• Title, Summary, Keyword: 황색포도알균

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Antimicrobial Effects of Photodynamic Therapy using Photofrin Against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis (포토프린을 이용한 황색포도알균과 표피포도알균에 대한 광역학 치료의 항균효과)

  • Kwon, Pil-Seung
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.314-321
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    • 2013
  • Photodynamic therapy(PDT) has been recommended as an alternative therapy for various diseases including microbial infection. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of PDT using a photofrin and home made 630 nm Light emitting diode(LED) against Staphylococci. To examine the antimicrobial effect of photofrin-mediated PDT against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis colony forming units(CFU) quantification, and bacterial viability using flow cytometry were formed. The CFU quantification results of S. aureus and S. epidermidis were 1 cfu/ml and 16 cfu/ml of average, respectively, after PDT application with photofrin of $50{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ and 630 nm LED and energy density of $18J/cm^2$. In addition, S. aureus and S. epidermidis isolates yielded forward-scatter (FSC) and fluorescence intensity (FI) differences on flow cytometry (FCM) after PDT. S. aureus and S. epidermidis cell size(FSC) increased 8.96% and 5.55% respectively, after PDT. Also the numbers of dead cell of S. aureus and S. epidermidis were a 39% and 61% incerased. These results suggest that photofrin-mediated PDT can be an effective alternative treatment for antibacterial therapy.

Roles of Matrix Metalloproteinases on Intracellular Staphylococcus aureus Growth in Bronchial Epithelial Cell (황색포도알균의 감염에 따른 세포 내에서의 균의 증식과 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)의 역할)

  • Min, Bo Ram;Lee, Young Mi;Park, Jae Seok;Choi, Won-Il;Kwon, Kun Young
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.64 no.1
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    • pp.22-27
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    • 2008
  • Background: Staphylococcus aureus frequently colonizes and infects hospitalized patients. Respiratory infections with Staphylococcus aureus are common in patients with compromised airway defenses. However the mechanisms of S. aureus invasion from colonization to the epithelium are unclear. Cell invasion by S. aureus would require destruction of the extracellular matrix, which is believed to be the result of increased matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) activity. Methods: In this study, respiratory epithelial cells were infected with S. aureus. After removing the extracellular bacteria by washing, the internalized bacteria in the cells were assessed by counting the colonized forming units (CFUs). The cell adhesion proteins, dysadherin and E-cadherin, were evaluated by Western blotting. The MMPs in the bacterial invasion were evaluated by pretreating the cells with GM6001, a MMP inhibitor. Results: The internalization of S. aureus was found to be both time and dose dependent, and the increase in MMP 2 and 9 activity was also dependent on the incubation time and the initial amount of bacterial inoculation. The invasion of S. aureus was attenuated by GM6001 after 12 hours incubation with a multiply of infection (MOI)=50. The expression of dysadherin, a membrane protein, was increased in a time and dose dependent manner, while the expression of E-cadherin was decreased. Conclusion: MMPs may mediate the invasion of S. aureus into epithelial cells.

Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus from Healthy Children Attending Day Care Center (어린이집 소아에서의 황색포도알균의 비강 보균율에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Young Min;Oh, Chi Eun;Kim, So Hee;Lee, Jina;Choi, Eun Hwa;Lee, Hoan Jong
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 2010
  • Purpose : This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) nasal carriage in Korean children attending day care centers. Methods : During September and October 2009, a survey for nasal carriage of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was conducted among children attending day care centers located in Seoul with questionnaire survey for evaluation of risk factors of acquisition of MRSA was obtained from their guardians. A culture of the anterior nares swabs using enrichment broth was executed for isolating S. aureus and oxacillin susceptibility was assessed by the disk diffusion method. Results : Out of the 428 children enrolled whose mean age was 55 months old, 163 (38.1%) were colonized with S. aureus. Of the 163 isolates, 40 (24.5%) were MRSA. The nasal carriage rate of S. aureus showed an increasing trend with increase of age. Based on the answer to the questionnaire, 9.2% and 3.6% of children had a recent history of hospitalization and surgery, respectively, and approximately 40% of children had a history of prescription of antibiotics within 1 year prior to enrollment. Of the 428 subjects, 40 (9.3%) were MRSA nasal carriers. Conclusion : S. aureus and MRSA carriage rate of children attending day care center in Korea was 38.1% and 9.3%, respectively. Continued surveillance for nasal carriage rate of S. aureus and MRSA (especially community-associated MRSA) is mandatory.

Photodynamic effect of Photofrin and Radachlorin against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis (황색포도알균과 표피포도알균에 대한 포토프린과 라다클로린의 광역학 효과)

  • Seo, Choong-Won;Ryu, Jae-Gi;Kwon, Pil-Seung
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.407-414
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    • 2014
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the photodynamic therapy effects against staphylococci using Photofrin and Radachlorin with Light emitting diode(LED). Experimental methods, The bacterial suspensions containing Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis at $1{\times}10^5$ were prepared and diluted to different concentrations of photosensitizer, Photofrin or Radachlorin, on 1.25, 2. 5,5 and $10{\mu}g/ml$. The bacterial suspensions were exposed to 630 and 670 nm LED light at the energy density of 14.4 and $19.8J/cm^2$, respectively. The CFU results of S. aureus and S. epidermidis were showed 33 and 50 colony forming at $5{\mu}g/ml$ of Photofrin, respectively and both of them perfectely were dead at $5{\mu}g/ml$ of Radachlorin. The fluorescent intensity by flow cytometry was showed the increase in the dead cells than the normal cells. In the TEM photograph, the damage of bacterial membrane and the distortion of cell morphology were observed. These results suggest that photodynamic therapy combine with Photofrin and Radachlorin can be applied a new modality for antibacterial therapy.

Carriage Rates of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Neonates with Neonatal Jaundice (신생아황달 환아에서의 메티실린내성 황색포도알균 보균율에 관한 연구)

  • Na, Dong Cheon;Seo, Jae Min;Lee, Jung Hyun;Lee, Won Uk;Kim, Eun Ryoung
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.143-153
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    • 2011
  • Purpose : It is known that carriage rates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) are highest in newborns and that the asymptomatic carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is associated with invasive MRSA infection with the colonizing strain. This study was carried out to investigate the carriage rates of MRSA in neonates with neonatal jaundice. Methods : We reviewed the medical records of 545 neonates admitted with neonatal jaundice to neonatal intensive care units between January 2006 and December 2010. Nasal and inguinal swab specimens had been taken from them and cultured for the isolation of S. aureus. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests had been done for such isolates to determine methicillinresistance. Results : Out of 545 neonates, 318 (58.3%) were colonized with S. aureus and 214 (39.3%) were colonized with MRSA. Results of the antibiogram analysis showed that 65.7% of MRSA isolates were likely to be community-associated (CA) MRSA. Conclusion : Based on the MRSA carriage rate of 39.3%, a surveillance program for MRSA colonization is considered necessary in neonates transferred from other clinics or hospitals. Out of MRSA isolates, 65.7% were likely to be CA-MRSA. This suggests that CA-MRSA strains were already present in obstetric clinic environments where the neonates were born. It is thought that MRSA surveillance programs in these environments are also necessary.

Changing Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus in Children with Skin and Soft Tissue Infections: a Single Center Experience from 2010 to 2018 (소아 피부 및 연조직 감염 환자에서의 황색포도알균의 항생제 감수성의 변화: 2010년부터 2018년까지 단일기관에서의 경험)

  • Cho, Yong-Sun;Lee, Shin-Hye;Lee, Taek-Jin
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.140-147
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). This study aimed to determine the temporal trends in antibiotic susceptibility of S. aureus in SSTI patients aged <19 years. Methods: This retrospective observational study was conducted in pediatric patients with SSTI caused by community-associated S. aureus. Microbiologic and demographic data were collected, and the trends of antibiotic susceptibility results were evaluated. Results: From January 2010 to December 2018, a total of 807 S. aureus isolates were included. An overall increase in susceptibility of isolates to oxacillin was noted (P<0.001), with 75.0% of isolates being oxacillin-susceptible in 2018. S. aureus remained highly susceptible to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline, with 97.6% and 95.2% isolate susceptibility in 2018, respectively. Isolates from younger children aged 1 to 5 years had a significantly lower rate of susceptibility to oxacillin than older children aged 6 to 18 years (53.4% vs. 75.0%, P<0.001). Conclusions: The proportion of methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates appears to decrease in pediatric patients with community-associated SSTI caused by S. aureus. Clinicians should be aware of regional susceptibility patterns when choosing empirical regimens.

Regional outbreak of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in healthy children (건강한 소아에서 포도알균화상피부증후군의 지역적 유행)

  • Do, Hyun Jeong;Park, Eun Sil;Lim, Jae Young;Park, Chan Hoo;Woo, Hyang Ok;Youn, Hee Shang;Seo, Ji Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.48-55
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    • 2010
  • Purpose : Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) is a relatively uncommon superficial blistering skin disease that is due to Staphylococcus aureus. We had experienced a regional outbreak of SSSS over 3 years in healthy children. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of those patients diagnosed as SSSS. Most of neonatal cases were nosocomial infections and excluded from the analysis. The clinical features, laboratory findings, the isolation and antibiotic resistance of S. aureus, the antibiotic management and other supportive treatments were analyzed. Results : Fifty-five patients with SSSS were admitted to our hospital from October 2001 to September 2004. The median age of patients was 3.0 years. Of the 55 patients, 9 were the generalized type, 13 were the intermediate type and 33 were the scarletiniform rash. All the patients were living in neighborhood of the Jinju area. S. aureus were isolated from 9 of the patients and all of the isolated S. aureus were methicillin resistant. All the patients except two were treated with intravenous flocloxacillin or nafcillin and/or cefotaxime. All the patients recovered during the follow-up period of 2 to 3 weeks. Conclusion : We experienced a regional outbreak of SSSS in previous healthy children. Further study for finding the carriers of S. aureus caused SSSS and preventing the spread of this disease is needed. Additionally, guidelines for treating SSSS due to methicillin resistant S. aureus should be established.

Characteristics and Clinical Correlations of Staphylococcus aureus Discovered in Stools from Children Hospitalized at a Secondary Hospital (일개 이차병원에 입원한 소아의 분변에서 발견된 황색포도알균의 특징과 임상적 연관성)

  • Shin, Eun Hye;Eun, Byung Wook;An, Young Min;Song, Mi Ok
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.61-71
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: Research on the clinical role of Staphylococcus aureus as a pathogen in acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children has been scarce. This study aimed to clarify the prevalence and clinical correlation of S. aureus detection in children with AGE. Methods: Fecal samples were collected from children with symptoms of AGE who visited a secondary hospital between January 2012 and December 2015. The samples were sent to the Seoul Metropolitan Government Research Institute of Public Health and Environment to test for pathogenic organisms. Clinical patterns were analyzed through medical record review. Results: Among the 663 participants, the bacteria detection rate was 26.2% (n=174), the virus detection rate was 29.7% (n=197), and the non-detection rate was 43.1% (n=286). S. aureus was tested positive from 102 cases and was confirmed as a single pathogen in 53 cases. It was the third most common pathogen. The prevalence by age was highest (45.3%) in 0-2 year-olds. Most cases occurred in summer. Symptoms included diarrhea (71.7%), vomiting (67.9%), fever (49.1%), and abdominal pain (37.7%). Only vomiting showed a significant difference between the S. aureus group and the non-detection group (67.9% vs. 43.0%; P=0.001). Among enterotoxins, the higher incidence of vomiting was associated with classical staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, and SEE) and SEH (P=0.027). Conclusions: S. aureus was the bacteria commonly isolated from children with AGE. Our study identified cases of staphylococcal AGE in children based on fecal samples and confirmed the characteristic symptoms, affected age groups, seasonal distribution, and correlation with enterotoxins.

A Review of Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Children with an Emphasis on Community-associated Methicillin-resistant S. aureus Infections (소아 황색포도알균 감염증의 임상 양상에 대한 고찰: 지역사회 관련 메티실린 내성 황색포도알균 감염을 중심으로)

  • Choe, Young June;Lee, So Yeon;Sung, Ji Yeon;Yang, Mi Ae;Lee, Joon Ho;Oh, Chi Eun;Lee, Jina;Choi, Eun Hwa;Lee, Hoan Jong
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.150-161
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    • 2009
  • Purpose : Staphylococcus aureus causes a variety of infections, ranging from benign skin infections to fatal invasive infections. Recently, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections have emerged in patients who do not have established risk factors. This study was conducted to characterize S. aureus infections in children with an emphasis on communityassociated MRSA infections at a tertiary care pediatric facility during a 3-year period. Methods : Four hundred twenty-nine cases of S. aureus infections diagnosed at the Seoul National University Children's Hospital between January 2004 and December 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. The cases were classified as hospitalonset (HO) or community-onset (CO), healthcare-associated (HA), or community-associated (CA) infections. Results : Among the 206 cases <1 year of age, 72%, 7%, and 21% were HO-HA, CO-HA, and CA infections, respectively, as compared to 48%, 28%, and 24% among the 223 cases >1 year of age. The proportion of CO-HA infections among HA infections (8.6% vs. 37.1%, P<0.001) and the proportion of HA infections among the CO infections (24.5% vs. 54.3%, P <0.001) were greater in older children than in infants. Overall, 57% of the isolates were methicillin-resistant. Twenty-nine (30%) of 96 CA strains were MRSA, and the most common site of CA-MRSA infection was the skin and soft tissues (26 cases). Conclusion : The methicillin resistance rate of S. aureus from CA infections was high and CA-MRSA was most often associated with skin and soft tissue infections.

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Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Raw Milk Samples in Gyeonggi-do, Korea (원유시료 중 메티실린 내성 황색포도알균의 분포 및 내성 유전자 특성 분석)

  • Kang, SoWon;Song, YoungCheon;Choi, SungSook
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.223-227
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    • 2014
  • This study was investigated to determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from raw milk samples and to further study on the molecular characteristics of the MRSA isolates. Using Staphylococcus Medium 110, Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from raw milk samples and further identification was carried by Vitek2 system. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics were conducted by serial dilution method according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guideline. For the detection of resistance genes and molecular characterization, PCR reaction was performed by gene specific primers and followed by DNA sequencing. Of the 698 milk samples, 94 Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were identified (94 S. aureus/286 Staphylococcus spp.). Of the 94 S. aureus, seven isolates have mecA, a methicillin resistant gene. mecA positive seven isolates were then characterized by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (pvl) gene using PCR. All of mecA positive isolates were resistant to ampicillin and oxacillin, but sensitive to teicoplanin, vancomycin and ciprofloxacin. One of seven isolates was SCCmec type II and six isolates were type IV and all seven isolates were pvl gene negative.