• Title, Summary, Keyword: 3-chloro-4(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2-(5H)-furanone

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Quantitative determination of 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) in chlorinated drinking water using sample enrichment followed by liquid-liquid extraction and GC-MS (시료 농축 후 액-액-추출과 GC-MS를 이용한 염소 소독 음용수중 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone(MX)의정량 분석)

  • Kim, Hekap;Song, Byeong yeol
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 2016
  • This study explores the means by which MX can be effectively extracted from chlorinated water 3-Chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), a potent mutagen commonly found in chlorinated drinking water at concentrations of up to a few hundred ng/L, was quantitatively determined using sample enrichment followed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), derivatization to methylated form, and analysis with GC-MS. A 4-L water sample was enriched to a concentration of 0.4 L using a vacuum rotary evaporator at 30 ℃. MX in the water was extracted using ethyl acetate (100 mL × 2) as a solvent and MX in the extract was methylated with 10 % H2SO4 in methanol. MX was recovered at a rate of 73.8 %, which was higher than that (38.1 %) for the resin adsorption method. The limit of quantification and repeatability (as relative standard deviation) were estimated to be 10 ng/L and 2.2 %, respectively. This result suggested that LLE can be used for the determination of MX in chlorinated water as an alternative to more time-consuming resin adsorption method.

Adsorption of MX (3-chloro-4 (dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2-(5H)-furanone) on amphiphilic mesoporous silica in aqueous solution (양쪽성 메조 포러스 실리카에 의한 수용액 속의 MX의 흡착)

  • Yoo, Eun-Ah;Chung, Kang-Sup
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.94-104
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    • 2011
  • Mesoporous silica was synthesized in a water solvent and in an ethanol solvent with the non and cationic cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC) by varying the amount of the amphiphilic acrylic urethane oligomer (AAU) and the pH of the solution. The adsorption of the MX (3-chloro-4 (dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2-(5H)-furanone) in drinking water was studied using the synthesized mesoporous silica as an adsorbent. The most appropriate silica was synthesized in acidic conditions in the water solvent and in alkali conditions in the ethanol solvent. The average pore sizes of the synthesized mesosilica were 3 nm and more. The mesoporous silica synthesized by the addition of the AAU oligomer showed excellent adsorption characteristics. With respect to the co-surfactant, the best adsorption characteristics were obtained when the P64,a non-ionic surfactant with a high molecular weight, was used to synthesize the silica than when other co-surfactants were used. The adsorption rate decreased as the MX concentration in the water increased. Different adsorption equilibrium conditions were reached depending on the adsorbate MX concentration in the adsorbent and the solution. It was seen that perfect adsorption does not occur due to such equilibrium conditions.

The study of analysis of mutagen in drinking water (음용수 중 변이원성 물질(MX)에 관한 연구)

  • Yoo, Eun-Ah;Won, Jung-In
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.290-300
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    • 2006
  • Disinfection by-products(DBPs), such as volatile trihalomethanes and the nonvolatile organochlorine acids, created by chlorination have been extensively studied. However MX which contributes 20-50% of the mutagenic activity in drinking water began to people's attention since 1990. Its chemical name is 3-chloro-4-dichloromethyl-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone. According to WHO guidelines its concentration should be controlled, but its value has not been set up. Due to analytical difficulties in measuring this compound at such a low concentrations and lack of information on toxicity to human. Because concentration (ng/L) of MX in drinking water is low traditional testing methods are ineffective. Therefore this study compared LLE and SPE and have chosen SPE to improve preconcentration. MX has been identified in chlorinated drinking water samples in several countries but not in korea Therefore this study analyzed concentration of MX in different water sources and in spring water. This study examined the causes of changing MX content. Chlorine dosage, seasons, water temperature and distance from the source was all discoverd to be relavant. MX was analyzed in various treatment to find optimum disinfection methods. The outcome was that the concentration of MX was minimized when using biological activated carbon-O3 and granular activated carbon.

Computational Study of Mutagen X

  • Cho, Seung-Joo
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.731-732
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    • 2003
  • Mutagen X (MX), 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone is one of the most potent directing acting mutagen ever tested in SAL TA100 assay. Although MX analogues have been synthesized, tested for mutagenicity and modeled by structure-activity relationship (SAR) methods, the mechanism of interaction of these compounds with DNA to produce their remarkable mutagenic potency remains unresolved. MX exists as an equilibrium mixture of both ring and open form in water. This equilibrium is very fast for Ames test. Because the mixture is not separable by experimental methods, it is not clear which one is really responsible for the observed mutagenicity. There have been many debates that which one is really responsible for the observed mutagenicity. We used ab initio methods for the MX analogues. It seems both ring and open form could react with DNA bases as electrophiles. However, every open form has consistently lower LUMO energy than corresponding ring form. It is reasonable to assume that the major reaction will go through via open form for MX analogues. This suggest that the open form is more likely really mutagenic.

Analysis of derivatized MX by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS를 이용한 MX 유도체화 분석법 연구)

  • Yoo, Eun-Ah;Park, Do-Yeon;Lee, Hyang-Ki;Myung, Seung-Woon
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.221-228
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    • 2002
  • AMX is one of extremely high mutagenic compound produced from the reaction of the chlorine and the organic compound during the disinfection of tap water. In this paper, the chemical derivatization of MX with 2% sulfuric acid-methanol, iso-propanol, sec-butanol and n-butanol derivatives for the GC/MS analysis were tested or compared. Limit of detection for the EI and NCI mode were 25 pg and 1.25 pg, respectively. The good linear calibration curve was obtained the range of 25~2500 pg by EI and NCI