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The Effect of Knee Flexion and Posterior Septal Release on the Location of Popliteal Artery (무릎 굴곡 및 후방 관절낭 절제술이 슬와 동맥의 위치에 주는 영향)

  • Seo, Seung-Suk;Seo, Jin-Hyuk;Kim, Chang-Wan;Kwon, Yong-Wook
    • Journal of Korean Orthopaedic Sports Medicine
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.69-74
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: By confirm the change of popliteal arterial position when extension or flexion of the knee and estimate the change of popliteal arterial position after posterior capsular release, we tried to know the position can minimize injury of popliteal artery during arthroscopic surgery and usefulness of posterior capsular release. Materials and Methods: Total of two middle-aged man and woman, fresh frozen cadavers as systemic, all four cases of the knee were included in this study. After the knee was flexed to 0 degrees, 30 degrees, 60 degrees, 90 degrees angle, we estimated distance from posterior tibial cortex to popliteal artery at articular surface, the distal 1 cm and 2 cm from articular surface. We performed posterior capsular release by arthroscopy, and estimated distance between posterior tibial cortex and popliteal artery in the same way. Results: Mean distance between popliteal artery and posterior tibial cortex was 6.3 mm (4.5~7), 4.6 mm (3.6~6), 4.9 mm (3.9~5.8) when knee flexion to 0 degrees at articular surface, distal 1 cm and 2 cm from articular surface each. When knee flexion to 30 degrees, it was 7.4 mm (5.2~9), 4.9 mm (3.6~7.2), 5.3 mm (3.8~6.6). When knee flexion to 60 degrees, it was 8.7 mm (5.4~11), 5.2 mm (4.9~7.3), 6.2 mm (5.4~9.6). When knee flexion to 90 degrees, it was 9.8 mm (5.8~12.1), 5.5 mm (5.1~7.4), 6.5 mm (5.4~10.7). After posterior capsule release, the distance was 6.5 mm (5.5~7.5), 5.8 mm (3.9~7.2), 5.2 mm (3.8~7.0) when knee flexion to 0 degrees, 7.7 mm (5.5~9,1), 7.1 mm (4.6~7.6), 5.5 mm (4.1~6.9) when knee flexion to 30 degrees, 8.9 mm (5.7~11.2), 8.5 mm (5.5~9.2), 6.4 mm (5.3~10.1) when knee flexion to 60 degrees and 10.2 mm (6.3~13.6), 9.5 mm (6.5~11), 6.6 mm (5.9~9.8) when knee flexion to 90 degrees. Conclusion: As knee joint is flexed, the distance from posterial tibial cortex to popliteal artery are increased beween knee joint articular surface and distal 2 cm from knee joint. So popliteal artery injury will be reduced at knee joint surgery. Posterior capsular release could also reduce popliteal artery injury by increasing distance between posterior tibial cortex and popliteal artery.

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Organotitanium Chemistry (IV). The Molecular and Electronic Structure of $TiCl(OC_6H_5)_3{\cdot}C_6H_5OH\;and\;Ti(OC_6H_5)_4{\cdot}C_6H_5OH$ (유기티탄 화학 (제4보). $TiCl(OC_6H_5)_3{\cdot}C_6H_5OH\;및\;Ti(OC_6H_5)_4{\cdot}C_6H_5OH$의 분자 및 전자구조)

  • Lee Hoosung;Uh Young Sun;Sohn Youn Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.92-97
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    • 1975
  • The molecular and electronic structures of $TiCl(OC_6H_5)_3{\cdot}C_6H_5OH\;and\;Ti(OC_6H_5)_4{\cdot}C_6H_5OH$ have been studied by employing cryoscopic and electronic spectroscopic methods. The cryoscopic data have shown that the dimeric tetraphenoxytitanium(Ⅳ) phenolate in solid undergoes complete dissociation into monomer in solution and also the chlorocomplex starts dissociation around the concentration of 8 m mole/l. Therefore, these two Ti-complexes are pentacoordinated in dilute solution and the local symmetry of the titanium ion in these complexes seems to be trigonalbipyramid. The electronic spectra of $TiCl(OC_6H_5)_3{\cdot}C_6H_5OH$ and $Ti(OC_6H_5)_4{\cdot}C_6H_5OH$ each show two band, systems, one vibration-structural band characteristic of the aromatic ring in the near UV and another visible band at 26.8 kK, 29.6 kK, respectively, which are assigned as a ligand to metal charge transfer band corresponding to $^1A_1''{\to}^1E'\;or\;^1E''$ transition.

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Synthesis of 6,7-Dichloro-5,8-phthalazinedione and Its Derivatives

  • Kim, Jin-Sung;Shin, Kye-Jung;Kim, Dong-Chan;Kang, Yong-Koo;Kim, Dong-Jin;Yoo, Kyung-Ho;Park, Sang-Woo
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.23 no.10
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    • pp.1425-1446
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    • 2002
  • An efficient procedure for the synthesis of 6,7-dichloro-5,8-phthalazinedione (4) was developed in 49% overall yield via chloroxidation of 5,8-diaminophthalazine (8). And a series of its derivatives, 7-pyridinium-5,8-phthalazinedione-6-oxide (9), 6-chloro-7-phenylamino-5,8-phthalazinedione (10), 6,6-dimethoxy-6H-2,3,6b,11-tetraazabenzo[a]fluoren-5-one (11a), and 6,6-diethoxy-6H-2,3,6b,11-tetraazabenzo[a]fluoren-5-one (11b) have been synthesized.

The Complexes of Iodobenzene with Halogens and Interhalogens in Carbon Tetrachloride (요오드벤젠과 할로겐 또는 할로겐間化合物 사이의 錯物에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Sang-Up;Kim, Eung-Ryul
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.94-99
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    • 1967
  • The interactions of iodobenzene with iodine, iodine monobromide, iodine monochloride and chlorine in carbon tetrachloride solution have been investigated by means of ultraviolet spectrophotometric measurements. The results reveal the formation of one to one molecular complexes, $C_6H_5I{\cdot}I_2$, $C_6H_5I{\cdot}IBr$, $C_6H_5I{\cdot}ICl$, and $C_6H_5I{\cdot}Cl_2$, in solution. The equilibrium constants obtained at room temperature (about $21^{\circ}C$) for the formation of these four complexes are 0.23, 0.73, 1.2 and 0.070 l $mole^{-1}$, respectively. Comparison of these results with those reported in the literature on other complexes of similar type indicates that the relative stabilities of these complexes decrease in the following orders: ICl>IBr>$I_2$>$Br_2$>$Cl_2$ $C_6H_5I$>$C_6H_6$>$C_6H_5Br$>$C_6H_5Cl$>$C_6H_5F$.

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Iridium(Ⅲ) Complexes of η$^6$-Arenes with Olefinic and Cyclopropyl Substituents: Facile Conversion to η ³-henylallyl Complexes

  • 정현목;주광석;진종식
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.402-405
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    • 1997
  • Olefinic and cyclopropyl group substituted arenes (C6H5Y) react with [Cp*Ir(CH3COCH3)3]A2 (A=ClO4-, OTf-) to give η6-arene complexes, [Cp*Ir(η6-C6H5Y)]2+ (1a: Y=-CH=CH2 (a),-CH=CHCH3 (b),-C(CH3)=CH2 (c),-CH-CH2-CH2 (d)). Complex 1b-1d are readily converted into η3-allyl complexes, [Cp*(CH3CN)Ir(η3-CH(C6H5)CHCH2)]+ (2a) and [Cp*(CH3CN)Ir(η3-CH2(C6H5)CH2)]+ (2b), in the presence of Na2CO3 in CH3CN. The η6-styrene complex, 1a reacts with NaBH4 to give η5-cyclohexadienyl complex, [Cp*Ir(η5-C6H6-CH=CH2)]+ (3), while with H2 it gives η6-ethylbenzene complex [Cp*Ir(η6-C6H5CH2CH3)]2+ (4). Complex 1a and 1c react with HCl to give [Cp*Ir(η6-C6H5CH2CH2Cl)]2+ (5a) and [Cp*Ir(η6-C6H5CH(CH3)CH2Cl]2+ (5b), respectively.

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Synthesis of New Cyanomethyl-1,3,5-triazine Derivatives (새로운 Cyanomethyl-1,3,5-triazine 유도체들의 합성)

  • Kim, Jung Hwan;Kim, Un Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.40 no.11
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    • pp.681-685
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    • 1996
  • New 6-cyanomethyl-1,3,5-triazine derivatives 4 containing amino, n-propylamino, isopropylamino and anilino groups at 2-and 4-position on the 6-cyanomethyl-1,3,5-triazine ring were prepared from 6-chloro-l,3,5-triazine derivatives 2' and 3 with tert-butyl cyanoacetate. The derivatives of 6-chloro-l,3,5-triazine 2' and 3 containing amino, n-propylamino, isopropylamino and anilino groups at 2- and 4-position on the 6-chloro-1,3,5-triazine ring were prepared from 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine as well as 4,6-dichloro-1,3,5-triazine derivatives 2 with amine derivatives.

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The Complexes of Aromatic Amines with Iodine or Iodine Monochloride in Carbon Tetrachloride (방향족아민과 요오드 또는 일염화요오드 사이의 錯物에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Sang-Up;Lee, Bu-Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.100-104
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    • 1967
  • The systems of aromatic amines such as aniline, N,N-dimethylaniline and N,N-diethylaniline with iodine or iodine monochloride in carbon tetrachloride have been examined spectrophotometrically. The results indicate the formation of one to one molecular complexes. The equilibrium constants obtained at room temperature for formation of the complexes are as follows: $C_6H_5NH_2{\cdot}I_2\;2.05$, $C_6H_5N(CH_3)_2{\cdot}I_2\;15.2$, $C_6H_5N(C_2H_5)_2{\cdot}I_2\;35.5$, $C_6H_5NH_2{\cdot}ICl\;18.5$, $C_6H_5N(CH_3)_2{\cdot}ICl\;25.6$, and $C_6H_5N(C_2H_5)_2\;42.0$ l $mole^{-1}$.

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The Complexes of Fluorobenzene with Halogens and Interhalogens in Carbon Tetrachloride (플루오로벤젠과 할로겐 또는 할로겐間化合物 사이의 錯物에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Sang-Up;Han, Bong-Joo
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.89-93
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    • 1967
  • The interactions of fluorobenzene with iodine monochloride, iodine monobromide, bromine and chlorine in carbon tetrachloride solution have been examined through ultraviolet spectrophotometric measurements. The results indicate the formation of one to one molecular complexes, $C_6H_5F{\cdot}ICl$, $C_6H_5F{\cdot}IBr$, $C_6H_5F{\cdot}Br_2$, and $C_6H_5F{\cdot}Cl_2$ in solution. The equilibrium constants obtained at room temperature for the formation of these four complexes are 0.161, 0.072, 0.045 and 0.035 l $mole^{-1}$, respectively. Comparison of these results with those reported in the literature on other complexes of similar type reveals that the relative stabilities of these complexes decrease in the following orders: ICl>IBr>$I_2$>$Br_2$>$Cl_2$ $C_6H_6$>$C_6H_5Br$>$C_6H_5Cl$>$C_6H_5F$

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Evaluating the Efficiency of the Device in Shielding Scattered Radiation during Treatment of Carcinoma of the Penis (음경암의 방사선치료 시 자체 제작한 Device의 산란선 차폐 효과에 대한 유용성 평가)

  • Gim, Yang-Soo;Lee, Sun-Young;Lim, Suk-Gun;Gwak, Geun-Tak;Pak, Ju-Gyeong;Lee, Seung-Hoon;Hwang, Ho-In;Cha, Seok-Yong
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: We evaluated the device that was created for maintaining the patient's setup and protecting the testicles from scattered radiation during treatment of carcinoma of the penis. Materials and Methods: The phantom testicles were made of vaseline cotton gauze and the device consisted of 5 mm of acryl box and 4 mm of lead shielding. $3{\times}3\;cm^2$, $4{\times}4\;cm^2$, $5{\times}5\;cm^2$, $6{\times}6\;cm^2$, $7{\times}7\;cm^2$ field sizes were used for this study and measurement was made at 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10 cm from the lower edge of the field for 10 times with lead shielding and without the shielding respectively. 200 cGy was delivered using 6 MV photons. Results: The scatted radiation without lead shielding at 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10 cm from the lower edge of the field were 14.8-4.7 cGy with $3{\times}3\;cm^2$, 15.7-5.2 cGy with $4{\times}4\;cm^2$, 17.6-5.5 cGy with $5{\times}5\;cm^2$, 19.9-6.6 cGy with $6{\times}6\;cm^2$, 22.2-7.6 cGy with $7{\times}7\;cm^2$ and the measured dose without lead shielding were 7.1-2.6 cGy with $3{\times}3\;cm^2$, 8.9-3.6 cGy with $4{\times}4\;cm^2$, 12.3-4.8 cGy with $5{\times}5\;cm^2$, 14.6-5.0 cGy with $6{\times}6\;cm^2$ and 21.1~6.4 cGy with $7{\times}7\;cm^2$. As shown above, the scatted radiation decreased after using lead shielding. Depending of the range of field sizes, the resulting difference between without shielding values and with shielding values were: 7.8-1.1 cGy at 4 cm, 5.1-1.2 cGy at 5 cm, 3.8-1.1 cGy at 6 cm, 3.4-1.7 cGy at 7 cm, 2.8-1.7 cGy at 8 cm, 2.4-2.5 cGy at 9 cm and 2.1-1.8 cGy at 10 cm. In the situation as described above, the range in values depending on the distance was 7.8-1.1 cGy with $3{\times}3\;cm^2$, 6.9-1.6 cGy with $4{\times}4\;cm^2$, 5.3-0.8 cGy with $5{\times}5\;cm^2$, 5.3-1.5 cGy with $6{\times}6\;cm^2$ and 1.1-1.8 cGy with $7{\times}7\;cm^2$. Conclusion: Using the device we created to shield the testicles from scattered radiation during treatment of carcinoma of the penis, we have found that scattered radiation to the testicles is decreased by the phantom testicles, and by increasing the distance between the testicles and penis.

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Synthesis of Histamine $H_2$-receptor antagonists - Synthesis of 5,6-dihydro[2,1-b]thiazole derivatives - (Histamine $H_2$-수용체길항제의 합성 - 5,6-Dihydroimidazo[2,1-b]thiazole 유도체의 합성 -)

  • 박상우;이강노
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.368-371
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    • 1991
  • For the development of new antiulcer agents 5, 6-dihydroimidazo[2, 1-b]- thiazoles substituted at the 3-position are sythesized. Thus, the reaction of 3-chloromethyl-5, 6-dihydroimidazo[2, 1-b]thiazole(2) with thiourea and subsequently with 3-chloro-propionitrile gives 3-[3-[5, 6-dihydroimidazo[2, 1-b]thiazolyl]methylthio]propionitrile(4), which by partial alcoholysis with methanol is converted into methyl-3-[3-[5, 6-dihydro-imidazo[2, 1-b]thiazoyl]methylthio]propionimidate(5) . This compound(5) is treated finally with sulfamide or sulfonamides. 3-[3-[5, 6-dihydroimidazo[2, 1-b]thiazoyl]methylthiol-N$^{2}$-sulfamoyl-propionamidine(6) inhibited gastric acid secretion (45%) when administered intraduodenally (100 mg/kg) to pylorus-ligated rats.

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