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Total sizing system (총 사이징 시스템)

  • Proverb, Robert J.;Pawlowska, Lucyna;Komarowska, Kasia;Garro, Gina;Dilts, Kimberly
    • Proceedings of the Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Conference
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    • pp.19-42
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    • 2004
  • Sizing properties in paper are generally developed through the application of both internal and surface sizes. Rosin, wax, and synthetic sizes including ASA, AKD, and stearic anhydride are and have been used to provide wet-end sizing to paper. In many cases, the use of some of these sizes leads to runnability problems that are inherent in the wet-end operation. Variability in furnish, fines, broke, filler, water chemistry, conductivity, and pH control impacts the wet-end operation. Size press chemicals including starch and polymers such as styrene-acrylic, styrene-maleic, and styrene acrylate emulsions are used in conjunction with internal sizes to improve the paper surface for printing and strength properties, porosity, and opacity improvement. This paper will discuss results from a new, proprietary formulation and process that allows application of sizing chemistry more totally at the size press with reduced emphasis on wet end sizing. Runnability issues are thus minimized at the wet-end, chemical usage is more efficient, and significant cost savings can be realized. Case histories will be presented illustrating the advantages of this new application in commercial trials.

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The Influence of Paper Stock Type on Characteristics of Sizing (지료조성에 따른 종이의 사이징 특성)

  • Cheong Sang Jin;Kim Bong Yong
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.11-20
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    • 2005
  • This study was carried out to investigate the influence of paper stock type and heat treatment on sizing effect. Various types of pulps were used to make handsheets sized internally with AKD(alkyl ketene dimer) and externally with CMC(carboxyl methyl cellulose). Most of the handsheets were treated with heat by dry oven $(100^{\circ}C,\;30min)$ to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on sizing development. Internal sizing development of newsprint was very bad, but the effect of heat treatment was much higher than those of NBKP, BCTMP. In case of surface sizing, newsprint was more effective compared to the other pulps. Considering above mentioned results, it seems that internal sizing slows down water into paper by molecular diffusion much more than capillary penetration, but surface sizing slows down capillary penetration. With regard to density, a higher thickness sheets showed high heat treatment effect on sizing, therefore it assumed that heat treatment effect on sizing had very close relationship with sheet density.

Printability Improvement of Hanji using Microbial Cellulose from Saprolegnia ferax (미생물 셀룰로오스를 이용한 한지의 인쇄적성 개선에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Jin-Ha;Park, Seong-Cheol
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.23-29
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    • 2008
  • This study was performed to improve the printability of Hanji using a microbial cellulose from Saprolegnia ferax through investigating the printability of Hanji sized with the mixture of the microbial cellulose and various kinds of sizing agents. Conclusions obtained from the results of this study were as follows. The proper concentration of a microbial cellulose in sizing a printable Hanji with it was 0.5%. In general, there was no remarkable effect but some effect on the opacity and ink density. Hanji was sized with the mixture(5:5) of microbial cellulose(0.5%) and AKD(1.0%). As a result, ink spread was remarkably improved by the girth reduction of ink spot. There was remarkable effect because the mixture(5:5) of a microbial cellulose(0.5%) and CMC(1.0%) improved not only the gloss but also the density and girth of ink spot. Mixing(7:3) with corn starch(3.0%) showed the smallest girth of ink spot among applied sizing agents. Mixing(7:3) with PVA(5.0%) also showed some effect in the density and girth of ink spot.

Factors Affecting Z-direction Penetration of PVAm Solution into Paper (PVAm 용액의 종이 두께 방향 침투에 영향하는 인자들)

  • Choi, Do-Chim;Won, Jong Myoung;Cho, Byoung-Uk
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.47 no.5
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    • pp.104-111
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    • 2015
  • Factors influencing penetration of PVAm solution into paper during impregnation were investigated with ultrasonic Penetration Evenness Analyzer (PEA). Paper structure was varied by changing basis weight, freeness of pulp, calendering, and filler addition, and hydrophobicity of paper was varied by adding AKD. In addition, the viscosity of PVAm solution was varied by changing the concentration of PVAm solution. Important factors influencing penetration of PVAm solution into paper were found to be the pore structure and the hydrophobicity of paper, and the viscosity of PVAm solution. Pore structure of paper could be controlled by refining degree and filler addition and hydrophobicity of paper could be controlled by internal sizing. Denser structure of paper, higher hydrophobicity and higher liquid viscosity slowed down the penetration of PVAm solution into paper.

The Study of Instrumental Analysis of Deposits on Paper Machine and Holes/spots in Paper (제지공정 침착이물질 및 종이내 불순물성분의 기기분석적 고찰)

  • 마금자;이복진
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.7-16
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    • 1997
  • The constituents of deposits on paper machine and holes/spots in paper have been studied by consequently a combination of analytical techniques, such as FTIR, Py-GC-MS, and. EDS. FTIR spectroscopy was used prior to Py-GC-MS and EDS analysis, as preliminary analysis technique. The analysis of organic components were carried out with the use of a pyrolysis unit connected to a GC-MS, and inorganic components in ash were analysed by SEM equipped with an EDS analyzer after pyrolysis at 59$0^{\circ}C$. The deposits on the dryer section were complex pitch, which was the mixture of the organic contents of fatty acid ester and starch, and the inorganic contents of talc, clay, and calcium carbonate. The complex pitch was estimated to come from the coated broke. We knew the deposits on the metering rod of sym-sizer were associated with the interaction of unstable AKD and CaCO$_3$. The compositions of holes or spots varied considerably and were associated with chemical interaction within the system. The holes, spots, and blotches in the finished paper were PE and PP that were streamed out from pulp sources, complex pitch that were caused by the interaction of the different additives in the system, polymer such as flexible PVC that used for the prop of palette, and hot melt as adhesives that came from the inadequate handling of broke. In addition, we identified that poly(caprolactam) which is used for forming fabrics or press felts, could be mixed with the raw materials by accident and results in streak on coating.

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Automatic $St{\ddot{o}}ckigt$ Sizing Test Using Hue Value Variation of a Droplet

  • Kim, Jae-Ok;Kim, Chul-Hwan;Lee, Young-Min;Kim, Gyeong-Yun;Shin, Tae-Gi;Park, Chong-Yawl
    • Proceedings of the Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Conference
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    • pp.227-230
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    • 2006
  • The $St{\ddot{o}}ckigt$ sizing test of the most-commonly used sizing tests is easily influenced by the individual testers' bias in recognizing red coloration. Therefore the test had to be modified to improve its reliability and reproducibility by automated recognition of a coloration procedure during testing. In order to achieve this, all measured variables occurring during the $St{\ddot{o}}ckigt$ test was first be analyzed and then reflected in the new automatic system. Secondly, the most important principle applied was to transform the RGB values of the droplet image to hue (H), saturation (S) and value (V) respectively. This is because RGB cannot be used as a color standard, owing to RGB's peculiarity of being seriously affected by the observer's point of view. Therefore, the droplet color had to be separated into three distinct factors, namely the HSV values, in order to allow linear analysis of the droplet color. When the average values of the vectors calculated during color variation from yellow to brown were plotted against time, it was possible to determine the vector value of hue, the most sensitive factor among HSV, at the specific time by differentiation of a function when it exceeds the critical point. Then, the specific time consumed up to the critical point was regarded as the $St{\ddot{o}}ckigt$ sizing degree. The conventional method took more time to recognize an ending point of coloration than the automatic method, and in addition the error ranges of the conventional sizing degrees on the specific addition points of AKD were wider than those of the automatic method.

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Studies on the Blistering Resistance(I) - The influence of pigment ratio on blistering resistance - (블리스터링에 관한 연구(제1보) - 안료의 배합비가 블리스터링에 미치는 영향 -)

  • Lim, Won-Seok;Ha, Young-Baeck;Kim, Chang-Keun;Lee, Yong-Kyu
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.25-30
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    • 2007
  • Recently the use of web offset printing has been increasing, which can provide high print speed, mass production, and high print quality. However, high speed web offset printing has frequently undergone a blistering problem when the printed paper passes through hot air dryers. Blistering occurs in the middle of the base paper or in the coating layer. This paper focused on the blistering occurring in the base paper. In order to elucidate the effect of pigment ratio on blistering, 6 types of coating color were prepared with varying GCC/clay ratios and printability and blistering were investigated focusing on structure changes in the coating layer. When the clay content in the coating layer was increased, surface roughness and surface strength were decreased and paper gloss was increased. In addition, it was found that the coating layer structure with high clay content, which contains lots of discontinuous pores, hindered water vapors to penetrate out and, as a result, blistering occurred.

Physico-chemical Characteristics of Biodegradable Seedling Pots Made of Paper Mill Sludges (제지공장 슬러지를 이용한 생분해성 육묘 포트의 물리화학적 특성 연구)

  • Lee, Ji-Young;Kim, Chul-Hwan;Lee, Gyeong-Sun;Jo, Hu-Seung;Nam, Hye-Gyeong;Park, Hyung-Hun;Moon, Sun-Ok
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.9-18
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    • 2014
  • London Convention on the prevention of marine pollution by dumping of wastes and other matter prohibits the deliberate disposal of paper mill sludges at sea. In order to explore the alternative plan on the prohibition of sludge disposal at sea, the biodegradable seedling pot was developed by mixing the sludge with old newspaper (ONP) in appropriate mixing ratios. The C/N ratio of the mixed sludge was below 20, leading to rapid deterioration of the organic matters composing the seedling pot. The increased ONP contents in the seedling pot resulted in the increase of pot thickness and thereafter in the decrease of pot density. Cellulose fibers in ONP promoted water absorption of the pot but AKD addition helped the seedling pot to repel water during raising seedling. Breaking length and burst strength of the seedling pot were improved by addition of wet strength additives but air permeability was a little diminished. Biodegradable rate of the seedling pot in a soil was accelerated by the attack of soil microbes at the beginning, and finally the pot was completely degraded in 150 days in a soil.

Automatic Test Method of Sizing Degree by Analysis of Liquid Penetration and its Surface Behavior (액체 침투 특성과 표면 거동 분석을 이용한 사이즈도 자동측정법)

  • Lee, Ji-Young;Kim, Gyung-Chul;Kim, Chul-Hwan;Sheikh, M.I.;Park, Hyun-Jin;Kim, Sung-Ho;Sim, Sung-Woong;Cho, Hu-Seung
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.18-28
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    • 2012
  • This study was to develop a novel automatic system for measuring St$\ddot{o}$ckigt sizing degree and contact angle at a time. The conventional methods to measure sizing degree had serious problems in obtaining significant differences according to different dosages of a sizing agent, and moreover they disclosed unique limitation due to liquid types used and tester's subjectivity. However, the newly developed system could get reproducible results through total automation of all procedures including liquid dropping, image acquisition and measurement of both St$\ddot{o}$ckigt sizing degree and contact angle. For the St$\ddot{o}$ckigt sizing test, the automatic system could measure sizing degree with more definite differences according to different dosage of AKD, compared to the conventional method. For the contact angle test, the automatic system showed a similar trend to the conventional method but had smaller contact angles due to distortion of an image focus by a sheet curl than the conventional testing machine. The problem from the image out of focus due to specimen curl will be overcome with adopting a new specimen holder for the future system.

Arduino hardware and Android ADK software combination (아두이노 하드웨어와 안드로이드 ADK 소프트웨어의 결합)

  • Lee, Sung-jin;Choi, Chul-kil;Lee, Kyung-mu;Choi, Byeong-yoon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Sciences Conference
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    • pp.336-339
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    • 2013
  • Arduino is for design based on open source prototyping platform, artist, designer, hobby activists, etc, i has been designed for all those who are interested in the environment construct. Arduino adventage you can easily create applications hardware, without deep knowledge about the hardware. Configuration of arduino using AVR microcontroller ATmage 168, software to action arduino using arduino program, MATLAB, Processing. Arduino is open source base, you can hardware production directly and using shield additionally, the arduino can be combined. Android AKD is open source. You can create android smart phone application. By the way compatible and can be used android ADK add arduino Manifast. Using arduino program, arduino bread-board design on hardware., create button click, connection with each other. In this paper, sortware was used for arduino program and android ADK, hardware was used for arduino MegaADK board, After making one accessory using the software and hardware verification.

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