• Title, Summary, Keyword: 50% Volumetric Diameter

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Analysis of characteristics of sediment transport in sewers by densimetric Froude number (밀도프루드수에 의한 하수관로 침전물 이송 특성 분석)

  • Park, Kyoohong;Lee, Taehoon;Yu, Soonyu;Kang, Byongjun;Hyun, Kirim
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.45-52
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    • 2020
  • Even though sewers have been conventionally designed to prevent from sediment deposition using a specified minimum velocity or shear stress at a particular depth of flow or with a particular frequency of occurrence, it was appreciated that these methods do not consider the characteristics and concentration of the sediment and the specific hydraulic conditions of the sewer with sediment. In this study, a densimetric Froude number formula was suggested considering particle diameter and volumetric concentration of the sediment as well as flow depth and flowrate, based on several domestic field inspections, which was compared with other formulas proposed by previous investigators. When the sediment concentration was not considered, the calibration coefficient of 0.125-1.5 to the densimetric Froude numbers of this study was needed to obtain the similar ones with previous investigators'. For the densimetric Froude number formula obtained with consideration of sediment concentration, the exponent value of term Cv was almost the same as that of previous results and that of d50/Rh was similar for Fr < 2.2.

Generation of calibration standard gases using capillary gas divider: uncertainty measurement and method validation (다중 모세관을 이용한 교정용 표준가스의 제조: 불확도와 유효성 평가)

  • Lee, Sangyun;Hwang, Eun-Jin;Jung, Hye-Ja;Lee, Kwang-Woo;Chun, Ki-Joon
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.369-375
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    • 2006
  • Calibration gas mixtures were prepared using dynamic volumetric method according to ISO 6145-5 and the uncertainty was evaluated. Ten identical capillaries with 0.25 mm in inner diameter and 50 cm in length were applied in this system. Dilution ratio of parent gas was determined by the number of capillaries that passes parent gas and that passes balance gas through. Capillaries were made of Teflon which had good chemical stability against adsorption of gaseous substances. Mechanical valves were introduced in this system in order to minimize the thermal effect of solenoid valves. Concentration of prepared gases were compared with master grade standard gases in cylinders made by RiGAS Co. and calibration of the instrument were completed using comparison method according to ISO 6143. Experimental results showed that the coefficient of variance of diluted oxygen standard gases showed less then 0.2% in most dilution range, that of diluted hydrogen sulfide standard gases showed less then 1.0%. Therefore, it is proven that the standard gases prepared by this system are appropriate to be used as a calibration standards in ambient monitoring, etc.

Performance Measurement of Siemens Inveon PET Scanner for Small Animal Imaging (소동물 영상을 위한 Siemens Inveon PET 스캐너의 성능평가)

  • Yu, A-Ram;Kim, Jin-Su;Kim, Kyeong-Min;Lee, Young-Sub;Kim, Jong-Guk;Woo, Sang-Keun;Park, Ji-Ae;Kim, Hee-Joung;Cheon, Gi-Jeong
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.145-152
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    • 2010
  • Inveon PET is a recently developed preclinical PET system for small animal. This study was conducted to measure the performance of Inveon PET as recommended by the NEMA NU 4-2008. We measured the spatial resolution, the sensitivity, the scatter fraction and the NECR using a F-18 source. A 3.432 ns coincidence window was used. A $1\;mm^3$ sized F-18 point source was used for the measurement of spatial resolution within an energy window of 350~625 keV. PET acquisition was performed to obtain the spatial resolution from the center to the 5 cm offset toward the edge of the transverse FOV. Sensitivity, scatter fraction, and NECR were measured within an energy window of 350~750 keV. For measuring the sensitivity, a F-18 line source (length: 12.7 cm) was used with concentric 5 aluminum tubes. For the acquisition of the scatter fraction and the NECR, two NEMA scatter phantoms (rat: 50 mm in diameter, 150 mm in length; mouse: 25 mm in diameter, 70 mm in length) were used and the data for 14 half-lives (25.6 hr) was obtained using the F-18 line source (rat: 316 MBq, mouse: 206 MBq). The spatial resolution of the F-18 point source was 1.53, 1.50 and 2.33 mm in the radial, tangential and axial directions, respectively. The volumetric resolution was $5.43\;mm^3$ in the center. The absolute sensitivity was 6.61%. The peak NECR was 486 kcps @121 MBq (rat phantom), and 1056 kcps @128 MBq (mouse phantom). The values of the scatter fraction were 20.59% and 7.93% in the rat and mouse phantoms, respectively. The performances of the Inveon animal PET scanner were measured in this study. This scanner will be useful for animal imaging.

Evaluation on the Usefulness of 6DoF Couch in V-MAT on Patients with Long length of Target (표적의 길이가 긴 환자의 용적회전변조 방사선치료 시 6DoF Couch의 유용성 평가)

  • Choi, Young Se;Park, Hyo Kuk;Kim, Se Young;Kim, Joo Ho;Lee, Sang Kyoo;Yoon, Jong Won;Cho, Jung Heui
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.53-64
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of the $HexaPOD^{TM}$ evo RT system(6DoF couch) and the tendency of dose difference according to size of rotational direction error for volumetric rotational modulated radiotherapy(V-MAT) in patients with long target lengths. Therefore, it is suggested to recommend the need for rotational error correction. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with Esophagus cancer or Breast cancer including SCL treated with HexaPOD 6DoF(Six-Degree of Freedom) couch were included in this study. 6DoF couch was used to measure the difference in dose according to the rotation error in the directions of Rx(pitch), Ry(roll), and Rz(yaw). Each rotation error was applied. Positioning variation on x, y and z axis was verified and random variations were made by 6DoF couch with positioning variation. Modified DQA is conducted and point dose and gamma value are analyzed and compared. In addition, after applying the rotation error every $1^{\circ}$ to treatment plans of each target with a diameter of 3 cm, 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm respectively, gamma passing rate is being monitored by its aspect of change according to types and sizes of the target length and rotation error. Results: Mean error of the point dose and Gamma passing rate when the position variation was applied were $2.50{\pm}1.11%$ and $84.1{\pm}7.39%$ in the Rx direction, $2.36{\pm}1.16%$, and $81.0{\pm}8.49%$ in the Ry, $2.35{\pm}1.10%$ and $84.4{\pm}6.99%$ in the Rz direction, respectively. As a result of analysis on gamma passing rate according to types and sizes of the target length and rotation error, the gamma passing rate tended to decrease with increasing rotation error in the Rx and Rz directions except Ry direction. In particular, the lowest gamma passing rate (74.2 %) was in the case of $2.5^{\circ}$ rotation error in Rz direction of the target of 10 cm. Conclusion: The correction of the rotational error is needed for volumetric modulated radiotherapy of the treatment area with a long target length, and the use of 6DoF couch will improve the reproducibility of the patient position and the quality of the treatment.

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