한지 기록물의 산성도 및 함수율 정량 분석 연구)

  • Shin, Yong-Min;Park, Soung-Be;Lee, Chang-Yong;Kim, Chan-Bong;Lee, Seong-Uk;Cho, Won-Bo;Kim, Hyo-Jin
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.121-126
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    • 2012
  • It is essential to evaluate the quality of Hanji record paper without damaging the record paper by previous destructive methods. The samples were Hanji record paper produced in the 1900s. Near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer was used as a non destructive method for evaluating the quality of record papers. Fourier transform (FT) spectrometer was used with 12,500 to 4,000 $cm^{-1}$ wavenumber range for quantitative analysis and it has high accuracy and good signal-to-noise ratio. The acidity and moisture content of Hanji record paper were measured by integrating sphere as diffuse reflectance type. The acidity (pH) of chemical factors as a quality evaluated factor of Hanji was correlated to NIR spectrum. The NIR spectrum was pretreated to obtain the coefficients of optimum correlation. Multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and First derivative of Savitzky-Golay were used as pretreated methods. The coefficients of optimum correlation were calculated by PLSR (partial least square regression). The correlation coefficients ($R^2$) of acidity had 0.92 on NIR spectra without pretreatment. Also the standard error of prediction (SEP) of pH was 0.24. And then the NIR spectra with pretreatment would have better correlation coefficient ($R^2$ = 0.98) and 0.19 as SEP on pH. For moisture contents, the linearity correlation without pretreatment was higher than the case with pretreatment (MSC, $1^{st}$ derivative). As the best result, the $R^2$ was 0.99 and SEP was 0.45. This indicates that it is highly proper to evaluate the quality of Hanji record papers speedily with integrated sphere and FT NIR analyzer as a non-destructive method.

Estimate and Analysis of Planetary Boundary Layer Height (PBLH) using a Mobile Lidar Vehicle system (이동형 차량탑재 라이다 시스템을 활용한 경계층고도 산출 및 분석)

  • Nam, Hyoung-Gu;Choi, Won;Kim, Yoo-Jun;Shim, Jae-Kwan;Choi, Byoung-Choel;Kim, Byung-Gon
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.307-321
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    • 2016
  • Planetary Boundary Layer Height (PBLH) is a major input parameter for weather forecasting and atmosphere diffusion models. In order to estimate the sub-grid scale variability of PBLH, we need to monitor PBLH data with high spatio-temporal resolution. Accordingly, we introduce a LIdar observation VEhicle (LIVE), and analyze PBLH derived from the lidar loaded in LIVE. PBLH estimated from LIVE shows high correlations with those estimated from both WRF model ($R^2=0.68$) and radiosonde ($R^2=0.72$). However, PBLH from lidar tend to be overestimated in comparison with those from both WRF and radiosonde because lidar appears to detect height of Residual Layer (RL) as PBLH which is overall below near the overlap height (< 300 m). PBLH from lidar with 10 min time resolution shows typical diurnal variation since it grows up after sunrise and reaches the maximum after 2 hours of sun culmination. The average growth rate of PBLH during the analysis period (2014/06/26 ~ 30) is 1.79 (-2.9 ~ 5.7) m $min^{-1}$. In addition, the lidar signal measured from moving LIVE shows that there is very low noise in comparison with that from the stationary observation. The PBLH from LIVE is 1065 m, similar to the value (1150 m) derived from the radiosonde launched at Sokcho. This study suggests that LIVE can observe continuous and reliable PBLH with high resolution in both stationary and mobile systems.

Utility of Wide Beam Reconstruction in Whole Body Bone Scan (전신 뼈 검사에서 Wide Beam Reconstruction 기법의 유용성)

  • Kim, Jung-Yul;Kang, Chung-Koo;Park, Min-Soo;Park, Hoon-Hee;Lim, Han-Sang;Kim, Jae-Sam;Lee, Chang-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.83-89
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: The Wide Beam Reconstruction (WBR) algorithms that UltraSPECT, Ltd. (U.S) has provides solutions which improved image resolution by eliminating the effect of the line spread function by collimator and suppression of the noise. It controls the resolution and noise level automatically and yields unsurpassed image quality. The aim of this study is WBR of whole body bone scan in usefulness of clinical application. Materials and Methods: The standard line source and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstructed spatial resolution measurements were performed on an INFINA (GE, Milwaukee, WI) gamma camera, equipped with low energy high resolution (LEHR) collimators. The total counts of line source measurements with 200 kcps and 300 kcps. The SPECT phantoms analyzed spatial resolution by the changing matrix size. Also a clinical evaluation study was performed with forty three patients, referred for bone scans. First group altered scan speed with 20 and 30 cm/min and dosage of 740 MBq (20 mCi) of $^{99m}Tc$-HDP administered but second group altered dosage of $^{99m}Tc$-HDP with 740 and 1,110 MBq (20 mCi and 30 mCi) in same scan speed. The acquired data was reconstructed using the typical clinical protocol in use and the WBR protocol. The patient's information was removed and a blind reading was done on each reconstruction method. For each reading, a questionnaire was completed in which the reader was asked to evaluate, on a scale of 1-5 point. Results: The result of planar WBR data improved resolution more than 10%. The Full-Width at Half-Maximum (FWHM) of WBR data improved about 16% (Standard: 8.45, WBR: 7.09). SPECT WBR data improved resolution more than about 50% and evaluate FWHM of WBR data (Standard: 3.52, WBR: 1.65). A clinical evaluation study, there was no statistically significant difference between the two method, which includes improvement of the bone to soft tissue ratio and the image resolution (first group p=0.07, second group p=0.458). Conclusion: The WBR method allows to shorten the acquisition time of bone scans while simultaneously providing improved image quality and to reduce the dosage of radiopharmaceuticals reducing radiation dose. Therefore, the WBR method can be applied to a wide range of clinical applications to provide clinical values as well as image quality.

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Effects of Customers' Relationship Networks on Organizational Performance: Focusing on Facebook Fan Page (고객 간 관계 네트워크가 조직성과에 미치는 영향: 페이스북 기업 팬페이지를 중심으로)

  • Jeon, Su-Hyeon;Kwahk, Kee-Young
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.57-79
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    • 2016
  • It is a rising trend that the number of users using one of the social media channels, the Social Network Service, so called the SNS, is getting increased. As per to this social trend, more companies have interest in this networking platform and start to invest their funds in it. It has received much attention as a tool spreading and expanding the message that a company wants to deliver to its customers and has been recognized as an important channel in terms of the relationship marketing with them. The environment of media that is radically changing these days makes possible for companies to approach their customers in various ways. Particularly, the social network service, which has been developed rapidly, provides the environment that customers can freely talk about products. For companies, it also works as a channel that gives customized information to customers. To succeed in the online environment, companies need to not only build the relationship between companies and customers but focus on the relationship between customers as well. In response to the online environment with the continuous development of technology, companies have tirelessly made the novel marketing strategy. Especially, as the one-to-one marketing to customers become available, it is more important for companies to maintain the relationship marketing with their customers. Among many SNS, Facebook, which many companies use as a communication channel, provides a fan page service for each company that supports its business. Facebook fan page is the platform that the event, information and announcement can be shared with customers using texts, videos, and pictures. Companies open their own fan pages in order to inform their companies and businesses. Such page functions as the websites of companies and has a characteristic of their brand communities such as blogs as well. As Facebook has become the major communication medium with customers, companies recognize its importance as the effective marketing channel, but they still need to investigate their business performances by using Facebook. Although there are infinite potentials in Facebook fan page that even has a function as a community between users, which other platforms do not, it is incomplete to regard companies' Facebook fan pages as communities and analyze them. In this study, it explores the relationship among customers through the network of the Facebook fan page users. The previous studies on a company's Facebook fan page were focused on finding out the effective operational direction by analyzing the use state of the company. However, in this study, it draws out the structural variable of the network, which customer committment can be measured by applying the social network analysis methodology and investigates the influence of the structural characteristics of network on the business performance of companies in an empirical way. Through each company's Facebook fan page, the network of users who engaged in the communication with each company is exploited and it is the one-mode undirected binary network that respectively regards users and the relationship of them in terms of their marketing activities as the node and link. In this network, it draws out the structural variable of network that can explain the customer commitment, who pressed "like," made comments and shared the Facebook marketing message, of each company by calculating density, global clustering coefficient, mean geodesic distance, diameter. By exploiting companies' historical performance such as net income and Tobin's Q indicator as the result variables, this study investigates influence on companies' business performances. For this purpose, it collects the network data on the subjects of 54 companies among KOSPI-listed companies, which have posted more than 100 articles on their Facebook fan pages during the data collection period. Then it draws out the network indicator of each company. The indicator related to companies' performances is calculated, based on the posted value on DART website of the Financial Supervisory Service. From the academic perspective, this study suggests a new approach through the social network analysis methodology to researchers who attempt to study the business-purpose utilization of the social media channel. From the practical perspective, this study proposes the more substantive marketing performance measurements to companies performing marketing activities through the social media and it is expected that it will bring a foundation of establishing smart business strategies by using the network indicators.