• Title, Summary, Keyword: 2m+1 PEM

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Electricity Generation and Microbial Community Structure Variation Depending on Separator Types and Cathode Characteristics in Air-cathode MFC (공기환원전극 미생물연료전지에서 분리막 종류 및 환원전극 특성에 따른 전기발생 및 미생물 군집구조 변화)

  • Yu, Jae-Cheul;Lee, Chang-Yeol;Kim, Sun-Ah;Cho, Hae-In;Cho, Sun-Ja;Lee, Tae-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.113-120
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    • 2010
  • Air-cathode microbial fuel cell consisted of 4 unit cells were operated under batch condition and electricity generation and microbial community structure variation were investigated, depending on separator types and cathode characteristics: A) PEM(Proton Exchange Membrane)-30% Wet proofing Carbon Cloth(WC), B) AEM(Anion Exchange Membrane-WC, C) CEM(Cation Exchange Membrane)-WC, D) PEM-No Wet proofing Carbon Cloth(NC). Maximum power densities of PEM-WC, AEM-WC and CEM-WC were 510.9, 522.1 and 504.8 $mW/m^2$, respectively. But PEM-NC showed relatively lower maximum power density of 218.3 $mW/m^2$. And PEM-WC, AEM-WC and CEM-WC showed similar internal resistances(20.0-28.2 ${\Omega}$). PCRDGGE, PCA and diversity indices showed that uncultured bacteria which reported in previous MFC studies were detected in suspended growth bacteria and attached growth bacteria would be affected not by separator type but by cathode characteristic. Thus, cathode characteristic can be one of the critical factors for power generation in air-cathode MFC using PEM, AEM, and CEM as separator.

Electrochemical Characteristics of Pt/PEM/Pt-Ru MEA for Water Electrolysis (수전해용 Pt/PEM/Pt-Ru MEA의 전기화학적 특성)

  • Kweon, Oh-Hwan;Kim, Kyung-Eon;Jang, In-Young;Hwang, Yong-Koo;Chung, Jang-Hoon;Moon, Sang-Bong;Kang, An-Soo
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.18-25
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    • 2008
  • The membrane electrode assembly(MEA) was prepared by a nonequilibrium impregnation- reduction (I-R) method. Nafion 117 and covalently cross-linked sulfonated polyetherether with tungsto- phosphoric acid (CL-SPEEK/TPA30) prepared by our laboratory, were chosen as polymer electrolyte membrane(PEM). $Pt(NH_3)_4Cl_2$, $RuCl_3$ and reducing agent $(NaBH_4)$ were used as electrocatalytic materials. Electrochemical activity surface area(ESA) and specific surface area(SSA) of Pt cathodic electrode with Nafion 117 were $22.48m^2/g$ and $23.50m^2/g$ respectively under the condition of 0.8 M $NaBH_4$. But Pt electrode prepared by CL-SPEEK/TPA30 membrane exhibited higher ESA $23.46m^2/g$ than that of Nafion 117. In case of Pt-Ru anodic electrode, the higher concentration of Ru was, the lower potential of oxygen reduction and region of hydrogen desorption was, and Pt-Ru electrode using 10 mM $RuCl_3$ showed best properties of SSA $34.09m^2/g$ with Nafion 117. In water electrolysis performance, the cell voltage of Pt/PEM/Pt-Ru MEA with Nafion 117 showed cell property of 1.75 V at $1A/cm^2$ and $80{\circ}C$. On the same condition, the cell voltage with CL-SPEEK/TPA30 was the best of 1.73 V at $1A/cm^2$.

Effect of Co-culture with Porcine Endometrial Cell Monolayers on the Development of In Vitro Produced Porcine Zygotes (자궁내막세포막의 공배양이 돼지 체외수정란의 초기발달에 미치는 영향)

  • 한만희;박병권;박창식;이규승
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.217-223
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    • 1996
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of co-culture for the development rate to morula /blastocyst stages of early porcine embryos, derived from oocytes matured and fertilized in vitro, with porcine endometrial cell monolayers(PEM) in the two different media, respectively. The rates of embryos developed to 2-, 4-, 8~16-cell and morula /blastocyst stage were 49.6, 40.5, 28.2 and 15.3% in Ham's F-10 with PEM, and 55.3, 45.9, 32.7, and 17.6% in TCM-HEPES with PEM, respectively. The above development rates to morula /blastocyst stages were significantly higher than those of the embryos cultured in the Ham's F-10 and TGM-HEPES without PEM(P<0.05). The in vitro development rates to the morula /blastocyst stage of 1-cell embryos cultured in Ham's F-10 and TCM-HEPES without PEM were 0~1.2%. Especially, most of embryos were observed to arrest the development beyond 4-cell stages. As shown in the above results, the co-culture of in vitro produced porcine embryos with PEM in the two different media enhanced the development of fertilized eggs to morula /blastocyst stages in vitro. However, we didn't find out any differences for the in vitro development to morula /blastocyst stages between Ham's F-10 and TcM-HEPES media.

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Characterization of Polyester Cloth as an Alternative Separator to Nafion Membrane in Microbial Fuel Cells for Bioelectricity Generation Using Swine Wastewater

  • Kim, Taeyoung;Kang, Sukwon;Sung, Je Hoon;Kang, Youn Koo;Kim, Young Hwa;Jang, Jae Kyung
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.26 no.12
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    • pp.2171-2178
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    • 2016
  • Polyester cloth (PC) was selected as a prospective inexpensive substitute separator material for microbial fuel cells (MFCs). PC was compared with a traditional Nafion proton exchange membrane (PEM) as an MFC separator by analyzing its physical and electrochemical properties. A single layer of PC showed higher mass transfer (e.g., for $O_2/H^+/ions$) than the Nafion PEM; in the case of oxygen mass transfer coefficient ($k_o$), a rate of $50.0{\times}10^{-5} cm{\cdot}s^{-1}$ was observed compared with a rate of $20.8{\times}10^{-5}cm/s$ in the Nafion PEM. Increased numbers of PC layers were found to reduce the oxygen mass transfer coefficient. In addition, the diffusion coefficient of oxygen ($D_O$) for PC ($2.0-3.3{\times}10^{-6}cm^2/s$) was lower than that of the Nafion PEM ($3.8{\times}10^{-6}cm^2/s$). The PC was found to have a low ohmic resistance ($0.29-0.38{\Omega}$) in the MFC, which was similar to that of Nafion PEM ($0.31{\Omega}$); this resulted in comparable maximum power density and maximum current density in MFCs with PC and those with Nafion PEMs. Moreover, a higher average current generation was observed in MFCs with PC ($104.3{\pm}15.3A/m^3$) compared with MFCs with Nafion PEM ($100.4{\pm}17.7A/m^3$), as well as showing insignificant degradation of the PC surface, during 177 days of use in swine wastewater. These results suggest that PC separators could serve as a low-cost alternative to Nafion PEMs for construction of cost-effective MFCs.

Effect of Chlorella vulgaris on Immune-enhancement and Cytokine Production in vivo and in vitro

  • An, Hyo-Jin;Rim, Hong-Kun;Lee, Jong-Hyun;Seo, Min-Jun;Hong, Jin-Woo;Kim, Na-Hyung;Myung, Noh-Yil;Moon, Phil-Dong;Choi, In-Young;Na, Ho-Jeong;Kim, Su-Jin;Jeong, Hyun-Ja;Park, Hyeung-Suk;Han, Jae-Gab;Um, Jae-Young;Hong, Seung-Heon;Kim, Hyung-Min
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.953-958
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    • 2008
  • The object of this study was to investigate the immune-enhancing effects of Chlorella vulgaris (CV) on a deteriorated immune function by a protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) diet. Unicellular algae, CV were used as a biological response modifier. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed for 15 days with standard diet or a PEM diet, which is associated with decreased host immune defense. After 8 days, mice in the PEM diet group were orally administered by 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 g/kg body weight of CV or distilled water. Nutritional parameters, and interferon (IFN)-$\gamma$ levels were significantly increased in the blood serum of the CV (0.15 g/kg)-treated group (29.6$\pm$2.8 pg/mL) compared to the non-treated PEM group (4.1$\pm$0.4 pg/mL, p<0.05). In addition, cell proliferation and production of cytokines were investigated via a CV (0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/mL) treatment using a human T cell line MOLT-4 cell. The CV treatment (1 mg/mL) significantly increased the production of both IFN-$\gamma$ and interleukin (IL)-2 (51.3$\pm$3.4 and 285.9$\pm$18.8 pg/mL, respectively) compared to the control (51.3$\pm$3.4 and 442.6$\pm$14.3 pg/mL, respectively), but did not affect the production of IL-4. These results suggest that CV may be useful in improving the immune function.

Characteristics of Organic Material Removal and Electricity Generation in Continuously Operated Microbial Fuel Cell (연속류식 미생물연료전지의 유기물 제거 및 전기 발생 특성)

  • Kim, Jeong-Gu;Jeong, Yeon-Koo;Park, Song-In
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.57-65
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    • 2010
  • Two types of microbial fuel cells(MFC) were continuously operated using synthetic wastewater. One was conventional two-chambered MFC using proton exchange membrane(PEM-MFC), the other was upflow type membraneless MFC(ML-MFC). Graphite felt was used as a anode in PEM-MFC. In membraneless MFC, two MFCs were operated using porous RVC(reticulated vitreous carbon) as a anode. Graphite felt was used as a cathode in all experiments. In experiment of PEM-MFC, the COD removal rate based on the surface area of anode was about $3.0g/m^2{\cdot}d$ regardless of organic loading rate. And the coulombic efficiency amounted to 22.4~23.4%. The acetic acid used as a fuel was transferred through PEM from the anodic chamber to cathodic chamber. The COD removal rate in ML-MFC were $9.3{\sim}10.1g/m^2{\cdot}d$, which indicated the characteristics of anode had no significant effects on COD removal. Coulombic efficiency were 3.6~3.7 % in both cases of ML-MFC experiments, which were relatively small. It was also observed that the microbial growth in cathodic chamber had an adverse effects on the electricity generation in membraneless MFC.

H9 Inhibits Tumor Growth and Induces Apoptosis via Intrinsic and Extrinsic Signaling Pathway in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Xenografts

  • Kim, Min-Je;Kwon, Sae-Bom;Ham, Seung Hoon;Jeong, Eui-Suk;Choi, Yang-Kyu;Choi, Kang Duk;Hong, Jin Tae;Jung, Seung Hyun;Yoon, Do-Young
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.648-657
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    • 2015
  • H9, a novel herbal extract, demonstrated cytotoxicity in A549 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. In this study, we investigated whether H9, and/or co-treatment with an anticancer drug, pemetrexed (PEM), inhibited tumor growth in BALB/c nude mice models bearing A549 NSCLC cells. The mice were separated into groups and administered H9 and PEM for 2 weeks. Protein and mRNA levels were detected using western blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively; immunohistochemistry (IHC) was also performed on the tumor tissues. H9 and co-treatment with PEM induced the cleavage of proapoptotic factors, such as caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP). Expression levels of cell-death receptors involving Fas/FasL, TNF-related apoptosisinducing ligands (TRAIL), and TRAIL receptors were increased by H9 and co-treatment with PEM. Furthermore, analysis of levels of cell-cycle modulating proteins indicated that tumor cells were arrested in the G1/S phase. In addition, the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt survival signaling pathways were inhibited by H9 and co-treatment with PEM. In conclusion, H9 and co-treatment with PEM inhibited tumor growth in BALB/c nude mice models bearing A549 NSCLC cells. These results indicate that H9 and co-treatment with PEM can be used as an anticancer therapy in NSCLC.

A Congestion Management Approach Using Probabilistic Power Flow Considering Direct Electricity Purchase

  • Wang, Xu;Jiang, Chuan-Wen
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.820-831
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    • 2015
  • In a deregulated electricity market, congestion of the transmission lines is a major problem the independent system operator (ISO) would face. Rescheduling of generators is one of the most practiced techniques to alleviate the congestion. However, not all generators in the system operate deterministically and independently, especially wind power generators (WTGs). Therefore, a novel optimal rescheduling model for congestion management that accounts for the uncertain and correlated power sources and loads is proposed. A probabilistic power flow (PPF) model based on 2m+1 point estimate method (PEM) is used to simulate the performance of uncertain and correlated input random variables. In addition, the impact of direct electricity purchase contracts on the congestion management has also been studied. This paper uses artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm to solve the complex optimization problem. The proposed algorithm is tested on modified IEEE 30-bus system and IEEE 57-bus system to demonstrate the impacts of the uncertainties and correlations of the input random variables and the direct electricity purchase contracts on the congestion management. Both pool and nodal pricing model are also discussed.

The composition control of ITO/PET by Plasma Emission Monitors (PEM을 이용한 ITO/PET film 조성 제어)

  • 한세진;김용한;김영환;이택동
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.213-213
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    • 1999
  • 현재 LCD용 기판재료는 ITO/glass를 전극으로 사용하고 있다. 그러나 유리기판은 무겁고 깨지기 쉽기 때문에 사용상 곤란한 점이 많다. 최근 flexible하고 가공성 및 생산성이 우수한 플라스틱한 ITO를 성막하여 EL용, Touch panel, plastic LCD용 사용하려는 시도로, roll-to-roll 연속 스퍼터링에 의한 ITO성막공정에 대한 연구가 최근 활발하게 이루어지고 있다. 폴리머는 유리에 비해 Tg 온도가 낮고, 기판으로부터의 수분 및 여러 종류의 가스방출이 심하기 때문에 유리와는 달리 ITO막의 제조에 있어 큰 차이점이 있다. 따라서, 폴리머에 반응성 스퍼터링을 하기 위해서는 표면처리가 중요한 변수가 되며, roll to roll sputter로 ITO 필름을 얻기 위해서는 폭과 길이 방향으로 균일한 막을 얻는 것이 중요하다. 두께 75$\mu\textrm{m}$, 폭 190mm, 길이 400m로 권취된 광학용 Polyethylene terephthalate(PET:Tg:8$0^{\circ}C$)위에 In-10%Sn의 합금타겟과 Unipolar pulsed DC power supply를 사용하여 반응성 마그네트론 스퍼터링 방법으로 0.2m/min의 속도로 연속 스퍼터링 하였다. PET를 Ar/O2 혼합가스로 플라즈마 전처리를 한 후, AFM, XPS를 이용하여 효과를 분석을 하였고, 성막전에 가스방출을 막기 위해 TiO를 코팅하였다. Pilot 연속 생산공정에서 재현성을 위해 PEM(Plasma Emission Monitor)의 optical emission spectroscopy를 이용, 금속과 산화물의 천이구역에서 sprtter된 I/Sn 이온과 산소 이온의 반응에 의한 최적의 플라즈마의 강도값을 입력하여 플라즈마의 radiation을 검출하고, 스퍼터링 공정중 실질적인 in-situ 정보로 이용하였다. PEM을 통하여 In/Sn의 플라즈마 강도변화를 조사하였다. 초기 In/Sn의 플라즈마 강도(intensity)는 강도를 100하여, 산소를 주입한 결과, plasma intensity가 35 줄어들었고, 이때 우수한 ITO 박막을 얻을 수 있었다. Pulsed DC power를 사용하여 아크 현상을 방지하였다. PET 상에 coating 된 ITO 박막의 표면저항과 광투과도는 4-point prove와 spectrophotometer를 이용하여 분석하였고, AES로 박막의 두께에 따른 성분비를 확인하였다. ITO 박막의 광투과도는 산소의 유량과 sputter 된 In/Sn ion의 plasma emission peak에 따라 72%-92%까지 변화하였으며, 저항은 37$\Omega$/$\square$ 이상을 나타내었다. 박막의 Sn/In atomic ratio는 0.12, O/In의 비율은 In2O3의 화학양론적 비율인 1.5보다 작은 1.3을 나타내었다.

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Effects of Diffusion Layer (DL) and ORR Catalyst (MORR) on the Performance of MORR/IrO2/DL Electrodes for PEM-Type Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells

  • Choe, Seunghoe;Lee, Byung-Seok;Jang, Jong Hyun
    • Journal of Electrochemical Science and Technology
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 2017
  • This study aims to examine the influences of substrates/diffusion layers (DL) and oxygen reduction reaction catalysts ($M_{ORR}$) on the performance of $M_{ORR}/IrO_2$/DL-type bifunctional oxygen electrodes for use in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM)-type unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFC). The $M_{ORR}/IrO_2$/DL electrodes were prepared via two sequential steps: anodic electrodeposition of $IrO_2$ on various DLs and fabrication of $M_{ORR}$ layers (Pt, Pd, and Pt-Ru) by spraying on $IrO_2/DL$. Experiments using different DLs, with Pt as the $M_{ORR}$, revealed that the roughness factor of the DL mainly determined the electrode performance for both water electrolyzer (WE) and fuel cell (FC) operations, while the contributions of porosity and substrate material were insignificant. When Pt-Ru was utilized as the $M_{ORR}$ instead of Pt, WE performance was enhanced and the electrode performance was assessed by analyzing round-trip efficiencies (${\varepsilon}_{RT}$) at current densities of 0.2 and $0.4A/cm^2$. As a result, using Pt-Ru instead of Pt alone provided better ${\varepsilon}_{RT}$ at both current densities, while Pd resulted in very low ${\varepsilon}_{RT}$. Improved efficiency was related to the additional catalytic action by Ru toward ORR during WE operation.