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Immunocytochemical Localization of Parvalbumin and Calbindin-D 28K in Monkey Dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (원숭이 외측슬상체배측핵에서 칼슘결합단백 Parvalbumin과 Calbindin-D 28K의 분포)

  • Ko, Seung-Hee;Bae, Choon-Sang;Park, Sung-Sik
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.61-77
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    • 1994
  • The calcium-binding proteins (CaBP), parvalbumin (PV) and calbindin-D 28K (calbindin) are particularly abundant and specific in their distribution, and present in different subsets of neurons in many brain regions. Although their physiological roles in the neurons have not been elucidated, they are valuable markers of neuronal subpopulations for anatomical and developmental studies. This study is designed to characterize dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) neurons and axon terminals in terms of differential expression of immunoreactivity (IR) for two well-known CaBPs, PV and calbindin. The experiments were carried out on 6 adult monkeys. Monkeys were perfused under deep Nembutal anesthesia with 2% paraformaldehyde and 0.2% glutaraldehyde in 0.1M phosphate buffer. After removal, the brains were postfixed for 6-8 hr in 2% paraformaldehyde at $4^{\circ}C$ and infiltrated with 30% sucrose at $4^{\circ}C$. Thereafter, they were frozen in dry ice. Serial sections of the thalamus, at $20{\mu}m$, were made in the frontal plane with a sliding microtome. The sections were stained for PV and calbindin with indirect immunocytochemical methods. For electron microscopy, after infiltration with 30% sucrose the blocks of thalamus were serially sectioned at $50{\mu}m$ with a Vibratome in the coronal plane and stained immediately by indirect ABC methods without Triton X-100 in incubation medium. Stained sections were postfixed in 0.2% osmium tetroxide, dehydrated and flat-embedded in Spurr resin. The block was then trimmed to contain only a selected lamina or interlaminar space. The dLGN proper showed strong PV IR in fibers in all laminae and interlaminar zones. Particularly dense staining was noted in layers 1 and 2 that contain many stained fibers from optic tract. Neuronal cell body stained with PV was concentrated only in the laminae. In these laminae staining was moderate in cell bodies of all large and medium-sized neurons, and was strong in cell bodies of some small neurons together with their processes. Calbindin IR was marked in the neuronal cell body and neuropil in the S layers and interlaminar zones whereas moderate in the neuropil throughout the nucleus. Regional difference in distribution of PV and calbindin IR cell is distinct; the former is only in the laminae and the latter in both the S layer and interlaminar space. The CaBP-IR elements were confined to about $10{\mu}m$ in depth of Vibratome section. The IR product for CaBP was mainly associated with synaptic vesicle, pre- and post-synaptic membrane, and outer mitochondrial membrane and along microtubule. PV-IR was noted in various neuronal elements such as neuronal soma, dendrite, RLP, F, PSD and some myelinated or unmyelinated axons, and was not seen in the RSD and glial cells. Only a few neuronal components in dLGN was IR for calbindin and its reaction product was less dense than that of PV, and scattered throughout cytoplasm of soma of some relay neurons, and was also persent in some dendrite, myelinated axons and RLP. The RSD, F, PSD and glial elements were always non-IR for calbindin. Calbindin labelled RLP were presynaptic to unlabeled dendrite or dendritic spine and PSD. Calbindin-labeled dendrite of various sizes were always postsynaptic to unlabeled RSD, RLP or F. From this study it is suggested that dLGN cells of different functional systems and their differential projection to the visual cortex can be distinguished by differential expression of PV and calbindin.

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The Effects of EGEE on Lectins Binding Pattern of Rat Cerebral Cortex in Developmental Phase (발생기 흰쥐 대뇌 피질의 복합당질에 미치는 ethylene glycol monoethyl ether의 영향)

  • Lee, Eung-Hee;Jo, Un-Bock
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.1014-1028
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    • 2006
  • This study attempted to investigate the developmental alterations of the cerebral cortex. The effects of EGEE on the developmental cerebral cortex in the prenatal, postnatal and adults were examined by lectin histochemical methods. To investigate the change of sugar residues of glycoconjugates, biotinylated lectins(DBA, SBA, PNA, BSL-1, RCA-1, sWGA, UEA-1, Con A and LCA) were detected with by IHC using ABC kit. In the case of injection of EGEE, the reactions to Con A and LCA were shown in binding phase in the cerebral cortex commonly, and the reactions to PNA, RCA-1 and LCA were shown partially, the number of lectins to be shown reaction were decreased, and there were no reactions to DBA, SBA, BSL-1, RCA-1 and UEA-1. The reaction to Con A was similar to control group during developmental phases. The reaction to LCA was increased in the fetal, suckling, and weanning phases compared with control group. But there were no reactions to SBA and sWGA, the reaction to PNA was decreased in the frontal and occipital cortex and no reaction to sWGA in the fetal phase. There were no reactions to sWGA and PNA in the suckling phase and, no reaction to PNA and sWGA. The reaction to Con A was decreased in the frontal, parietal and occipital cortexes and, the reaction to LCA was decreased in the frontal and occipital cortexes in adult phase. As the results, the effects of EGEE, environmental hormone on the each part of cerebral cortex have shown differences. But, It had deep effect on the differentiation and growth in the cerebral cortex pathologically. In particular, the effect was severe in suckling phase. $Galactosyl-({\beta}-1,3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine$,${\beta}-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine$ and ${\beta}-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine$ were decreased while ${\alpha}-D-mannose$ and ${\alpha}-D-glucose$ were increased. It affected the sugar metabloism, and it was severe in fetal and suckling phases.

Allogeneic Inlay Cortical Strut Grafts for Large Cysts or Post-curettage Cavitary Bony Defects (거대 낭종성 골병소 또는 소파 후 잔유 골 결손부에 시행한 내재형 동종 피질 지주골 이식술)

  • Chung, Yang-Guk;Kang, Yong-Koo;Kim, Chol-Jin;Lee, An-Hi;Park, Jeong-Mi;Bahk, Won-Jong;Yoo, Hyun-Ho
    • The Journal of the Korean bone and joint tumor society
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.73-78
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: This study was aimed to evaluate the result of inlay cortical strut bone grafts for large cysts or cavitary bone lesions in long bones. Materials and Methods: Seven patients with large cyst or cavitary bony lesions were managed with curettage, allogeneic inlay cortical strut and cancellous bone grafts. Additional plate and screw fixations were performed in 6 patients. There were three SBCs, two FDs with secondary ABC changes, one FD and one post-cement spacer removal state. Three of them had pathologic fractures. Progression of bone healing and mechanical support and functional result were evaluated. The mean follow-up period was 25.4 months. Results: Incorporations into host bones were progressed in all, average 4.2 months in six metaphyseal regions and 5.8 months in five diaphyseal regions respectively. Full structural supports were achieved in all except one patient without any additional procedures. No allograft-related complication was developed. Mean functional score according to the MSTS criteria was 29.6 at last follow up. Conclusion: Inlay cortical strut graft provided additional mechanical stability and bone stock for screw purchase in large cyst or cavitary defects of long bones, which allow early mobilization and excellent functional outcome.

A 0.31pJ/conv-step 13b 100MS/s 0.13um CMOS ADC for 3G Communication Systems (3G 통신 시스템 응용을 위한 0.31pJ/conv-step의 13비트 100MS/s 0.13um CMOS A/D 변환기)

  • Lee, Dong-Suk;Lee, Myung-Hwan;Kwon, Yi-Gi;Lee, Seung-Hoon
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SD
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.75-85
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    • 2009
  • This work proposes a 13b 100MS/s 0.13um CMOS ADC for 3G communication systems such as two-carrier W-CDMA applications simultaneously requiring high resolution, low power, and small size at high speed. The proposed ADC employs a four-step pipeline architecture to optimize power consumption and chip area at the target resolution and sampling rate. Area-efficient high-speed high-resolution gate-bootstrapping circuits are implemented at the sampling switches of the input SHA to maintain signal linearity over the Nyquist rate even at a 1.0V supply operation. The cascode compensation technique on a low-impedance path implemented in the two-stage amplifiers of the SHA and MDAC simultaneously achieves the required operation speed and phase margin with more reduced power consumption than the Miller compensation technique. Low-glitch dynamic latches in sub-ranging flash ADCs reduce kickback-noise referred to the differential input stage of the comparator by isolating the input stage from output nodes to improve system accuracy. The proposed low-noise current and voltage references based on triple negative T.C. circuits are employed on chip with optional off-chip reference voltages. The prototype ADC in a 0.13um 1P8M CMOS technology demonstrates the measured DNL and INL within 0.70LSB and 1.79LSB, respectively. The ADC shows a maximum SNDR of 64.5dB and a maximum SFDR of 78.0dB at 100MS/s, respectively. The ABC with an active die area of $1.22mm^2$ consumes 42.0mW at 100MS/s and a 1.2V supply, corresponding to a FOM of 0.31pJ/conv-step.

Immunohistochemical Study on the Activation of Cell mediated immunity in Murine Lymph node on Allergic Contact Dermatitis by DNCB -Based on the change of T lymphocytes and Il-2 receptors- (알러지성 접촉피부염 유발 피부 주변 림프절에서의 세포성 면역 활성에 관한 면역조직화학적 연구 - T 림프구와 IL-2 수용기의 분포 변화를 중심으로 -)

  • kim, Jin-Taek;Ahn, Sang-Hyun;Park, In-Sick;Chung, Jae-Man;Kim, Ho-Hyun
    • The Journal of Dong Guk Oriental Medicine
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.33-41
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    • 1998
  • Lymph node tissues of BALB/C mouse treated with DNCB were immunohistochemically observed to investigate the activation of cell mediated immunity in lymph node of murine with allergic contact dermatitis. The inguinal region of BALB/C mice were sensitized by one application of $25{\mu}l$ of 5% 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene(DNCB) onto an abdominal skin and 2 weeks later, the mice were challenged with $4{\mu}l$ of 2.5% DNCB. The inguinal lymph node were obtained at hour 24, 48, and 72 after 2nd DNCB treatment and embedded with paraffin, and then stained by following ABC method that used monoclonal antibody including L3T4(CD4), Ly2(CD8), IL-2R(CD25). The distribution of helper T lymphocytes, cytotoxic T lymphocytes and IL-2 receptors began to increase at hour 24 after after 2nd DNCB treatment and these increase appeared in paracortical area and medullary sinius. These increase were greatest at hour 48. These results indicated that the IL-2 secretion began to increase by activation of helper T lymphocytes in lymph node of DNCB re-exposure area and subsequently to activate suppress T lymphocytes.

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Immunohistochemical Study on the Suppression of Cell mediated immunity in Lymph node of mouse by Cyclosporin A -Based on the change of T lymphocytes, Il-2 receptors, and NK cells- (Cyclosporin A로 유도된 생쥐 림프절의 세포성 면역억제에 관한 면역조직화학적 연구 -T 림프구, IL-2 수용기 및 NK세포의 변화를 중심으로-)

  • Kim, Jin-Taek;Park, In-Sick;Ahn, Sang-Hyun;Choi, Nan-Hee;Kim, Dong-Hoan
    • The Journal of Dong Guk Oriental Medicine
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.99-107
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    • 1998
  • Cyclosporin A(CsA) is a selective immunosuppressive agent that has been credited with improved survival of solid organ allografts. Lymph node of BALB/C mouse administered CsA immunohistochemically observed to understand immunosuppressive effects of CsA on T lymphocytes, IL-2 receptors, and natural killer NK cells in lymph node. CsA orally administered daily for 10days at the dose 45mg/kg/day/. The lymph node were obtained at day 3, 7, and 14 after CsA administration and embedded with paraffin, and then stained by following ABC method that used monoclonal antibody including L3T4(CD4), Ly2(CD8), IL-2R(CD25), and NK-1.1(CD56). There were little changes of reactive degree and number of helper T lymphocytes, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, IL-2 receptors, and NK cells at day 3 after CsA administration, but they began to decrease at day 7. These decrease were greatest at day 14. The helper T lymphocytes. cytotoxic T lymphocytes, IL-2 receptors, and NK cells distributed in paracortex and medullary sinus. These results indicated that the secretion of IL-2 began to decrease at day 7 after CsA administration and subsequently to suppress T lymphocytes and NK cell as components of cell-mediated immunity.

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A study on naturalism style of fashion-concentrating on the 1990s- (복식의 자연주의 양식에 관한 연구-90년대 현대 복식을 중심으로-)

  • 이경아;전혜정
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.37
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    • pp.253-273
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    • 1998
  • The culture reflects the ideology of a particular period in time and such values change according to the needs and requests of that time which eventually becomes an important factorin forming the exterior. The clothing is part of a way that composes and expresses the inherent substance of society and culture. Also, the clothing itself manifests the artistic values and behavior of mankind as an external structure maintaining its place as a big part in culture. The purpose of this study are to elucidat the concept of naturalism, which is discussed in many facets in the modern era; I studied the concept as well as the history of naturalism in order to manifest the meaning of clothing in the context of culture and I explained the concept in terms of the modern era. On such ground, I explained the naturalism expressed through clothing and characterized the exter-nal form of clothing. Also, in order to know the stream of naturalism in the modern context, I referred to the Vogue magazine of the 90s, using Delong's ABC method. Naturalism, in the context of modern fashion is a way to express the nostalgia of nature's vi-ability and purity of ecology apart from the artificial and structural appearance that resulted form scientific enhancement and hence, the ecological crisis. Naturalism pursues the soft- ness and comfort of the natural silhouette, color and material of the human body and it can be said that naturalism emphasizes the mix-ture of three substances : human, nature and clothing. The naturalism can be characterized by the factors expressed in clothing as follows. First, the naturalism shown in the form it-self draws the beauty of the bodyline without any reduction nor exaggeration. Without any distorttion of the human bodyline it shown the curve as one moves along, using the soft material. Second, the naturalism shown in color most-ly uses the natural tone with added white color and other color low in intensity and value like the receded colors of the earth that could be compared to the beauty of ecru. Third, the naturalism shown in the material is thin, light and soft in texture. In order to bring out the most natural curve of the human body, the natural fiber becomes the main material, sometimes, using crude materials. Due to the lindustrial improvement, softness and elasticity is added to the natural fibers giving them an important role as materials. Fourth, the naturalism shown in textile depicts the real natural objects in life. According to my study, the personality of naturalism in modern clothing was shown to be most strong in material and then in the order of form, texture and textile. The material com-posed of the natural silhouette and natural fibers were used to make soft color. In form, Paul Poiret made appearance expressing the natural beauty of the human body without the corset ; it continued with the inner lining making the clothing hard but in the 90s, lining-less, extremely exposed clothes and knit wear is used to emphasize the natural beauty of the body. In color and textile, the tendency spok-en above is not as strong but in color, instead of high intensity or value, the usage of neutral colors with added white color or ecru color, ear-th tone is increasing. In textile, the usage of flowers as natural material is seen frequently. As a whole, naturalistic trend in the 90s is increasing and the modern fashion is breaking out from the artificial and architectural form and conforming to a form that can realize the natural beauty of the human body. And the natural color and textile that conforms to such ideas are being used to pursue the human oriented trend that has appeared due to the increase in usage of soft natural fiber. Nowadays, the idea of returning to nature, defying the artificiality, desiring the leisure and psychological abundance that can be explained as naturalistic way of thinking is necessitated in this modern era as long as humans coexist with nature, this tendency will continue in clothing.

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A STUDY ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE CONTAINING NERVE FIBERS IN RAT PULP FOLLOWING DENTINAL INJURY (상아질 손상 후 흰쥐 대구치 치수의 calcitonin gene-related peptide(CGRP) 함유 신경섬유 분포에 관한 연구)

  • Moon, Joo-Hoon;Park, Sang-Jin;Min, Byung-Soon;Choi, Ho-Young;Cho, Gi-Woon
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.100-115
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of calcitonin gene-related peptide containing nerve fibers in rat pulp after dentinl injury by means of immunohistochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscope. The Spague-Dawley rats weighing about 250-300gm were used. The animals were devided into normal control and experimental groups. Experimental animals were sacrified 1, 2, 4, 7, 10, 21days after dentinal injury (dentin cutting, and then acid etching with 35% phosphoric acid) on the maxillary molar teeth. The maxillary teeth and alveolar bone were removed and immersed in the 4% paraformaldehyde in 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), then were decalcified with 15% formic acid for 10 days. Serial frozen $50{\mu}m$ thick sections were cut on a cryostat. The rabbit CGRP antibody was used as a primary antibody with a dilution of 1:2000 in 0.01M PB. The sections were incubated for 48 hours at $4^{\circ}C$, and placed into biotinylated antirabbit Ig G as a secondary anti body with dilution of 1:200 in 0.01M PB and incubated in ABC(avidin-biotin complex). The peroxidase reaction was visualized by incubating the sections in 0.05% 3,3 diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride containing 0.02% $H_2O_2$. For the confocal laser scanning microscopic examination, Primary antibody reaction was same as immunoperoxidase stainning, but fluorescein isothiocyanate(FITC)-conjugate antirabbit IgG as a secondary antibody was used. The confocal laser scanning microscope was used for the examination. A series of images of optical sections was collected with a 20x objective at $3{\mu}m$ intervals throughout the depth of specimen. FITC fluerescence was registrated through a 488nm and 568nm excitation filter, and images were saved on optical disk. The stereoscopic images and three dimentionnal images were reconstructed by computer software, and then were analyzed. The results were as follows : 1. In normal control group, CGRP containing nerve fibers were coursed through the root with very little branching, and then formed a dense network of terminals in coronal pulp. 2. A slight increase in CGRP containing nerve fibers at 1 and 2day postinjury was noted subjacent to the injury site. In the 4day group, there were an extensive increase in the number of reactive fibers, followed by a partial return toward normal levels at 7~10 day postinjury, and return by 21days. 3. The sprouting of the CGRP containing nerve fibers was evident within 2day after dentinal injury, and by 4days there was a maximal increased, but was decreased at 7days and returned to normal 10~21 day postinjury. 4. In confocal laser scanning microscopic exammination, the distinct distribution pattern and sprouting reaction of CGRP containing nerve fibers were observed in stereoscopic images and three dimentional images. These results suggest that CGRP containing nerve fiber can be important role in the response to dental injury and pain regulation.

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Characterization and Expression of Penaeidin 3-2 from Fleshy Prawn Fenneropenaeus chinensis (대하 Penaeidin 3-2 유전자의 동정 및 발현)

  • Park, Eun-Mi;Cho, Hyun Kook;Hong, Gyeong-Eun;Nam, Bo-Hye;Kim, Young-Ok;Kim, Woo-Jin;Lee, Sang-Jun;Han, Hyon Sob;Lee, Jae Yong;Kim, Jong-Sheek;Jang, In-Kwon;Cheong, JaeHun;Choi, Tae-Jin;Kong, Hee Jeong
    • Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.34-39
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    • 2007
  • Penaeidins are members of a special family of antimicrobial peptides existing in several species of shrimp and play a crucial role in the immunological defense of shrimp. In this study, we isolated and characterized one EST clone (penaeidin) from cDNA library of fleshy prawn Fenneropenaeus chinensis hemocytes. Amino acids sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis with other known penaeidins revealed that our clone was completely identical to F. chinensis Penaeidin 3-2 (Accession no. ABC33920), which composed of 71 amino acids with a putative signal peptide (1-19) and a cysteine-rich domain (C-terminal part). The expression and distribution of Penaeidin 3-2 transcripts in shrimp were detected in hemocytes, hepatopancreas, and muscles, and that Penaeidin 3-2 was constitutively expressed mainly in hemocytes. The artificial infection of white spot syndrome virus to F. chinensis resulted in Penaeidin 3-2 mRNA up-regulation in hemocytes, suggesting that the possible role of Penaeidin 3-2 in host defense system of F. chinensis.

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Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering Coefficient Measurements with a Photoacoustic and Nephelometric Spectrometer (광음향 및 네펠로미터 방식을 이용한 에어로졸 흡수 및 산란계수 측정)

  • Kim, Ji-Hyoung;Kim, Sang-Woo;Heo, Junghwa;Nam, Jihyun;Kim, Man-Hae;Yu, Yung-Suk;Lim, Han-Chul;Lee, Chulkyu;Heo, Bok-Haeng;Yoon, Soon-Chang
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.185-191
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    • 2015
  • Ambient measurements of aerosol light absorption (${\sigma}_a$) and scattering coefficients (${\sigma}_s$) were done at Gosan climate observatory during summer 2008 using a 3-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS). PASS was deployed photoacoustic method for light absorption and integrated nephelometry for light scattering measurements. The ${\sigma}_a$ and ${\sigma}_s$ from PASS were compared with those from co-located aethalometer and nephelometer measurements. The aethalometer measurements of ${\sigma}_a$ correlated reasonably well with photoacoustic measurements, but the slope of the linear fitting line indicated the PASS measurement values of ${\sigma}_a$ were larger by a factor of 1.53. The nephelometer measurement values of ${\sigma}_s$ correlated very well with PASS measurements of ${\sigma}_s$, with a slope of 1.12 and a small offset. Comparing to the aethalometer measurements, the photoacoustic measurements of ${\sigma}_a$ didn't exhibit a significant (i.e., the ratio between aethalometer and PASS increased) change with increasing relative humidity (RH). The ratio of ${\sigma}_s$ between nephelometer and PASS increased with increasing RH, especially when the RH increased beyond 80%. This apparent increase in ${\sigma}_s$ with RH may be due to the contribution of hygroscopic growth of aerosols.