• Title, Summary, Keyword: 환경의식

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The study of Taoistic Returnism in Jeong Wan-Young's sijo (정완영 시조에 나타난 도가적 회귀주의)

  • Min, Byeong-Kwan
    • Sijohaknonchong
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    • v.30
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    • pp.109-146
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    • 2009
  • It is academically recognized that Jeong Wan-Young's sijo better represent Oriental ideas. The purpose of this study is to investigate Taoistic characteristics of Jeong Wan-Young's sijo. This is an effort to succeed and further deepen and extend previous relevant researches. For the purpose, this researcher categorized the poet's sijo in accordance with such characteristics as above mentioned. Findings of the study can be summarized as below. Pieces of Jeong Wan-Young's sijo which are based on Taoistic ideas are largely classified into three groups. First, some pieces of Jeong Wan-Young's sijo represents an orientation of return to hometown which is brought by the sense of loss. His sense of loss is attributed to the facts that his home is not what it was any longer and that he can't return to the old home. To overcome the sense, nevertheless, the poet is dreaming of return to home. The home found in Jeong Wan Young's sijo is something fundamental and original that he purposedly provided against the feeling of loss. It complies with the concept of 'Bokgwigigen(復歸基根)‘ a pursuit of Taoism. Second, other pieces of Jeong Wan-Young's sijo are seeking purity to retrieve childish innocence. Their subjects include the season of spring, dreams of childhood and longing for mother all of which represent the poet's strong desire for such retrieval as above mentioned. It may be said that pursued by that pieces are 'Purity, Feebleness and Smoothness' that are sought by Taoism. Third, other pieces of Jeong Wan-Young's sijo are considering human as a part of nature and seeking human life in harmony with nature. In other words, they are seeking union between human and nature which means going beyond discrimination between self and external objects, that is, 'Mulayangmang(物我兩忘)'. This may refer to return to nature which is the ultimate destination of Taoism.

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Success Factors of the Supdari(A Wooden Bridge) Restoration in Jeonju-River through Citizens' Initiative (적극적 주민참여를 통한 전통문화시설 복원 성공요인 분석 - 전주천 섶다리 놓기 사업을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Sang-Wook;Kim, Gil-Joong
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.93-101
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    • 2010
  • This paper aims to analyze success factors for the construction of Supdari(a traditional wooden bridge to connect small streams temporarily), which is a citizens' initiative project to revitalize local community in Jeonju-River, Jeonju City. Recently Supdari has been restored for the use of belongings in local festivals. But Jeonju-River Supdari was designed and built to unite local citizens and connect river-divided villages. This project shows how investing social capital like Supdari makes the community vitalize through citizen's active participation. As a citizen leading project, there were several critical factors for sucess. At first, there were some noticeable ways to encourage local citizen's participation in online and offline. In the online, the Supdari internet cafe introduced what is a Supdari, how to make it and where we build using various media of UCCs and photos. In the offline, the small scaled model of Supdari was made and exhibited in the entrance of the village and related several seminars were hosted to discuss how to construct Supdari with citizens, local assembly men and public officials together. The Second is the movement to restore traditional and cultural resources for the community recovery triggered the supports from local councils and many civic groups. Civic groups supported ecological and structural expertise to guarantee environment friendly and stable construction. And local councils mediated citizen's and administrative office's opinions. The third is flexible administrative management to help citizen's ideas to be realized. Officials extended setting period of Supdari on the condition with the civic-control safety management.

Study on the establishment of an efficient disaster emergency communication system focused on the site (현장중심의 효율적 재난통신체계 수립 방안 연구)

  • Kim, Yongsoo;Kim, Dongyeon
    • Journal of the Society of Disaster Information
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.518-527
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    • 2014
  • Our society is changed and diversified rapidly and such tendency is accelerated day after day and has made a lot of problems in the many fields. The important thing we have to recognize is such tendency has a bad effect recently on the safety system in Korea. So it is time to enhance the national safety system and moreover recently Sewol-ho(passenger ship) went down in the sea, it made people remind the importance of national safety system. With this incident, Korean government decided to establish the national safety communication network against the disaster. At this time, I will propose several ideas about the national safety communication network. 1. It must to be established an unified network to contact people who is on a disaster site anytime and anywhere. This is most important element on all disaster sites. 2. PS-LTE technology must to be adopted to the network because it has many advantages including various multimedia services compared to the TETRA in the past. 3. 700MHz is the most efficient band for the network because it has wide cell sites coverage compared to 1.8GHz. 4. Satellite communication system is needed to the network for back-up. 5. It will be effective to adopt Social Media to the communication network system like a Twitter or Facebook for sharing many kinds of information and notifying people of warning message. 6. It can make the network more useful to introduce the latest technology like a sensor network. And Korean government has to improve the system related to the disaster including law and operating organization.

Development of 'the safety' theme-based integrated teaching·learning process plans for the middle school Home Economics Instruction (중학교 가정과 수업을 위한 '안전' 주제 중심 통합 교수·학습 과정안 개발)

  • Kim, Nam Eun;Chae, Jung Hyun;Cho, Jae Soon
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.19-39
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to develop the safety theme-based integrated teaching learning process plans for the middle school Home Economics(HE) Instruction and ultimately to contribute for the middle school students to live their safe lives. To achieve the goals of this study, HE curriculum documents from the 1st to the 2015 revision were analyzed and a survey was conducted to identify the middle school students' current status of safety accidents and needs on the HE safety education. The respondents of the survey were the 512 students of one ${\bigcirc}{\bigcirc}$ Girls' Middle School in Busan. And then, the seven integrated themes were selected, each seven integrated theme-networks were formed, and safety theme-based Home Economics curriculum and learning materials were developed. The results of this study were as the follows. The safety education content has continually been included from the first HE curriculum of 1954 to the 2015 revised HE curriculum. The middle school student respondents highly needed the content of 'the methods to deal with sexual violence and prostitution prevention', 'suicide prevention', and 'bullying net' for the HE safety education. All the 42 items were needed for the HE safety education by the respondents. The safety theme-based HE teaching learning process plans developed finally included the seven integrated themes, which were (1) dietary life safety, (2) adolescents' sex and safety, (3) adolescents' relationships with friends and safety, (4) family life and safety, (5) dwelling life and safety, (6) adolescents' egos and safety, and (7) social environment and safety. Each integrated theme consisted of three to six small themes, which amounted to total 28(for 35 lessons). Each small theme was presented with learning objectives and particular goals. The total 157 learning materials including the Home Economics curriculum were developed, which offered learning objectives and content for each safety theme, total 28 teaching and learning plans(for 35 lessons) were developed, which offered specific instructions for the easy implementation of the curriculum in the classroom, 28 PPTs, 25 film materials, four reading materials, 61 workbooks, 14 activity sheets, 16 evaluation sheets, 3 test sheets, 2 reference materials, and 4 learning material models(the refrigerator model, traffic lights for discussions, food tray model and stickers, and food mileage card). In this study, the safety education themes of 'clothing life and safety', 'conflict and safety', 'professional life and safety', and 'consumer and safety' were not addressed because these theme were not needed highly by the respondents. Therefore, for the further development of the teaching learning process plans for the HE safety education, it is necessary to develop and evaluate the teaching learning process plans to address the themes of 'clothing life and safety', 'conflict and safety', 'professional life and safety', and 'consumer and safety'.

Function and Use Evaluation of 'Classification & Disposal Schedule Management' in the Standard Records Management System (표준 기록관리시스템의 '기준관리' 기능 및 이용 평가)

  • Chung, Sang-hee
    • The Korean Journal of Archival Studies
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    • no.37
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    • pp.189-237
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    • 2013
  • Since central governments began to establish and use the Standard Records Management System(RMS) in 2007, more and more local governments and other public organizations have constructed RMS. RMS is the essential tool for records management in electronic environments, but it is not known how well the functions of RMS reflect standards and practice related records management or how many records managers use RMS in performing their works. This paper deals with analyzing the evaluation of 'classification & disposal schedule management' function in RMS. 'Classification & disposal schedule management' function has 4 subfunctions of review of classification & preservation period, management of the schedule items, assignment of classification scheme and reclassification. Classification and disposal schedule is at the heart of intellectual control of records and core area of records management. So it is important to analyze whether this function plays well a role in RMS or not. This research carried out evaluation of function and use about classification & disposal schedule management in RMS. Functional evaluation is to compare and analyze how well RMS meets the functional requirements which home and foreign standards give. Use evaluation is to investigate how records managers use RMS in accomplishing their task of managing classification & disposal schedule and to look into what is the problem with the use. This paper could get the implications through the survey of records managers who are working at central governments, regional local governments and basic local governments. And these implications are considered in institutional, functional, use and administrative aspect. It is important to communicate with stakeholders so that 'classification & disposal schedule management' function, further, all functions of the RMS in practice of records management could be used smoothly. Users of RMS have to raise demands or call for technical solutions of the problems which come up in use, while RMS developers and administrators must make more of an effort to satisfy their demands, reflect them on the RMS and enhance the system.

Development and Application of Practical Problem-based Teaching·Learning Process for Interacting with Neighbors (이웃과 더불어 살아가는 주생활을 위한 실천적 문제 중심 교수·학습 과정안 개발 및 적용)

  • Woo, Yeseul;Cho, Jaesoon
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.67-90
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to develop and apply the practical problem-based teaching·learning process plan for 'interacting with neighbors' of home economics subject. The plan consisting of 3 lessons has been developed and implemented according to the ADDIE model. Various activity materials (7 student's activity sheets, 3 reading texts, 1 homework sheet, 3 sets of ppt, 6 videos, and 3 teacher's reading texts) as well as questionnaire were developed for the 3-session lessons. The plans were implemented by the researcher to 204 freshmen, 8 classes, of C middle school in Seoul during september, 2017. The result, of students' lower level of actual participation in interacting with neighbors comparing to their interests in, supported the need of this study. Students were satisfied with the whole 3-lessons in the aspects such as beneficial usage of the contents in their daily life and in building the sense of community, as well as adequacy of materials and activities. Students also reported that they would highly aware to the importance of interacting with neighbors and to practice the contents learned from the lessons in daily life at community. They had an opportunity to reflect one's own attitude to neighbors and recommended to teach it to other schools, too. It can be concluded that the teaching·learning process plan for 'interacting with neighbors' would raise students' housing values living together and attain the overall objective and achievement standards of 2015 home economics middle school curriculum.

AN EXPLORATORY STUDY TO DETERMINE HOW ADOLESCENT STUDENT NURSES VIEW PEDIATRIC NURSING EXPERIENCE AS STRESSFUL SITUATION (소아과 간호학 실습시에 느끼는 성년기 간호학생들의 긴장감에 대한 실험적 연구)

  • Oh, Kasil
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.33-56
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    • 1974
  • 간호를 장래의 전문직으로 택하려고 공부하는 간호학생들은 완전한 성인으로서의 발달 과정중 후기 성년기에 속한다. 이시기는 자아를 발견하고 인간이 무엇을 믿으며 인간의 가치가 무엇인가를 추구하는 중요한 시기이다. 다시 말해서 어른과 어린이의 과도기에 서서 자신의 이상적 가치와 기성사회의 기존 가치를 잘 융화시켜 독립된 인간으로서 성숙하려는 노력의 시기이다. 그러므로 성년기의 갈등은 인생의 어느 시기보다도 그 정도가 심하게 나타난다. 간호학생들은 이상의 일반적인 성년기 발달의 요구 외에도 간호대학이라는 특수한 배움의 여건 때문에 좀 더 심각한 문제에 대두된다. 특히 소아과 간호대학이라는 실습환경은 여러 가지 복잡한 병실 사정으로 많은 긴장감을 주는 학습경험이다. 어린이의 간호에는 그들의 발달과정에 따른 다양한 역활이 요구된다. 또한 병원이라는 낯선 환경과 어머니를 떨어져야하는 두려움으로 불안한 어린이와 그 어린이의 불안과 두려움으로 인해 우울과 죄의식에 있는 어머니의 간호는 여러 면에서 성년기 학생들에게 긴장감을 일으키게 하는 요인이 된다. 본 연구의 문헌조사는 주로 미국 문헌에 나타난 간호 대학생들의 성년기 성숙을 위한 발달의 요구와, 소아병실의 복잡한 여건으로 발생되는 긴장감을 다루고 있다. 문헌을 기초로 하여 저자는 긴장감을 주는 간호활동을 크게 다섯 부군으로 묶었다. 1. 어린이 환자의 신체적 간호, 2. 어린이 환자나 부모와의 원만한 대화와 상호관계를 위한 간호활동 3. 소아병실에서 요구되는 다양한 간호원의 역활 4. 어린이나 부모의 간호에 대한 의뢰심 5. 간호의 가치나 이상적 간호. 연구방법으로는 49개의 폐쇄식 질문 항목을 가진 질문지를 사용하였다. 질문 항목들은 문헌연구에서 소아과 간호학 실습시 학생들이 긴장감을 느낀다고 밝혀진 내용들이 다. 학생들은 자신의 경험을 "긴장감이 없었다. ""긴장감이 있었다. ""심한 긴장감이 있었다. ""실습 중 경험이 없었다. "의 사항 중 택일을 하게 되어 있다. 연구대상으로는 모 대학교 간호대학 학생으로 산부인과 간호학 실습을 마친 후 소아과 간호학 실습 8주를 완료한 4학년 학생 42명이었다. 자료분석의 결과는 대부분의 학생들에게 소아과 간호학 실습은 긴장감을 주는 경험이 있다고 나타났다. 다음은 연구결과 주목할만한 몇 가지 사항들이다. 1. 어린이 환자의 신체적 간호는 성년기 학생들에게 긴장감을 주는 실습 경험이었다. 특별히 심하게 긴장감을 주었던 간호활동은 어린이환자의 상태가 중한 경우로, 장기간 앓는 아이, 선천성 기형이 있는 아이, 회복이 불가능하여 죽게될 아이나 사망하는 경우의 어린이 간호였다. 이 결과는 간호학의 기본과정 즉, 기초간호학이나 내 외과 간호학 실습만으로 소아과 간호학 실습을 위한 충분한 준비가 되지 못한다는 것을 뜻 할 수도 있다. 한편, 문헌연구에서 밝힌바와 같이 어리고 연약해 보이는 어린이들의 신체조건이 학생들의 간호활동을 어렵게 하는 경우도 될 수 있겠다. 2. 간호학생들의 어린이 환자와의 대화나 원만한 인간관계에서의 긴장감은 이 연구결과로 평가나 제언이 힘들다. 조사결과에서 학생들은 주로 어린이의 상태가 좋지 않은 경우에 심한 긴장감을 가졌고 일반적인 간호의 경우에는 별로 긴장감이 없었다. 이것은 질병의 상태나 화제, 이야기 할 때의 상황에 따라 긴장감의 여부가 달라질 수 있다는 결론이 되겠다. 3. 소아병실에서의 다양한 역활을 수행하는 것은 비교적 긴장감이 많이 생기는 간호활동으로 나타났다. 그러나 재미있는 사실은 학생들이 간호원으로서의 전문가적인 입장에서, 환자나 보호자를 가르칠때는 별로 문제가 없었으나 어린이 기르는 방법이나 어린이 이해면에서 좀 더 잘 안다고 생각되는 어머니가 지켜 볼때의 어린이 간호에는 긴장감을 가진다는 사실이다. 이것은 Jewett의 연구에서 밝힌바와는 상반되는 결과다. 그의 연구에서 학설들은 부모나 어머니들에 의해 전문가로서 인정받고 기대되는 경우가 제일 어려운 경험이 있다고 밝혔다. 4. 어린이 환자나 그들 부모의 간호에 대한 의뢰심은 학생들에게 심한 긴장감을 주는 경험이 있다. 특히 신체적 간호에 대해 의뢰하는 경우에는 더 심한 긴장감을 준다고 표현한다. 일반적으로 부모가 병실에 상주하는 경우에는 그들의 의뢰심이 심하며 이것은 학생들에게 감당하기 힘든 긴장과 어려움을 주게된다. 왜냐하면 성년기의 학생들은 그들 자신이 먼저 타인에게서 이해받기를 원하며 또 관용을 베풀어주기를 원하는데 그것을 남에게 주어야 하는 입장은 학생들을 긴장되게 하는 실습활동인 것이다. 5. 학생들은 그들이 배운 간호의 이상이나 가치가 실습지에서의 여러 경우와 맞지 않는 것을 보았을 때 극심한 긴장감을 갖는다고 밝혔다. 의사나 병원 행정의 사실이 자신의 이상과 맞지 않는다는 것보다는 간호원의 간호업무의 차이에서 더 비판적인 반응을 보였다. 대부분의 성년기 학생들은 그들의 이상적인 간호원상을 그들의 선배나 실무 간호원 중에서 찾으려는 시기에 그들의 간호활동이 이론과 다른 점이나 학생 자신의 소아과 간호의 가치와 다른 것을 보았을 때는 심한 반감과 긴장감을 갖게된다. 이 문제는 어린 사람이 윗 어른과 함께 동료의식을 갖고 일하기 어려운 한국적 사회구조 때문에 더 심하게 긴장감을 주는 경험인지도 모른다. 선배 간호원의 전문인으로서의 권위와 어린이 환자 보호자의 어른으로서의 권위 사이에서 자신의 이상과 가치의 추구는 용이하지 않으며 내적 갈등은 어쩔수 없는 일 일 것이다. 6. 대부분 높은 백분율의 긴장 반응은 죽음이나 환자의 사망에 관련된 간호활동 항목에서 나타났다. 이 연구의 대상 학생들은 2, 3학년에서 죽음에 대한 강의를 들었지만 이 연구 결과에 의하면 충분한 학습 경험이 주어진 것 같지 않다. 어떠한 경우의 죽음에라도 어린이 환자나 그 보호자들의 심리를 잘 이해하고 반응을 잘 관찰해서 적절한 간호를 해 줄 수 있는 다양한 방법의 학습 경험이 필요하다고 보겠다. 7. 학생들의 긴장도가 어린이 간호에 더 심한가, 보호자 간호에 더 심한가를 알기 위한 비교 결과는 비교적 비슷한 정도로 나타났다. 8. 학생들의 소아과 간호학 실습시의 긴장도는 과거의 병실 실습기간의 장, 단이나 가정에서의 어린인 간호의 경험과는 별 연관성이 없었다. 연구의 대상자가 적기 때문에 단정을 하기는 힘이 들지만 소아과 간호학 실습이 다른 병실의 실습과는 분리되어서 완전히 다르게 다루어 져야만 하며 간호교육자들의 주의 깊은 관심과 노력이 필요한 실습교육이 라 하겠다. 이상의 전반적인 고찰에 의하면 한국 성년기 간호학생들의 소아과 간호학 실습은 미국의 경우와 마찬가지로 긴장감을 주는 경험이다. 문화배경의 다른 점은 무시하고라도 Davis와 Oleson이 결론한 바와 같이 "간호대 학생은 어디를 막론하고 다 같은 성격과 문제를 가지고 있다. " 앞으로 보다 효과적인 학생들의 소아과 간호학 실습을 위한 연구를 위해 다음의 몇 가지를 본 연구의 결과를 가지고 제언한다. 1. 보다 여러 지역에서 다양한 교육 방법을 가진 학교의 학생을 대상으로 한 연구의 필요성. 2. 학생들이 실습 전 선입견이나 이미 들어서 생긴 긴장감의 개입 여부를 밝힐 수 있는 연구. 3. 학생 개인의 과거 경침이 긴장감 유발에 미치는 영향을 위한 연구 4. 이 연구의 결과를 입증할 수 있는 종단적 연구. 5. 이 연구에서 나타난 긴장감이 학습 행위에 미치는 영향을 알기 위한 관찰적 연구. 이 연구를 위해 많은 도움을 주셨던 보스턴대학의 Dr. Kennedy와 연세대학의 여러 선생님께 심심한 감사를 드립니다.

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Air Pollution and Its Effects on E.N.T. Field (대기오염과 이비인후과)

  • 박인용
    • Proceedings of the KOR-BRONCHOESO Conference
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    • pp.6-7
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    • 1972
  • The air pollutants can be classified into the irritant gas and the asphixation gas, and the irritant gas is closely related to the otorhinolaryngological diseases. The common irritant gases are nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, hydrogen carbon compounds, and the potent and irritating PAN (peroxy acyl nitrate) which is secondarily liberated from photosynthesis. Those gases adhers to the mucous membrane to result in ulceration and secondary infection due to their potent oxidizing power. 1. Sulfur dioxide gas Sulfur dioxide gas has the typical characteristics of the air pollutants. Because of its high solubility it gets easily absorbed in the respiratory tract, when the symptoms and signs by irritation become manifested initially and later the resistance in the respiratory tract brings central about pulmonary edema and respiratory paralysis of origin. Chronic exposure to the gas leads to rhinitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, and olfactory or gustatory disturbances. 2. Carbon monoxide Toxicity of carbon monoxide is due to its deprivation of the oxygen carrying capacity of the hemoglobin. The degree of the carbon monoxide intoxication varies according to its concentration and the duration of inhalation. It starts with headache, vertigo, nausea, vomiting and tinnitus, which can progress to respiratory difficulty, muscular laxity, syncope, and coma leading to death. 3. Nitrogen dioxide Nitrogen dioxide causes respiratory disturbances by formation of methemoglobin. In acute poisoning, it can cause pulmonary congestion, pulmonary edema, bronchitis, and pneumonia due to its strong irritation on the eyes and the nose. In chronic poisoning, it causes chronic pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary edema. 4. Ozone It has offending irritating odor, and causes dryness of na sopharyngolaryngeal mucosa, headache and depressed pulmonary function which may eventually lead to pulmonary congestion or edema. 5. Smog The most outstanding incident of the smog occurred in London from December 5 through 8, 1952, because of which the mortality of the respiratory diseases increased fourfold. The smog was thought to be due to the smoke produced by incomplete combustion and its byproduct the sulfur oxides, and the dust was thought to play the secondary role. In new sense, hazardous is the photochemical smog which is produced by combination of light energy and the hydrocarbons and oxidant in the air. The Yonsei University Institute for Environmental :pollution Research launched a project to determine the relationship between the pollution and the medical, ophthalmological and rhinopharyngological disorders. The students (469) of the "S" Technical School in the most heavily polluted area in Pusan (Uham Dong district) were compared with those (345) of "K" High School in the less polluted area. The investigated group had those with subjective symptoms twice as much as the control group, 22.6% (106) in investigated group and 11.3% (39) in the control group. Among those symptomatic students of the investigated group. There were 29 with respiratory symptoms (29%), 22 with eye symptoms (21%), 50 with stuffy nose and rhinorrhea (47%), and 5 with sore thorat (5%), which revealed that more than half the students (52%) had subjective symptoms of the rhinopharyngological aspects. Physical examination revealed that the investigated group had more number of students with signs than those of the control group by 10%, 180 (38.4%) versus 99 (28.8%). Among the preceding 180 students of the investigated group, there were 8 with eye diseases (44%), 1 with respiratory disease (0.6%), 97 with rhinitis (54%), and 74 with pharyngotonsillitis (41%) which means that 95% of them had rharygoical diseases. The preceding data revealed that the otolaryngological diseases are conspicuously outnumbered in the heavily polluted area, and that there must be very close relationship between the air pollution and the otolaryngological diseases, and the anti-pollution measure is urgently needed.

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Changes in Agricultural Extension Services in Korea (한국농촌지도사업(韓國農村指導事業)의 변동(變動))

  • Fujita, Yasuki;Lee, Yong-Hwan;Kim, Sung-Soo
    • Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.155-166
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    • 2000
  • When the marcher visited Korea in fall 1994, he was shocked to see high rise apartment buildings around the capitol region including Seoul and Suwon, resulting from rising demand of housing because of urban migration followed by second and third industrial development. After 6 years in March 2000, the researcher witnessed more apartment buildings and vinyl house complexes, one of the evidences of continued economic progress in Korea. Korea had to receive the rescue finance from International Monetary Fund (IMF) because of financial crisis in 1997. However, the sign of recovery was seen in a year, and the growth rate of Gross Domestic Products (GDP) in 1999 recorded as high as 10.7 percent. During this period, the Korean government has been working on restructuring of banks, enterprises, labour and public sectors. The major directions of government were; localization, reducing administrative manpower, limiting agricultural budgets, privatization of public enterprises, integration of agricultural organization, and easing of various regulations. Thus, the power of central government shifted to local government resulting in a power increase for city mayors and county chiefs. Agricultural extension services was one of targets of government restructuring, transferred to local governments from central government. At the same time, the number of extension offices was reduced by 64 percent, extension personnel reduced by 24 percent, and extension budgets reduced. During the process of restructuring, the basic direction of extension services was set by central Rural Development Administration Personnel management, technology development and supports were transferred to provincial Rural Development Administrations, and operational responsibilities transferred to city/county governments. Agricultural extension services at the local levels changed the name to Agricultural Technology Extension Center, established under jurisdiction of city mayor or county chief. The function of technology development works were added, at the same time reducing the number of educators for agriculture and rural life. As a result of observations of rural areas and agricultural extension services at various levels, functional responsibilities of extension were not well recognized throughout the central, provincial, and local levels. Central agricultural extension services should be more concerned about effective rural development by monitoring provincial and local level extension activities more throughly. At county level extension services, it may be desirable to add a research function to reflect local agricultural technological needs. Sometimes, adding administrative tasks for extension educators may be helpful far farmers. However, tasks such as inspection and investigation should be avoided, since it may hinder the effectiveness of extension educational activities. It appeared that major contents of the agricultural extension service in Korea were focused on saving agricultural materials, developing new agricultural technology, enhancing agricultural export, increasing production and establishing market oriented farming. However these kinds of efforts may lead to non-sustainable agriculture. It would be better to put more emphasis on sustainable agriculture in the future. Agricultural extension methods in Korea may be better classified into two approaches or functions; consultation function for advanced farmers and technology transfer or educational function for small farmers. Advanced farmers were more interested in technology and management information, while small farmers were more concerned about information for farm management directions and timely diffusion of agricultural technology information. Agricultural extension service should put more emphasis on small farmer groups and active participation of farmers in these groups. Providing information and moderate advice in selecting alternatives should be the major activities for consultation for advanced farmers, while problem solving processes may be the major educational function for small farmers. Systems such as internet and e-mail should be utilized for functions of information exchange. These activities may not be an easy task for decreased numbers of extension educators along with increased administrative tasks. It may be difficult to practice a one-to-one approach However group guidance may improve the task to a certain degree.

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Home Economics teachers' concern on creativity and personality education in Home Economics classes: Based on the concerns based adoption model(CBAM) (가정과 교사의 창의.인성 교육에 대한 관심과 실행에 대한 인식 - CBAM 모형에 기초하여-)

  • Lee, In-Sook;Park, Mi-Jeong;Chae, Jung-Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.117-134
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the stage of concern, the level of use, and the innovation configuration of Home Economics teachers regarding creativity and personality education in Home Economics(HE) classes. The survey questionnaires were sent through mails and e-mails to middle-school HE teachers in the whole country selected by systematic sampling and convenience sampling. Questionnaires of the stages of concern and the levels of use developed by Hall(1987) were used in this study. 187 data were used for the final analysis by using SPSS/window(12.0) program. The results of the study were as following: First, for the stage of concerns of HE teachers on creativity and personality education, the information stage of concerns(85.51) was the one with the highest response rate and the next high in the following order: the management stage of concerns(81.88), the awareness stage of concerns(82.15), the refocusing stage of concerns(68.80), the collaboration stage of concerns(61.97), and the consequence stage of concerns(59.76). Second, the levels of use of HE teachers on creativity and personality education was highest with the mechanical levels(level 3; 21.4%) and the next high in the following order: the orientation levels of use(level 1; 20.9%), the refinement levels(level 5; 17.1%), the non-use levels(level 0; 15.0%), the preparation levels(level 2; 10.2%), the integration levels(level 6; 5.9%), the renewal levels(level 7; 4.8%), the routine levels(level 4; 4.8%). Third, for the innovation configuration of HE teachers on creativity and personality education, more than half of the HE teachers(56.1%) mainly focused on personality education in their HE classes; 31.0% of the HE teachers performed both creativity and personality education; a small number of teachers(6.4%) focused on creativity education; the same number of teachers(6.4%) responded that they do not focus on neither of the two. Examining the level and type of performance HE teachers applied, the average score on the performance of creativity and personality education was 3.76 out of 5.00 and the mean of creativity component was 3.59 and of personality component was 3.94, higher than standard. For the creativity education, openness/sensitivity(3.97) education was performed most and the next most in the following order: problem-solving skill(3.79), curiosity/interest(3.73), critical thinking(3.63), problem-finding skill(3.61), originality(3.57), analogy(3.47), fluency/adaptability(3.46), precision(3.46), imagination(3.37), and focus/sympathy(3.37). For the personality education, the following components were performed in order from most to least: power of execution(4.07), cooperation/consideration/just(4.06), self-management skill(4.04), civic consciousness(4.04), career development ability(4.03), environment adaptability(3.95), responsibility/ownership(3.94), decision making(3.89), trust/honesty/promise(3.88), autonomy(3.86), and global competency(3.55). Regarding what makes performing creativity and personality education difficult, most HE teachers(64.71%) chose the lack of instructional materials and 40.11% of participants chose the lack of seminar and workshop opportunity. 38.5% chose the difficulty of developing an evaluation criteria or an evaluation tool while 25.67% responded that they do not know any means of performing creativity and personality education. Regarding the better way to support for creativity and personality education, the HE teachers chose in order from most to least: 'expansion of hands-on activities for students related to education on creativity and personality'(4.34), 'development of HE classroom culture putting emphasis on creativity and personality'(4.29), 'a proper curriculum on creativity and personality education that goes along with students' developmental stages'(4.27), 'securing enough human resource and number of professors who will conduct creativity and personality education'(4.21), 'establishment of the concept and value of the education on creativity and personality'(4.09), and 'educational promotion on creativity and personality education supported by local communities and companies'(3.94).

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