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A Duplex PCR for Detection of Phytophthora katsurae Causing Chestnut Ink Disease (밤나무 잉크병균, Phytophthora katsurae의 검출을 위한 Duplex PCR)

  • Lee, Dong-Hyeon;Lee, Sun-Keun;Kim, Hye-Jeong;Lee, Sang-Hyun;Lee, Sang-Yong;Lee, Jong-Kyu
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.73-79
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    • 2012
  • Phytophthora katsurae is a fungal pathogen responsible for chestnut ink disease. We designed two duplex primer sets (SOPC 1F/1R+KatI 3F/5R, SOPC 1-1F/1-1R+KatI 3F/5R) to detect P. katsurae. SOPC 1F/1R and SOPC 1-1F/1-1R primer pairs were designed for sequence characteristic amplification regions (SCAR) marker, and KatI 3F/5R primer pair was used for P. katsurae-specific primer designed from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. To assess the sensitivity of duplex PCR, genomic DNA was serially diluted 10-fold to make the final concentrations from 1 mg/ml to 1 ng/ml. The sensitivity for two primer sets were 1 ${\mu}g/ml$ and 100 ng/ml, respectively. To find detection limits for zoospores of P. katsurae, each zoospore suspension was serially diluted 10-fold to make the final concentrations from $1{\times}10^6$ to $1{\times}10^2$ cells/ml, and then DNA was extracted. The limits of detection for all of two primer sets were $1{\times}10^5$ cells/ml. All of two primer sets were specific to P. katsurae in PCR detection and did not produce any P. katsurae-specific PCR amplicons from other 16 Phytophthora species used as the control. This study shows that duplex PCR using two primer sets might be a useful tool for rapid and efficient detection of P. katsurae.

Quantitative Determination of the Triterpenoids and Total Tannin in Korean Rubus species by HPLC

  • Kim, Min-Young;Tapondjou, Leon Azefack;Park, Hee-Juhn
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.290-295
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    • 2014
  • The triterpenoids contained in four Rubus species (Rosaceae) were quantitatively analyzed using HPLC to select plants with large quantities of niga-ichigoside $F_1$. Unripe fruits, ripe fruits, and leaves were extracted to estimate the quantity of niga-ichigoside $F_1$, together with Rubus-specific $19{\alpha}$-hydroxyursane-type triterpenoids, euscaphic acid, tormentic acid, and kaji-ichigoside $F_1$, and a dimeric triterpenoid coreanoside $F_1$. Niga-ichigoside $F_1$ was most abundant in the leaves of R. crataegifolius (23.4 mg/g dry weight). The amount of triterpenoid in the black, ripe fruits of R. coreanus was lower than the unripe fruits of the same plant. On the other hand, the ripe fruits of three plants, R. crataegifolius, R. parvifolius and R. pungens var. oldhami, which are reddish, contained higher or similar level of triterpenoids than their unripe fruits. In addition, the concentration of niga-ichigoside $F_1$ in the ripe fruit of R. crataegifolius was 20.5 mg/g, suggesting that the fruits could be used as a functional food. Methyl gallate and ellagic acid were used as quantitative indices of total tannin. Methyl gallate levels were higher in ripe fruits than unripe fruits in R. crataegifolius, R. pungens var. oldhami, and R. parvifolius. In R. crataegifolius, the quantity of methyl gallate was 30.5 mg/g in ripe fruit, but 1.19 mg/g in unripe fruit.

ON THE PRIME SPECTRUM OF A RING (환의 PRIME SPECTRUM에 관하여)

  • Kim Eung Tai
    • The Mathematical Education
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.5-12
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    • 1974
  • 단위원을 가지는 하환환에 있어서의 Prime Spectrum에 관하여 다음 세가지 사실을 증명하였다. 1. X를 환 R의 prime spectrum, C(X)를 X에서 정의되는 실연적함수의 환, X를 C(X)의 maximal spectrum이라 하면 X는 C(X)의 prime spectrum의 부분공간으로서의 한 T-space로 된다. N을 환 R의 nilradical이라 하면, R/N이 regula 이면 X와 X는 위상동형이다. 2. f: R$\longrightarrow$R'을 ring homomorphism, P를 R의 한 Prime ideal, $R_{p}$, R'$_{p}$를 각각 S=R-P 및 f(S)에 관한 분수환(ring of fraction)이라 하고, k(P)를 local ring $R_{p}$의 residue' field라 할 때, R'의 prime spectrum의 부분공간인 $f^{*-1}$(P)는 k(P)(equation omitted)$_{R}$R'의 prime spectrum과 위상동형이다. 단 f*는 f*(Q)=$f^{-1}$(Q)로서 정의되는 함수 s*:Spec(R')$\longrightarrow$Spec(R)이다. 3. X를 환 S의 prime spectrum, N을 R의 nilradical이라 할 때, 다음 네가지 사실은 동치이다. (1) R/N 은 regular 이다. (2) X는 Zarski topology에 관하여 Hausdorff 공간이다. (3) X에서의 Zarski topology와 constructible topology와는 일치한다. (4) R의 임의의 원소 f에 대하여 f를 포함하지 않는 R의 prime ideal 전체의 집합 $X_{f}$는 Zarski topology에 관하여 개집합인 동시에 폐집합이다.폐집합이다....

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Effectiveness and Preparation of Microsome containing Fermented Squalene (발효 스쿠알렌을 함유한 마이크로좀의 제조 및 효능효과)

  • Kim, Ye-Jin;Kim, Tae-Hyun;Cho, Heui-Kyoung;Seong, Nak-Jun;Kim, In-Young;Yoo, Kwang-Ho;Kim, Young-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.1159-1170
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    • 2020
  • In this study, to improve the stability of fermented squalene developed using microorganisms, Microsome-SQ20 was prepared, and its physical behavior, properties, and efficacy were studied. The appearance of Microsome-SQ20 was a transparent liquid, no smell, and had a specific smell. The color was a transparent liquid, and the specific gravity was 0.928 and the pH was 5.82 (20% solution), forming a nano-emulsion suitable for use in cosmetics. It was confirmed that the content of the main component of squalene was 20.05%, which was stably sealed. The particle size measured by 0.1% aqueous solution of Microsome-SQ20 was 134.8 nm to obtain a bluish emulsified phase. The antioxidant effects of F-SQ and MF-SQ by DPPH radicals were 80.72% and 81.5%, respectively, showing superior effects compared to L-ascorbic acid. The cell viability of squalene (SQ), fermented squalene (F-SQ) and microsome squalene (MF-SQ) was at 10 ppm, respectively, showing 121.2%, 150.3%, and 129.9% cell viability. It was found that SQ, F-SQ, and MF-SQ had an elastase inhibitory ability of 8.7%, 10.33% and 8.7% at 10 ppm, respectively. In addition, the inhibitory ability of MMP-1 was 1.55%, 41.44%, 31.79% at 10 ppm for SQ, F-SQ, and MF-SQ, respectively, indicating that F-SQ significantly reduced the MMP-1 expression.

Dielectric, Piezoelectric Properties and Temperature Stability of Resonant Frequency in PSN-PMN-PZT Ceramics (PSN-PMN-PZT 세라믹스의 유전 및 압전 특성과 공진 주파수의 온도안정성)

  • 윤광희;류주현;민석규;이명수;서성재
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.391-395
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    • 2000
  • In this study, the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency(TC $F_{r}$), dielectric and piezoelectric properties of Pb[(S $b_{1}$2/N $b_{1}$2/)$_{0.0035}$-(M $n_{1}$3/N $b_{2}$3/)$_{0.0065}$-(Z $r_{x}$ $Ti_{1-x}$ )$_{0.90}$] $O_3$ceramics is investigated with Zr/Ti ratio. The dielectric constant and electromechanical coupling factor( $k_{p}$) showed the highest values of 1257, 0.562 respectively when the Zr/Ti ratio is 49.5/50.5. The mechanical quality factor( $Q_{m}$) is the lowest value of 713 when the Zr/Ti ratio is 49.5/50.5, and increased with the decrease of the Zr/Ti ratio. The temperature coefficient of resonant frequency(TC $F_{r}$) change abruptly at the morphotropic phase boundary(MPB), which is between the rhombohedral phase with highly negative TC $F_{r}$ of -106ppm/$^{\circ}C$ and the tetragonal phase with highly positive TC $F_{r}$ of +64pp $m^{\circ}C$ as Zr/Ti ratio changes from 50/50 to 49.5/50.5.50.5..5.50.5.5.

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Linear Free Energy Relationship on the Phosphorylation of Acetylcholinesterase by Insecticidal O,O-Diethylphenylphosphate Derivatives (살충성(殺蟲性) O,O-Diethylphenylphosphate유도체(誘導體)들에 의(依)한 Acetylcholinesterase의 Phosphorylation에 미치는 자유(自由)에너지 관계(關係))

  • Sung, Nack-Do
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.176-181
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    • 1984
  • Linear free energy relation ship(LFER) on the insecticidal activity of O,O-diethylphenylphosphate (A) and 3,5-dimethylphenyl-O,O-diethylphosphate (B) derivatives were studied by EHT MO calculation method and regression analysis method. LFER between varying substituent constants and $pI_{50}$ constants of phosphates, (A) & (B) were calculated with applying Hammett, Okamoto-Brown, Taft and Swain-Lupton's DSP equations;percent resonance effect(R) and field effect(F) of (A) were %R=33.5 & %F=66.5 and also that of (B) were %R=2 & %F=98, respectively. On the basis of above findings, the insecticidal activities were similar for both (A) and (B), but (B) have larger field and inductive contribution than (A), due to the 3,5-dimethyl group of (B).

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A Study on Occupational Diseases of Fire Officials (소방공무원의 직무질환에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Kwang-Rae
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.61
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    • pp.109-135
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the occupational diseases(the number of medical treatment) of fire officials by using time-series analysis. The results of the study are as follows. First, the average rates of the occupational diseases of fire officials were as follows: ① internal diseases were the highest at 9.24% in December, the lowest at 7.76% in February, ② otolaryngologic diseases were the highest at 9.29% in December, the lowest at 6.74% in August, ③ dermatological diseases were the highest at 10.03% in July, the lowest at 7.35% in January and February, ④ surgical diseases were the highest at 10.38% in November, the lowest at 5.62% in February, ⑤ orthopedic diseases were the highest at 9.69% in March, the lowest at 7.52% in November, ⑥ neurosurgical diseases were the highest at 9.33% in April, the lowest at 6.82% in February, ⑦ neurological diseases were the highest at 9.47% in December, the lowest at 7.06% in October, and ⑧ mental health diseases were the highest at 9.93% in December, the lowest at 6.51% in May. Second, the seasonal decomposition of the disease occurrence of fire officials were described by assigning seasonal factor(S), trend factor(T), circulation factor(C) and irregular factor(R): ① internal diseases were 1.075(S) × 189.355(T·C) × 1.174(R) = 238.975(F), ② otolaryngologic diseases were 1.023(S) × 69.605(T·C) × 1.040(R) = 74.000(F), ③ dermatological diseases were 1.002(S) × 73.088(T·C) × 0.874(R) = 64.000(F), ④ surgical diseases were 1.099(S) × 27.229(T·C) × 0.669(R) = 20.000(F), ⑤ orthopedic diseases were 1.115(S) × 73.182(T·C) × 1.213(R) = 99.000(F), ⑥ neurosurgical diseases were 0.993(S) × 27.836(T·C) × 1.303(R) = 36.000(F), ⑦ neurological diseases were 1.029(S) × 62.417(T·C) × 1.152(R) = 74.000(F), and ⑧ mental health diseases were 1.210(S) × 8.781(T·C) × 1.035(R) = 11.000(F).

Molecular Detection of Phellinus linteus and P. baumii by PCR Specific Primer

  • Nam, Byung-Hyouk;Kim, Gi-Young;Park, Hyung-Sik;Lee, Sang-Joon;Lee, Jae-Dong
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.197-201
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    • 2002
  • Specific primer sets based on ribosomal DNA(rDNA) internal transcribed specer(ITS) sequences were designed for rapid detection of Phellinus linteus and P. baumii. Polymerase chain reaction(PCR) with these primers produced unique bands for each Phellinus species. The annealing temperature range is from $40^{\circ}C\;to\;55^{\circ}C$. The length of PCR products(P. linteus and P. baumii) using designed combinative primer sets of PL1F, PL2R, PB1F, PB2R, ITS5F and ITS4R, were from 520 by to 730 bp. Fifteen strains of Phellinus species including P. linteus, P. baumii, P. weirianus, P. johnsonianus, P. rhabarberinus, P. pini, P. gilvus, P. igniarius, P. nigricans and P. laevigatus were examined in this study. Five strains, including two isolated strains of P. linteus(MPNU 7001 and MPNU 7002), and two isolated strains of P. baumii(MPNU 7004 and MPNU 7005) were shown to have about 520 bp (PL1F-PL2R), 700 bp (TTS5F-PL2R) and 600 bp (PB1F-ITS4R) -sized PCR single bands respectively. This molecular genetic technique provided a useful method for rapid detection and identification of P. linteus and P. baumii.

PERMUTAON POLYNOMIALS OF THE TYPE 1+frac{q-1}{m}} + ax$

  • Kim, Seog-Young;Lee, June-Bok
    • Communications of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.823-829
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    • 1995
  • In this paper, we prove that $x^{1+\frac{q-1}{5}} + ax (a \neq 0)$ is not a permutation polynomial over $F_{q^r} (r \geq 2)$ and we show some properties of $x^{1+\frac{q-1}{m}} + ax (a \neq 0)$ over $F_{q^r} (r \geq 2)$.

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Preparation and Structure of $Re(NC_6F_5)(PPh_3)_2Cl_3 $ ($Re(NC_6F_5)(PPh_3)_2Cl_3 $화합물의 합성 및 구조)

  • 박병규;김영웅
    • Korean Journal of Crystallography
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.113-119
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    • 1996
  • Reaction of Re(O)(PPh3)2Cl3,I, with 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoroaniline (C6F5NH2), produced Re(NC6F5)(PPh3)2Cl3, II. The product has been characterized by 1H-NMR, elemental analysis, and X-ray diffraction. II crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, space group Pna21 with cell parameters a=18.763Å, b=14.737(2)Å, c=16.707(3)Å, Z=4. Least-square refinement of the structure led to an R(wR2)factor of 0.0455(0.1148) for 3319 unique reflections of I > 2σ(I) and for 174 variables.

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