• Title, Summary, Keyword: 2방향 감쇠기

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Dynamic Characteristic of A Bi-dirctional Damper Using A Tuned Mass Damper and A Tuned Liquid Column Damper (TMD와 TLCD를 이용한 2방향 감쇠기의 동적특성)

  • Lee, Sung-Kyung;Min, Kyung-Won;Park, Eun-Churn
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.589-596
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    • 2008
  • This study introduces the design of a bi-directional damper using a tuned mass damper(TMD) and a tuned liquid column damper(TLCD) and presents experimental verifications to confirm its control performance. The damper used in this study behaves as a TMD in a specific translational direction and acts as a TLCD in the other orthogonal direction. First, shaking table test is performed to investigate the coupled effect of control forces produced by TMD and TLCD. Then, the parameters that affect to dynamic characteristics of the proposed damper are quantitatively evaluated based on the experimental results. Testing results shows that the damper used in this study produces control forces coupled by TLCD and TMD, as it is excited by waves with an incident angle. Also, it is observed that the damper can be used to reduce bi-directional responses of building structures.

A Study on Fabrication of Variable Attenuator Using a Directional Coupler (방향성 결합기를 이용한 가변감쇠기의 설계 및 제작에 관한 연구)

  • 전중성;임종근;김동일;김기문
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Navigation
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.455-460
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    • 2001
  • 본 연구에서는 방향성 결합기의 특성과 PIN다이오드의 특성을 이용하여 가변 감쇠기를 구현하였다. 기존의 Even-Odd Mode해석법이 아닌 간단한 2-port 기법으로 감쇠기를 분석하였으며, 산란 파라미터는 결합포트의 종단 임피던스가 동일한 경우와 동일하지 않은 경우에 있어서의 감쇠기의 동작특성을 평가하였다. 방향성 결합기의 결합포트는 가변종단을 HP사의 전류제어 소자인 HSMP-3864 PIN다이오드를 사용하였다. 구현된 가변감쇠기는 PCS 송신주파수 1.9 GHz에서 감쇠 범위가 30 dB 이상, 삽입손실 5 dB 이하, 입·출력 반사계수 -25 dB 이하의 특성을 나타내었으며, 이는 PCS와 셀룰러 이동통신 기지국용 전력 증폭기를 온도 등과 같은 외부의 환경변화에 따라서 이득을 가변 시킬 수 있으며, 또한 증폭기의 선형성을 향상시킬 것으로 사료된다.

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An Experimental Study on Effect of Half-Wave Resonator Position on Acoustic Damping in a Combustion Chamber (연소실내 공명기 장착 위치에 따른 음향갑쇠 효과에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Sohn, Chae-Hoon;Kim, Chul-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2008
  • Effect of radial position of half-wave resonator is investigated experimentally for acoustic damping in a combustion chamber by adopting acoustic cold test. Acoustic damping is quantified by damping factor. When resonator with optimal tuning length is installed, damping is enhanced as its radial location is away from the center of the faceplate. And, spatial profile of damping factor is similar to that of the amplitude of the acoustic mode to be damped. As the location is close to the center, acoustic damping is mitigated and independent of the resonator length. On the other hand, the resonator with non-optimal length dose not show any effects of its radial position. Acoustic-damping capacity can be evaluated as functions of resonator length and position.

Performance Test of a Tuned Liquid Mass Damper installed in a Real-Scaled Structure (실물크기 구조물에 설치된 동조액체질량감쇠기의 성능실험)

  • Heo, Jae-Sung;Park, Eun-Churn;Lee, Sung-Kyung;Lee, Sang-Hyun;Kim, Hong-Jin;Jo, Ji-Seong;Cho, Bong-Ho;Joo, Seok-Jun;Min, Kyung-Won
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.161-168
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    • 2008
  • In this paper, a tuned liquid mass damper(TLMD) was proposed and experimentally investigated on its control performance, which can control bi-axial responses of building structures by using only one device. The proposed TLMD controls the structural response in a specific one direction by using a liquid sloshing of TLCD. Also, the TLMD reduces the response of structures in the other orthogonal direction by behaving as a TMD that uses mass of the container itself and liquid within container of TLCD installed on linear motion guides. Force-vibration tests on a real-sized structure installed with the TLMD were performed to verify its independent behavior in two orthogonal directions. Test results showed that the responses of a structure were considerably reduced by using the proposed TLMD and its usefulness for structural control in two orthogonal directions.

Experimental Performance Evaluation of a 2-way TLMD using a TLCD and a Rubber Bearing-type TMD (TLCD와 고무패드형 TMD를 이용한 2방향 TLMD의 성능평가실험)

  • Heo, Jae-Sung;Kim, Hong-Jin;Jo, Bong-Ho;Jo, Ji-Seong;Park, Eun-Churn;Lee, Sang-Hyun;Lee, Sung-Kyung;Kim, Dong-Young;Min, Kyung-Won
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering Conference
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    • pp.465-470
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    • 2007
  • In this paper, a two-way tuned liquid mass damper(TLMD) using a tuned liquid column damper(TLCD) and a rubber-bearing-type tuned mass damper(TMD) was manufactured for controlling two-way direction acceleration responses of a high-rise building structure. The proposed controlling device behaves as a tuned liquid column damper in one direction and as a tuned mass damper in the other direction. In this study, Performance evaluation of the downscaled model is conducted. The results show that the two-way controllability is behaved independently each other and realscale TLMD applicable to the high-rise building can be designed.

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A Tuned Liquid Mass Damper(TLMD) for Controlling Bi-directional Responses of a Building Structure (건축구조물의 2방향 진동제어를 위한 동조액체질량감쇠기)

  • Heo, Jae-Sung;Park, Eun-Churn;Lee, Sang-Hyun;Lee, Sung-Kyung;Kim, Hong-Jin;Cho, Bong-Ho;Jo, Ji-Seong;Kim, Dong-Young;Min, Kyung-Won
    • Transactions of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.345-355
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    • 2008
  • This paper presents a design of a tuned liquid mass damper(TLMD) for controlling bi-directional response of high-rise building structure subjected to windload. The proposed damper behaves as a tuned mass damper(TMD) of which mass is regarded as the mass of a tuned liquid column damper(TLCD) and the case wall of the TLCD itself in one direction and the TLCD in the other direction. Because the proposed device has coupled design parameter along two orthogonal directions, it is very important to select designing components by optimal fine tuning. In the designing TLMD, for easy maintenance, the rubber-bearing with small springs was applied in TMD direction. In this study, the Songdo New City Tower 1A in Korea, which has been designed and constructed two TLCDs in order to control bi-directional response, was chosen as the model building structure. The results of rotation test proved the effectiveness of bi-directional behavior of TLMD.

Experimental Study about Two-phase Damping Ratio on a Tube Bundle Subjected to Homogeneous Two-phase Flow (균질 2상 유동에 놓인 관군에 작용하는 감쇠비에 대한 실험적 연구)

  • Sim, Woo Gun;Dagdan, Banzragch
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.171-181
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    • 2017
  • Two-phase cross flow exists in many shell-and-tube heat exchangers such as condensers, evaporators, and nuclear steam generators. The drag force acting on a tube bundle subjected to air/water flow is evaluated experimentally. The cylinders subjected to two-phase flow are arranged in a normal square array. The ratio of pitch to diameter is 1.35, and the diameter of the cylinder is 18 mm. The drag force along the flow direction on the tube bundles is measured to calculate the drag coefficient and the two-phase damping ratio. The two-phase damping ratios, given by the analytical model for a homogeneous two-phase flow, are compared with experimental results. The correlation factor between the frictional pressure drop and the hydraulic drag coefficient is determined from the experimental results. The factor is used to calculate the drag force analytically. It is found that with an increase in the mass flux, the drag force, and the drag coefficients are close to the results given by the homogeneous model. The result shows that the damping ratio can be calculated using the homogeneous model for bubbly flow of sufficiently large mass flux.

Application of Tuned Mass Damper to Suppress Man-Induced Vibrations of Cable Stayed Foot-bridge (사장교형식 보도교의 보행진동제어를 위한 TMD 적용)

  • Kim, Yun-Seok;Lee, Seung-Woo;Kim, Jae-Min;Chang, Seong-Kyu
    • 한국방재학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.74-74
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    • 2011
  • 본 연구에서는 중앙경간 54m, 교폭 4m의 사장교형식의 보도교로 측경간은 계단으로 이루어진 1경간 케이블교량을 대상으로 보행하중에 의한 수직진동을 제어하기 위해 제진장치(TMD)를 적용하기로 하고 실물 TMD의 설계 및 제작 그리고 설치 및 제어성능실험을 수행하였다. 우선 사장교형식의 교량. 그리고 1경간 교량이라는 점에서 상대적으로 감쇠율이 낮을 것으로 예측되었고 또한 54m의 경간장이 보행자가 가진 주파수에 근접한 고유진동수를 나타낼 것으로 사료되어 Eurocode 2 part 2(EC5-2)의 규준에 따라 1인 및 다수 보행하중에 의한 보도교의 발생가속도를 산출하였다. 이 경우 최대가속도는 다수의 보행자가 연속적으로 진행할 때 발생하였으며, 수직방향의 가속도가 사용성기준을 초과하는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 구조해석프로그램에 의한 고유치 해석결과, 보행하중의 주파수대역내에 진동모드가 존재하는 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 본 교량의 설계단계에 있어서 보행진동을 제어하기 위하여 유지관리가 용이한 수동형의 동조질량감쇠장치(Tuned Mass Damper)를 적용하기로 하였으며 TMD의 설계에서는 TMD의 제어목표를 만족시킬 수 있는 TMD의 가동질량(moving mass)을 우선적으로 결정하였고, 이로부터 Den Hartog의 제안식에 따라 TMD의 고유진동수비, 유효감쇠비를 산정하였다. 산정된 변수들을 이용하여 설계된 TMD는 현장설치 및 튜닝의 편의성을 고려하여 수평 외팔보형식으로 설계, 제작되었으며 제작된 TMD의 경우 회전축에 대해 질량, 스프링, 댐퍼의 중심거리를 조정함으로써 TMD의 진동수, 강성, 감쇠력을 상대적으로 매우 용이하게 조절할 수 있으며, 조정범위 또한 광범위하여 일반 TMD에 비해 현장설치시 대상구조물에 동조시키기가 용이하며, 작동시 마찰감쇠가 거의 없다는 장점이 있다. 현장설치전에 제작된 TMD를 대상으로 자유진동 시험을 통하여 질량의 중심거리, 스프링 크기 그리고 댐퍼의 설치유무를 각각 변화시키며 TMD의 자유진동 데이터를 취득하였다. 각각의 시험에서 얻어진 데이터로부터 스펙트럼해석을 통하여 고유진동수를 구하였고, 자유진동 파형으로 부터 감쇠비를 구하였다. TMD는 일반적으로 제어모드의 변형형상이 가장 큰 곳에 설치되었을 때 최대의 제진효과를 발휘할 수 있다. 그러나 현장여건상 설치가 불가능하거나 미관을 해치는 경우에는 가능한 범위 내에서 TMD 제어효율이 가장 크게 발휘할 수 있는 곳을 선택하여야 한다. 본 보도교의 경우, 중앙경간 중심부에서 가장 큰 모드변형형상을 나타내지만, 보도교의 상판 연결부 등에 따른 TMD 시공문제로 인하여 TMD 설치위치는 교량 중앙에서 양 방향으로 1.25m 떨어진 곳에 대칭으로 총 2기를 설치하기로 하였다. 일반적으로 TMD의 모든 설계변수는 구조물의 설계단계에서 수행된 구조해석결과에 근거하여 설정하므로 완공된 구조물, 즉 실제보도교의 동적특성을 계측하여 정확하게 진동수를 튜닝하여야 한다. 구조해석에 의한 보도교의 수직방향(TMD 작동방향) 고유진동수는 1.5225 Hz이며, 감쇠비는 규준에 의하여 0.6 %로 가정하였다. 그러나 이 값들은 구조해석모델 및 재료적 특성과 시공상의 오차에 의하여 실제와 다를 수 있으므로 현장계측에 의한 확인이 요구된다. 또한 TMD의 제진효율이 설계시의 목표대로 확보되었는지도 확인해야 하므로 현장튜닝 및 성능시험을 실시하였다. 보도교의 가진은 사전에 실시한 상시 미진동계측결과를 토대로 2Hz를 목표로 하여 인력가진실험을 수행하였고, 탁월진동 주파수는 1.9896Hz로 나타나 구조해석결과와 오차가 있음을 알 수 있다. 가진실험결과를 토대로 TMD의 진동수를 최적진동수비로 튜닝하고 인력가진 실험을 다시 실시하여 TMD의 진동제어성능을 검토하였다. TMD 튜닝 전, 후의 보도교 감쇠비를 비교한 결과, TMD를 설치함으로써 약 4.218%의 감쇠비 증가가 있음을 알 수 있다.

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Performance Test of a Tuned Liquid Mass Damper installed in a Real-Scaled Structure (실물크기 구조물에 설치된 동조액체질량감쇠기의 성능실험)

  • Heo, Jae-Sung;Park, Eun-Churn;Lee, Sang-Hyun;Lee, Sung-Kyung;Min, Kyung-Won;Kim, Hong-Jin;Jo, Ji-Seong;Cho, Bong-Ho;Joo, Seok-Jun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering Conference
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    • pp.449-457
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    • 2008
  • In this paper, a tuned liquid1) mass damper(TLMD) was proposed and experimentally investigated on its control performance, which can control bi-axial responses of building structures by using only one device. The proposed TLMD controls the structural response in a specific one direction by using a liquid sloshing of TLCD. Also, the TLMD reduces the response of structures in the other orthogonal direction by behaving as a TMD that uses mass of the container itself and liquid within container of TLCD installed on linear motion guides. Force-vibration tests on a real-sized structure installed with the TLMD were performed to verify its independent behavior in two orthogonal directions. Test results showed that the responses of a structure were considerably reduced by using the proposed TLMD and its usefulness for structural control in two orthogonal directions.

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A Study on the Fabrication of Variable Attenuator using a Diode (다이오드를 이용한 가변 감쇠기의 설계 및 제작에 관한 연구)

  • Jeon, Joong-Sung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Engineering
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.147-152
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    • 2008
  • This paper has been fabricated the two different type of variable attenuators using a characteristics of a 3 dB directional coupler and pin diodes. One was not analyzed using the conventional even-odd modes but used simple two-port techniques. The resulting scattering parameters described operation characteristics for the general case where the terminating impedances are equal and unequal. After analyzing resistor role of the ${\pi}$ type fixed attenuator. this paper used a pin diode instead of a resistor. The variable attenuators were fabricated using pin diodes for current-controlled attenuation on the coupled ports of a 3 dB branch-line coupler and ${\pi}$ type fixed attenuator. The realized variable attenuators have more than 33 dB attenuation ranges at 2.1 GHz. and the input and output reflection coefficients are less than -13 dB. These results could be applied to mobile communication systems. It can be varied gain of the power amplifier according to change a outdoor environmental temperature and improved linearity.