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Strategic Reviews on Promoting the Fourth Industrial Revolution by Supplying 5G Additional Frequency (제4차 산업혁명 활성화를 위한 5G 추가 주파수 공급의 전략적인 의견)

  • Park, S.
    • Electronics and Telecommunications Trends
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.1-16
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    • 2019
  • The paper presents five strategic opinions for promoting the fourth industry revolution through the supply of 5G additional frequency. The assessments are on the basis of 5G frequency utilization technologies and services, with reference to 3GPP 5G New Radio standards, after investigating the domestic 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, and 5G mobile communication services as well as the use of mobile radio frequency and spectrum. The presented opinions contain the frequency supply of contiguous-wide bandwidth channels, harmonized frequency supply between licensed and unlicensed spectrum, the existing 4G frequency recycle for increasing 5G coverage and capacity, balance frequency supply in the multi-band for 5G services, and the development of 5G vertical frequency for industry. The aim is that the presented five strategic opinions can offer guidance for the upcoming plan of domestic 5G additional frequency supply.

Trends of Mobility Management Technologies for 5G Network (5G 네트워크를 위한 이동성 관리 기술동향)

  • Seo, J.H.;Kang, Y.H.;Kim, J.H.;Jun, S.M.;Park, N.I.
    • Electronics and Telecommunications Trends
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.14-24
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    • 2016
  • 최근 ITU-R의 5G 서비스 및 성능 요구사항의 기준을 시작으로 각 표준화 단체 및 국가에서는 2020년을 목표로 5G에 대한 연구가 활발히 이루어지고 있다. 이 논문은 5G 서비스 및 기술적인 요구사항을 충족시킬 수 있는 네트워크 구조의 동향에 대해 살펴보고, 특히 5G 네트워크를 위한 이동성 관리 기술동향을 소개한다. 또한, 기존 4G 네트워크의 중앙집중형 이동성 관리 기술이 5G 서비스를 제공하는 데에 어떤 단점이 있을지에 관해 기술한 다음, 분산형, 평면형 이동성 관리 기술로 대표적인 Locator-Identifier Separation Protocol(LISP)과 Distributed Mobility Management(DMM) 기술을 소개하여, 각 이동성 관리 기술의 특징 및 장단점을 비교한다. 마지막으로, 5G에서의 이동성 관리 기술 요구사항을 도출하여, LISP과 DMM의 적용 가능성을 분석하여 최적의 5G 이동성 관리 기술을 도출하는 데 도움을 주고자 한다.

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Study on Effective 5G Network Deployment Method for 5G Mobile Communication Services (5G 이동통신 서비스를 위한 효율적인 5G 망구축 방안에 관한 연구)

  • CHUNG, Woo-Ghee
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.353-358
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    • 2018
  • We herein analyze the service traffic characteristics and spectrum of the 5G mobile communication and suggest the effective 5G network deployment method for 5G mobile communication services. The data rates of the 5G mobile communication are from several kbps (voice and IoT) up to 1 Gbps (hologram, among others). The 5G mobile communication services show the diverse cell coverage environments owing to the use of diverse service data rates and multiple spectrum bands. To effectively support the 5G mobile communication services, the network deployment requires the optimization of the service coverages for new service environments and multiple spectrum bands. Considering the 5G spectrum bandwidth debated at present, if the 5G services of 100 Mbps can be supported in the 200 m cell edge using the 3.5 GHz spectrum bands, the 5G services of the 1 Gbps hologram and 500-Mbps 4k UHD can be supported in the cell edges of 50 m and 100 m using the 28 GHz spectrum bands. Therefore, the 5G services can be supported effectively by the 5G network deployment using spectrum portfolio configurations to match the diverse 5G services and multiple bands.

Strategy Promoting 5G N/W Investment in UK (영국의 5G N/W 투자촉진 전략)

  • Byun, J.H.
    • Electronics and Telecommunications Trends
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.89-95
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    • 2017
  • 영국은 2017년 3월 5G N/W 조기구축을 위한 정부차원의 전략방향 보고서(A 5G Strategy for UK)를 발표하였다. 영국은 5G 인프라가 4차 산업혁명의 촉진제 역할을 할 것이며, 5G로 인한 경제적 파급 효과가 2030년경에 1,980억 파운드 달할 것으로 예상한다. 이러한 전망에 따라 영국 정부는 5G 테스트베드 구축, Small Cell 및 백홀 구축 지원, 주파수 정책방향 제시 등 5G N/W 조기구축 환경을 조성하여 이동통신사의 적극적인 투자를 유인할 계획이다. 아울러 산업계, 학계, 지역정부와 협력하여 다양한 산업분야에서의 5G 활용 방안을 도출하며, 5G 상용화 이전에 해결해야 할 과제를 정비함으로써 영국이 5G 분야에서 글로벌 리더가 되고자 하는 목표를 제시하고 있다. 본고에서는 영국이 4차 산업혁명에 대비하여 제시하는 5G N/W 투자 촉진 전략을 소개하고자 한다.

Physico-chemical Properties of Soils Developed on the Different Topographies in Korea (우리나라 농경지토양(農耕地土壤)의 지형별(地形別) 이화학적(理化學的) 특성(特性))

  • Hyeon, Geun-Soo;Park, Chang-Seo;Jung, Sug-Jae;Moon, Joon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.271-279
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    • 1989
  • Mean values representing the particle size distribution and some chemical properties for the cultivated soils were obtained from the analysis results of the typical profiles, which were described by the detailed soil maps throughout Korea. Analysis results of 5,215 soil samples (3,075 for paddy and 2,140 for upland) were available for the determination of mean values. The results are under. 1. Paddy topsoil contained 20.4% for clay, 5.8 for pH, 2.6% for organic matter, 10.4me/100g for exchangeable K, and 89ppm for available $P_2O_5$. Upland topsoil did 17.3% for clay, 5.5 for pH, 1.8% for organic matter, 9.lme/100g for CEC, 0.29me/100g for exchangeable K, and 103ppm for availabal $P_2O_5$. 2. Soil properies for paddy were markedly influenced by the reliefs. Topsoil contained 21.4% for clay, 6.0 for pH, 2.2% for organic matter, 10.8me/100g for CEC, 0.39me/100g for exchang-cable K and 57ppm for available $P_2O_5$ on the fluvio-marine plain, 15.3%, 5.7, 2.0%, 8.6me/100g, 0.17me/100g and 76ppm on the alluvial plain, 18.8%, 5.9, 2.7%, 10.4me/100g, 0.19me/100g and 80ppm on the valleys and fans, 25.0%, 5.7, 2.5%, 11.5me/100g, 0.26me/100g, 0.27me/100g and 141ppm on the moutain foot slopes, respectively. 3. Soil Properties for upland, also, were markedly influenced by the reliefs. Topsoil contained 5.5% for clay, 5.7 for pH, 1.1% for organic matter, 4.7me/100g for CEC, 0.17me/100g for exchangeable K and 50ppm for available $P_2O_5$ on the fluvio-marine plain, 10.3%, 5.5, 1.4%, 7.6me/100g, 0.26me/100g and 160ppm on the alluvial plain, 13.9%, 5.4, 1.8%, 9.3me/100g, 0.24me/100g and and 184ppm on the valleys and fans, 29.8%, 5.3, 2.1%, 11.2me/100g 0.40me/100g and 58ppm on the alluvial plain, 20.0%, 5.7, 2.7%, 11.4me/100g, 0.32me/100g and 116ppm on the mountain foot slopes, and 24.6%, 5.3, 1.8%, 10.2me/100g, 0.28me/100g and 51ppm on the rolling and Hill. 4. All chemical properties did not reach the ideal value for maximizing land capability. 5. Organic matter, exchangeable cations and available $P_2O_5$ were not normally distributed. Intervals of one and two standard deviations about mean of an approximately normal distribution were calculated.

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3GPP 5G 보안 구조의 특징 및 주요 개선사항

  • Park, Jong-Geun;Kim, Jong-Hyun;Moon, Daesung;Kim, Ikkyun
    • Review of KIISC
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.21-30
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    • 2019
  • 우리나라는 세계 최초로 초고속 초연결 초저지연의 5G 이동통신 상용화에 성공하였다. 비록 아직은 4G LTE 코어망과 연계하여 5G 서비스를 제공하고 있지만, 향후 5G 코어망이 구축된 이후에는 완전한 5G 네트워크를 통해 5G 융합서비스가 본격화될 전망이다. 그러나, 우리 실생활과 밀접한 새로운 미래 혁신 서비스에 대한 기대와 열망 때문에 5G 네트워크 환경이 갖고 있는 잠재적 보안위협이나 취약점을 간과해서는 안된다. 보다 고도화되고 지능화되는 사이버 공격에 대응하기 위해 위협 대응전략 또한 고도화되어야 한다. 본 논문에서는 5G 보안 기술을 이해하기 위해 3GPP의 5G 보안 기술규격인 TS 33.501을 바탕으로 5G 보안의 근간을 이루는 구조적 특징과 4G 대비 주요 개선사항을 중심으로 소개한다.

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Ultraviolet (UV)-B Irradiation Increased Vitamin D2 Contents in the Fruit Bodies of Pleurotus eryngii var. ferulae (자외선(UV)-B 조사에 의한 아위느타리버섯(Pleurotus eryngii var. ferulae) 자실체의 비타민 D2 함량 증가)

  • Rho, Jae-Young;Park, Sang-Don
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.191-194
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    • 2013
  • The fresh fruit bodies of Pleurotus eryngii var. ferulae was irradiated with ultraviolet (UV)-B (280-320 nm) in order to increase vitamin $D_2$ contents, which was assayed using HPLC (Waters 1525, USA). The vitamin $D_2$ contents were $3.5{\mu}g/g$ after 3 min UV-B irradiation ($21.6KJ/m^2$) and $6.02{\mu}g/g$ after 5 min UV-B irradiation ($36KJ/m^2$), respectively, which showed the significant increase considering the vitamin $D_2$ content ($0.01{\mu}g/g$) before UV-B irradiation. This increasing effect was confirmed also for other edible mushrooms; Pleurotus eryngii, from $0.09{\mu}g/g$ to $2.75{\mu}g/g$ (3 min) and $5.21{\mu}g/g$ (5 min); Lentinus edodes, from $0.021{\mu}g/g$ to $3.02{\mu}g/g$ (3 min) and $3.78{\mu}g/g$ (5 min); Pleurotus ostreatus, from $0.19{\mu}g/g$ to $9.63{\mu}g/g$ (3 min) and $11.6{\mu}g/g$ (5 min). Although the original content of vitamin $D_2$ was the highest in P. ostreatus, the extent of increase by UV irradiation was remarkably high in P. eryngii var. ferulae.

5GCHAMPION - Disruptive 5G Technologies for Roll-Out in 2018

  • Strinati, Emilio Calvanese;Mueck, Markus;Clemente, Antonio;Kim, Junhyeong;Noh, Gosan;Chung, Heesang;Kim, Ilgyu;Choi, Taesang;Kim, Yeongjin;Chung, Hyun Kyu;Destino, Giuseppe;Parssinen, Aarno;Chuberre, Nicolas;Vautherin, Benoit;Deleu, Thibault;Gineste, Mathieu;Korvala, Aki
    • ETRI Journal
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.10-25
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    • 2018
  • The 5GCHAMPION Europe-Korea collaborative project provides the first fully-integrated and operational 5G prototype in 2018, in conjunction with the 2018 PyeongChang Winter Olympic Games. The corresponding technological advances comprise both an evolution and optimization of existing technological solutions and disruptive new features, which substantially outpace previous generations of technology. In this article, we focus on a subset of three disruptive technological solutions developed and experimented on by 5GCHAMPION during the 2018 PyeongChang Olympic Games: high speed communications, direct satellite-user equipment communications, and post-sale evolution of wireless equipment through software reconfiguration. Evaluating effectiveness and performing trials for these key 5G features permit us to learn about the actual maturity of 5G technology prototyping and the potential of new 5G services for vertical markets and end user enhanced experience two years before the launch of large-scale 5G services.

The β Subunit of Heterotrimeric G Protein Interacts Directly with Kinesin Heavy Chains, Kinesin-I (Kinesin-I의 kinesin heavy chains과 직접 결합하는 heterotrimeric G protein의 β subunit의 규명)

  • Seog, Dae-Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.8
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    • pp.1166-1172
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    • 2010
  • Kinesin-I exists as a tetramer of two heavy chains (KHCs, also called KIF5s), which contain the amino (N)-terminal motor domain and carboxyl (C)-terminal domain, as well as two light chains (KLCs), which bind to the KIF5s (KIF5A, KIF5B and KIF5C) stalk region. To identify the interaction proteins for KIF5A, yeast two-hybrid screening was performed and a specific interaction with the ${\beta}$ subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins ($G{\beta}$) was found. $G{\beta}$ bound to the amino acid residues between 808 and 935 of KIF5A and to other KIF5 members in the yeast two-hybrid assay. The WD40 repeat motif of $G{\beta}$ was essential for interaction with KIF5A. In addition, these proteins showed specific interactions in the glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assay. An antibody to KIF5s specifically co-immunoprecipitated KIF5s associated with heterotrimeric G proteins from mouse brain extracts. These results suggest that kinesin-I motor protein transports heteroterimeric G protein attachment vesicles along microtubules in the cell.

Research Trends on 5G Communications using Machine Learning (기계학습을 활용한 5G통신 동향)

  • Kim, K.Y.;Kim, Y.S.;Nam, J.Y.;Lee, W.Y.;Seo, J.H.;Hong, S.E.
    • Electronics and Telecommunications Trends
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2016
  • 빅데이터를 통한 학습, GPU를 활용한 고속 컴퓨팅 및 다양한 알고리즘 개발과 더불어 기계학습은 다양한 분야에서 종래에 이루어내지 못한 뛰어난 성과를 달성하고 있다. 그동안 상용화된 통신 시스템에서 기계학습이 활성화되지 못했지만, 전례없는 다양한 서비스와 단말을 아우르는 5G 통신에서는 더욱 적극적으로 활용될 것으로 예상된다. 기계학습은 링크 적응 등 무선접속기술, 다양한 망이 혼재된 이종망 기술, 트래픽 분류 등을 위한 네트워크 기술, 침입 탐지를 위한 보안 기술 등 다양한 통신기술에서 연구됐다. 또한, 최근에는 유럽의 Public Private Partnership(5G PPP) 프로젝트를 비롯하여 다양한 그룹에서 활발히 연구되고 있으며, 컬컴/노키아/에릭슨 등 통신 관련 기업들도 적극적인 투자를 하고 있다. 본고에서는 기계학습 관련 통신기술, 연구그룹 및 기업 동향을 소개하고, 이를 통해 5G 통신 적용 가능성을 짚어본다.

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