• Title/Summary/Keyword: 5-fluorouracil

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Combined Treatment with 5-Fluorouracil and Capsaicin Induces Apoptosis in HT-29 Human Colon Cancer Cells (5-Fluorouracil과 Capsaicin의 병용에 의한 HT-29 대장암세포 사멸 증진 효과)

  • Lee, Yun-Seok;Lee, Jong-Suk;Kim, Jung-Ae
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.184-188
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    • 2009
  • Fluorouracil (5-FU) is one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer patients. Capsaicin (N-vanillyl-8-methyl-alpha-nonenamide), a spicy component of hot pepper, is a homovanillic acid derivative that preferentially induces cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether capsaicin enhances the anticancer effect of 5-fluorouracil in HT-29 human colon cancer cells by inducing apoptosis, and whether PPARgamma is involved in the capsaicin action in combination treatment with 5-FU. Treatment of the cells with either 5-FU or capsaicin alone for 48 h had little effect on the cell viability up to $50{\mu}M$ concentration, whereas co-treatment of the cells with capsaicin in the presence of 5-FU for 48 h significantly decreased the cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, caspase-3 activity, a marker enzyme for apoptosis, was significantly increased by the combined treatment with 5-FU and capsaicin compared to the 5-FU or capsaicin alone treatment. Also, treatment with troglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ($PPAR{\gamma}$) agonist, further enhanced the effect of the combination treatment on the cell viability and caspase-3 activity, and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), a $PPAR{\gamma}$ antagonist, blocked the effect of the combination treatment. These results suggest that the combination treatment of HT-29 cells with 5-FU and capsaicin induces apoptotic cell death at relatively low concentration than each drug alone, and the combination treatment may be associated with the $PPAR{\gamma}$ pathway activation.

Dual Responsive Pectin Hydrogels and Their Silver Nanocomposites: Swelling Studies, Controlled Drug Delivery and Antimicrobial Applications

  • Reddy, P. Rama Subba;Eswaramma, S.;Krishna Rao, K.S.V.;Lee, Yong Ill
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.35 no.8
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    • pp.2391-2399
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    • 2014
  • Novel dual responsive pectin hydrogels composed from poly(acrylamidoglycolic acid-co-vinylcaprolactam)/Pectin (PAV-PC) and also PAV-PC hydrogels are used as templates for the production of silver nanoparticles. 5-Fluorouracil is an anticancer drug and has been loaded in situ into PAV-PC hydrogels. Structure and morphology characterization of PAV-PC hydrogels were investigated by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermo gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction studies, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed a molecular level dispersion of the drug in PAV-PC hydrogels. In vitro release of 5-fluorouracil from the PAV-PC hydrogels has been carried out in GIT fluids as well as in various temperatures. 5-Fluorouracil released from PAV-PC hydrogels was 50% at pH 1.2, and 85% at pH 7.4 within 24 h. The release profile was characterized with PAV-PC hydrogels and initial burst effect was significantly reduced in two buffer media (1.2 and 7.4), followed by a continuous and controlled release phase, the drug release mechanism from polymer was due to Fickian diffusion. In situ fabrication of silver nanoparticles inside the hydrogel network via the reduction of sodium borohydrate by PAV-PC chains led to hydrogel nanocomposites. The diameter of the nanocomposites was about 50-100 nm, suitable for uptake within the gastrointestinal tract due to their nanosize range and mucoadhesive properties. These nanocomposite PAV-PC hydrogels showed strong antimicrobial activity towards Bacillus subtilis (G+ve) and Escherichia coli (G-ve).

Validation of a Selective Method for Simultaneous Determination of Doxifluridine and 5-Fluorouracil in Dog Plasma by LC-MS/MS (LC/MS/MS를 이용한 비글견의 혈장 중 Doxifluridine 및 5-Fluorouracil의 동시 분석법 Validation)

  • Kim, Ghee-Hwan;Kim, Won;Kim, Jin-Sung;Jin, Qingri;Kang, Won-Ku;Lee, Jong-Hwa;Ha, Jung-Heun;Jeong, Eun-Ju
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.179-186
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    • 2007
  • A simple, sensitive and selective liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for doxifluridine and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) quantification in dog heparinized plasma. Sample preparation was based on liquid-liquid extraction using a mixture of isopropanol/ethyl acetate (1/9 v/v) to extract doxifluridine, 5-FU and 5-chlorouracil (5-CU, an internal standard) from plasma. Chromatography was performed on a C-18 analytical column and the retention times were 2.7, 1.5 and 1.7 min for doxifluridine, 5-FU and 5-CU, respectively with shorter analysis time within 5 min than previously reported methods. The ionization was optimized using ESI negative mode and selectivity was achieved by tandem mass spectrometric analysis by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using the transformations of m/z 244.8>107.6, 129.0>42.0 and 144.9>42.1 for doxifluridine, 5-FU and 5-CU, respectively. The achieved low limit of quantification was 20.0 ng/mL and the assay exhibited linear range of 20-2000 ng/mL ($R^2>0.99957$ for doxifluridine and $R^2>0.99857$ for 5-FU), using $100{\mu}L$ of plasma. Accuracy and precision of quality control samples for both doxifluridine and 5-FU met KFDA and FDA Guidance criteria of 15% for accuracy with coefficients of variation less than 15%. This method demonstrated adequate sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, precision and stability to support the simultaneous analysis of doxifluridine and 5-FU in dog plasma samples in pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies.

Advanced Gastric Cancer Associated with Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Successfully Treated with 5-fluorouracil and Oxaliplatin

  • Lee, Dong Seok;Yoo, Seung Jin;Oh, Ho Suk;Kim, Eun Jung;Oh, Kwang Hoon;Lee, Sang Jin;Park, Jong Kyu;Ahn, Yong Chel;Eom, Dae-Woon;Ahn, Heui June
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.121-125
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    • 2013
  • Gastric cancer patients with acute disseminated intravascular coagulation experiences a rare but severe complication resulting in a dismal prognosis. We report a case of advanced gastric cancer complicated with disseminated intravascular coagulation with intractable tumor bleeding which was successfully treated with chemotherapy consisting of 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin. The patient was a 63-yearold man who complained of abdominal pain, melena, and dyspnea on 24 November 2010. We diagnosed stage IV gastric cancer complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation. Gastric tumor bleeding was not controlled after procedures were repeated three times using gastrofiberscopy. With the patient's consent, we selected the 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin combination chemotherapy for treatment. After one cycle of 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin therapy, symptoms of bleeding improved and the disseminated intravascular coagulation process was successfully controlled. The primary tumor and multiple metastatic bone lesions were remarkably shrunken and metabolically remitted after eight cycles of chemotherapy. In spite of progression, systemic chemotherapy is effective in disease control; further, the patient gained the longest survival time among cases of gastric cancer with disseminated intravascular coagulation.

The Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response Mediates Shikonin-Induced Apoptosis of 5-Fluorouracil-Resistant Colorectal Cancer Cells

  • Piao, Mei Jing;Han, Xia;Kang, Kyoung Ah;Fernando, Pincha Devage Sameera Madushan;Herath, Herath Mudiyanselage Udari Lakmini;Hyun, Jin Won
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.265-273
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    • 2022
  • Resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs is a significant problem in the treatment of colorectal cancer, resulting in low response rates and decreased survival. Recent studies have shown that shikonin, a naphthoquinone derivative, promotes apoptosis in colon cancer cells and cisplatin-resistant ovarian cells, raising the possibility that this compound may be effective in drug-resistant colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular mechanisms underpinning shikonin-induced apoptosis, with a focus on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, in a 5-fluorouracil-resistant colorectal cancer cell line, SNU-C5/5-FUR. Our results showed that shikonin significantly increased the proportion of sub-G1 cells and DNA fragmentation and that shikonin-induced apoptosis is mediated by mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation. Shikonin treatment also increased the expression of ER-related proteins, such as glucose regulatory protein 78 (GRP78), phospho-protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK), phospho-eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α), phospho-phosphoinositol-requiring protein-1 (IRE1), spliced X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP-1), cleaved caspase-12, and C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP). In addition, siRNA-mediated knockdown of CHOP attenuated shikonin-induced apoptosis, as did the ER stress inhibitor TUDCA. These data suggest that ER stress is a key factor mediating the cytotoxic effect of shikonin in SNU-C5/5-FUR cells. Our findings provide an evidence for a mechanism in which ER stress leads to apoptosis in shikonin-treated SNU-C5/5-FUR cells. Our study provides evidence to support further investigations on shikonin as a therapeutic option for 5-fluorouracil-resistant colorectal cancer.

Pharmacokinetics and Tissue Distribution of 5-Fluorouracil Prodrugs Entrapped in Liposome (리포좀에 봉입된 5-플루오로우라실 프로드럭의 약물 동태 및 장기 분포)

  • Lee, Gye-Won;Ji, Ung-Gil
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.532-538
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    • 1996
  • In cancer chemotherapy, it is necessary to control the phamacokinetic behavior of an antitumor drug for effective treatment. Therefore, two 5-fluorouracil derivatives synthesize d with N-a-cyloxycarbonyl derivatives {1-(N-t-butyloxycarbonyl)leucyloxymethyl-5-FU(BLFU) and 1-(N-t-carbobenzyloxymethyl)leucyloxymethyl-5-FU(CLFU)}. prodrugs of 5-fluorouracil, antitumor agent, were loaded into liposome of different lipid compositions. After liposomal drugs were injected intramuscularly, their pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution were assessed. The $AUC_{0{\to}{\infty}$ values were 1.29, 72.50, 85.57, 66.40 and 103.60${\mu}$g.hr/ml for 5-FU, BLFU, CLFU, BLFU- and CLFU-loaded liposome, respectively. 5-FU was distributed to spleen and liver with a maximal concentration after 1 hr and eliminated after 24 hr. But both prodrugs and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine liposome entrapped prodrugs were distributed to spleen and liver at a lower concentration but maintained for a long time with a relatively high concentration in lung. Especially, liposome-entrapped CLFU was distributed to lung with a maximal concentration after 1 hr and redistributed to spleen increasingly, while the concentration of liposome-entrapped BLFU in lung reached a maximal level after 12 hr.

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Novel 5-Fluorouracil Derivatives: Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity of 2-Butoxy-4-Substituted 5-Fluoropyrimidines

  • Sun, Jian;Zhang, Shi-Jie;Li, Hai-Bo;Zhou, Wei;Hu, Wei-Xiao;Shan, Shang
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.1349-1354
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    • 2013
  • Twenty two new 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) derivatives, 2-butoxy-4-substituted 5-fluoropyrimidines, were synthesized and characterized by IR, $^1H$ NMR, MS, HRMS. All compounds were preliminarily evaluated by MTT assay on human liver BEL-7402 cancer cell line in vitro. Ten compounds were selected to test their cytotoxic activity against A549, HL-60 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines in vitro. These compounds were more sensitive to BEL-7402 than other cell lines, particularly, cytotoxic activity of compounds 6b, 6d-f, 6p, 6s-u were in sub-micromolar scale. The highest cytotoxic potency against A549, HL-60 and MCF-7 was shown by 2-butoxy-4-chloro-5-fluoropyrimidine (5) with $IC_{50}$ values of 0.10, 1.66 and $0.59{\mu}M$, respectively. Compounds 6d and 6e were effective against MCF-7 with $IC_{50}$ $9.73{\mu}M$ and HL-60 with $IC_{50}$ $8.83{\mu}M$, respectively.

In vitro Drug Release Characteristics of Methotrexate-Human Serum Albumin and 5-Fluorouracil-Acetic Acid Human Serum Albumin Conjugates

  • Kim, Chong-Kook;Lee, Myung-Gull;Park, Man-Ki-Heejoo;Lee, Hae-Jin;Kang, Hae-Jin
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.186-190
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    • 1989
  • The release rates of methotrexate (MTX) from MTX-human serum albumin (HSA) conjugate, and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) from 5-FU acetic acid (AA)-HSA conjugate were determined after incubation of the conjugates in various conditions. The concentrations of 5-FU released from the conjugate increased monoexponentially, however those of MTX increased biexponentially in all studies. It indicated that there are two distinct types of MTX-HSA linkage, weakly and tightly bound linkages. The release rates of 5-FU were lower than those of MTX in all studies indicating that the bond of 5-FU-AA-HSA conjugate is very stable, which is supported by the higher value of activation energy (39. 9 vs 10. 7 Kcal/mole) using Arrhenius equation. The release rates of MTX and 5 -FU from the conjugates increased with incubation temperatures. Proteolytic enzyme and liver homogenates accelerated significantly the release rates of MTX and 5-FU. Approximately 1.30 and 22.0% of MTX were released after 12 hours of incubation in the absence and presence of protease, respectively. The corresponding values for 5-FU were released after 12 hours of incubation with rat liver homogenates which were diluted 6 times with phosphate buffer of pH 6.0. The MTX-HSA and 5-FU-AA-HSA conjugates were very stable in rat plasma.

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Synthesis, Antitumor Activity and Release Rate of Polymers Containing Anionic Group and 5-Fluorouracil

  • Kang, Nam-In;Lee, Sun-Mi;Ha, Chang-Sik;Cho, Won-Jei
    • Macromolecular Research
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.277-284
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    • 2001
  • Poly(exo-3,6-epoxy-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride)s [poly(ETA)s] and poly($\alpha$-ethoxy-exo-3,6-epoxy-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthaloyl-5-fluorouracil)s [poly(EETFU)s ] with various average molecular weights were prepared by photopolymerizations. The number average molecular weights of the fractionated poly(ETA)s and poly(EETFU)s determined by GPC were in the range of 3,600∼21,000 and 3,600-33,400, respectively. The release rate of 5-FU from poly(EETFU) decreased with increasing average molecular weight. The in vitro cytotoxicity of poly(ETA) against a normal cell line was lower than that of 5-fluorouracil(5-FU), The in vivo antitumor activities of the synthesized samples at dosage of 0.8 mg/kg against mice bearing sarcoma 180 tumor cell line decreased in the following order: poly(EETFU) > poly(ETA) > EETFU > ETA > 5-FU. The antiangiogenic activities of the poly(ETA)s were better than those of 5-FU.

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Pulmonary Fibrosis Under Chemotherapy with Oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and Leucovorin (Oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin 병합항암화학요법 중에 발생한 폐섬유화증 1예)

  • Jung, Jin Yong;Hur, Gyu Young;Jung, Ki Hwan;Jung, Hae Chul;Lee, Sung Yong;Choi, In Keun;Lee, Sang Yeub;Kim, Je Hyeong;Seo, Jae Hong;Shin, Chol;Shim, Jae Jeong;In, Kwang Ho;Kang, Kyung Ho;Yoo, Se Hwa
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.59 no.5
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    • pp.536-540
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    • 2005
  • The combination of oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin (FOLFOX) has recently been shown to be beneficial in advanced colorectal and gastric cancers. The side effects of this regimen include neutropenia, diarrhea and neurosensory toxicity. However, case reports on the pulmonary toxicities of this regimen are very limited. Especially, the development of pulmonary fibrosis has never been cited in the literature. Herein is reported the case of a patient treated with oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin combination chemotherapy in whom pulmonary fibrosis developed, but which improved after steroid pulse therapy.