• Title, Summary, Keyword: AKD sizing

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Effect of Spreading of Neutral Sizing Agent, Alkylketene Dimer, on Sizing Development

  • Seo Won-Sung;Shin Jong-Ho;Cho Nam-Seok
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2005
  • The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of spreading behavior of the sizing agents (AKD or dialkyl ketone) on the sizing development of AKD-sized paper. There was a direct relationship between the spreading behavior of the sizing agents and their melting points. Both AKD and dialkyl ketone showed no substantial spreading until the temperature reaches to their melting points. Consequently, dialkyl ketone did not provide sizing development when the paper was heat-treated below $75^{\circ}C$, while AKD provided sizing effect even the paper heated at $50^{\circ}C$. The ketone, however, provided rather higher sizing effect than that of AKD, when the paper was heat-treated over $100^{\circ}C$. This result means that the ketone also gives sizing development to paper, moreover the ketone could give higher sizing effect to paper than AKD when it was melted and well spreaded on the fiber surface. While the ketone introduced to papers from hydrolyzed AKD emulsion could not contribute to sizing development.

Alkaline Sizing of Mechanical Pulp

  • Kim, Bong-Yong;Akira Isogai
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2000
  • Alkaline Sizing behavior and mechanism of handsheets, which were prepared from thermomechanical pulp (TMP) with alkylketene dimer (AKD), were studied in terms of the conditions of the handsheet-making. AKD content in the TMP handsheets was increased with increasing of AKD addition level and the addition of a polyamideamine-epichlorohydrin resin (PAE) clearly enhanced AKD retention as well as the resultant sizing performance of TMP handsheets. Although drying of the AKD sized TMP webs at $20^{\circ}C$ led to no or quite low sizing level, but TMP handsheets sized with AKD had higher sizing degrees with increasing of the temperature of heat treatment. Scanning electron microscopic observations of the AKD-sized TMP handsheets showed that AKD emulsion particles were present on pulp fiber surfaces independently without coagulation in the TMP handsheets dried at $20^{\circ}C$. Heat treatment of the AKD-sized handsheets resulted in disappearance of the AKD emulsion particles because of their melting and spreading. The addition of calcium carbonate filler to the TMP suspensions did not influence on AKD content in the TMP handsheets. Nevertheless, their sizing degrees clearly increased by the addition of $CaCO_3$filler. Probably, AKD molecules adsorbed on the $CaCO_3$filler particles contribute to the enhancement of sizing performance. Thus, AKD can give sizing features effectively to the TMP handsheets, when they are made under suitable conditions.

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Effect of White Water Quality on AKD Sizing of Linerboard (백수의 수질에 따른 라이너지의 AKD 사이징)

  • Lee, Hak-Lae;Seo, Man-Seok;Shin, Jong-Ho;Youn, Hye-Jung
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 2006
  • Neutral sizing is required for linerboard to solve the troubles in strength and process caused by recycled raw materials. AKD sizing efficiency can be influenced by process condition like white water quality, fines retention and so on. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate sizing performance of general and fast cure type AKDs using process water obtained from linerboard mill. To evaluate effect of process water quality on AKD sizing, white water was diluted with tap water at the different dilution ratios and UKP slurry was sized using the prepared water. Also, effects of inorganic and organic ion material on sizing were examined. When white water was used for stock forming, UKP sheet showed very low sizing degree. Sizing degree of sheet was increased with increase of dilution ratio because water quality was improved. Especially anionic organic material had a greater influence on AKD sizing than inorganic material. When white water quality was deteriorated, fast cure type AKD showed superior sizing performance to general type AKD.

Mechanism of AKD Sizing Development (AKD의 사이즈 효과 발현기구)

  • Jo, Byoung-Muk;Lee, Don-Sub
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.45-56
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    • 1996
  • Generally, it has been know that AKD develops sizing efficiency by forming the chemical bond with cellulose in neutral paper making. However, there have been many expriments in opposition to this theory. This study was carried out to find whether there is chemical bond between AKD and cellulose or not. Also, it was investigated that how much the reacted AKD forming chemical bond and the unreacted AKD contribute to sizing degree respectively if chemical bond presents, and what caused AKD sized paper to migrate under high temperature. Besides, this work experimented several factors having influences on AKD sizing in paper amking.

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Neutral Sizing of Linerboard Using Fast Cure Type AKD (급속경화형 AKD를 이용한 라이너지의 중성 사이징)

  • Lee Hak-Lae;Seo Man-Seok;Shin Jong-Ho;Youn Hye-Jung
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2006
  • To overcome troubles in strength and process of linerboard caused by raw materials, a neutral sizing which is usual in fine paper making can be considered. A new sizing agent is necessary to show good performance in a system with high conductivity and COD. In this study, fast cure type AKD was examined as a new sizing agent and compared with conventional AKD. The effects of fixing agent addition and drying condition were also investigated. Fast cure type AKD which has a higher cationicity showed better sizing degree than conventional AKD in spite of low addition level and no curing treatment. And when fixing agent of sufficient amount was added, sizing degree was improved for both AKDs. High cationicity is a crucial factor for neutral sizing of linerboard for obtaining fast and stable sizing degree. Drying with temperature over $100^{\circ}$ was desirable for developing sizing degree.

Alkaline Sizing of TMP with AKD (AKD에 의한 TMP의 중성사이징)

  • 김봉용
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2002
  • Alkaline sizing characteristics of TMP (thermomechanical pulp) handsheets with AKD (alkylketene dimer) were studied under various conditions. The sizing degree of TMP handsheet was much lower than that of chemical pulp. Especially, the sized TMP handsheet dried at $20^{\circ}C$ showed no sizing features, but sizing degree of TMP handsheet was clearly Increased by heat treatment at $105^{\circ}C$. The sizing effect of TMP was also improved by addition of $CaCO_3$, but it was not affected by pH. Therefore, sizing effect of TMP with AKD can be improved to some extent by controlling stock condition and heat treatment of handsheet.

Behavior of AKD in AKD-sized Paper by Heating Treatment During Ageing (AKD 사이즈 처리한 종이의 저장중 가열처리에 의한 AKD의 거동)

  • Shin, Young-Doo;Seo, Won-Sung;Cho, Nam-Seok
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.16-24
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    • 2007
  • This study was performed to investigate the reaction between alkylketene dimer(AKD) and cellulose molecules in AKD-sized paper sheet. AKD was added to highly beaten($80{\pm}3^{\circ}SR$) SwBKP(ca. 0.8% on pulp) in order to have much AKD retention in the paper sheet. This AKD-sized paper sheet was aged at different temperatures, $60^{\circ}C,\;80^{\circ}C,\;105^{\circ}C\;and\;125^{\circ}C$. Changes in FT-IR spectra of AKD in paper sheet during the ageing were measured. In addition, sizing degrees of the AKD-sized paper sheet pretreated for 30 sec. at $105^{\circ}C$ were measured by HST size tester during the storage at different temperature. IR spectra of AKD-sized paper sheet preheated at $105^{\circ}C$ for 30 sec. showed unchanged spectra two absorption bands at $1849cm^{-1}\;and\;1722cm^{-1}$ which refer to the typical AKD IR bands. However, these typical AKD bands were gradually reduced with increasing ageing, completely disappeared after 6 hrs. and formed new absorption band at $1706cm^{-1}$, which refers to carbonyl stretching vibration of dialkylktone. Eventually the AKD molecule was hydrolyzed to diakylketone without formation of ${\beta}$-ketoester with cellulose in paper sheet. After 6 days ageing, a little amount of ${\beta}$-ketoester bands was identified in 6 or 7 days ageing, because of the absence of water due to long-term heating. The same tendency was observed at different ageing conditions. At the practical papermaking process, AKD reacts prevailing with water, and mostly seems to be hydrolyzed to dialkylketene. Concerned to the sizing development, AKD-sized paper sheet was shown no sizing development at the initial stage of ageing at $60^{\circ}C$ after heating treatment at $105^{\circ}C$ for 30 sec., and gradually increased the sizing degree with increasing ageing, such as Hercules Sizing Tester (HST) 130 see for 12 hr, HST 300 sec. for 3 days and HST 400 sec. for 5 days. It was concluded that hydrolyzed AKD could contributed to the sizing development of the paper sheet.

REACTION OF PAPER PULP AND ALKYL KETENE DIMER BY AGING TREATMENT DURING PAPERMAKIN PROCESS

  • Shin, Young-Doo;Seo, Won-Sung;Cho, Nam-Seok
    • Proceedings of the Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Conference
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    • pp.83-83
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    • 2000
  • Alkylketene dimer was known as a cellulose reactive or alkaline size because it does not require to fix to the fiber as do the traditional rosin sizes. A proposed sizing mechanism of AKD was the formation of P -ketoester bond between AKD and cellulose which provides the permanent attachment and the orientation of the hydrophobic alkylchains outward. However, some questions about the reaction had arisen and thus, the sizing mechanism of AKD has been a subject of controversy for several decades. The major concern of the controversy is that AKD is really reactive with cellulose or not in the papermaking conditions. In this study, reaction between AKD and pulp fiber was investigated, in order to find out whether AKD forms P-ketoester with pulp fiber during aging under no catalyzed neutral condition with obvious spectroscopic evidence. In addition, effect of aging treatment on the sizing development was studied. It has been disclosed that, in absence of water, AKD reacted with cellulose to form P -ketoester linkage under no catalyzed neutral condition, while, in presence of water, most of AKD was hydrolyzed to a dialkyl ketone or P -ketoacid. In addition, during the aging treatment of AKD-sized paper, its typical IR spectra bands gradually were reduced, completely disappeared after 6hr aging, and formed new absorption bands at 1707cm-' and shoulder peak at 1700cm-' which refer to the typical dialkylketone absorption bands. Therefore, the formation of P -ketoester between AKD and pulp fiber is impossible in the practical papermaking process. It could be suggested that the sizing development of AKD-sized paper is obtained by next two mechanism: 1) formation of a thin-layer of AKD on the fiber surface through melting and spreading of AKD emulsion particles by heat and 2) the hydrolysis of AKD to dialkyl ketone which has higher melting point, during drying and storage of AKD sized papers.

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Characteristics of Alkaline Sizing Associated with Pulp and Size Fixing Agent (펄프와 정착제에 따른 중성사이징 특성)

  • 이현철;김봉용
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.17-23
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    • 2001
  • AKD sizing behavior of handsheets, which were prepared from the different pulps with various AKD fixing agents, was studied in this investigation. AKD sizing performance could be improved by removal of fines in the stock, minimizing damage of fiber, using a suitable fixing agent and heat treatment. Fillers with low surface energy, like calcium carbonate and talc, showed quite positive effect in AKD sizing. When PAM was added to the DIP stock as fixing agent, it showed lower sizing degree than polyamine did. But in case of NBKP system, PAM was more effective than polymine.

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Studies on the Printability of Hanji by Sizing and Calendering

  • Kang Jin-Ha;Seo Seung-Man;Park Seong-Cheol
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.70-77
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    • 2005
  • The development of printable Hanji is regarded as an important work to create a new demand of Hanji in information-oriented era. Hanji has rougher surface, huger absorption of ink and lower optical properties and printabilities than common printing papers. Improving those shortcomings of Hanji is required to be printable Hanji. Sizing and calendering have known as a way to make properties of paper good. Accordingly, this research was performed to find out useful sizing agents for reforming its drawbacks. Four sizing agents (CMC, com starch, PVA, AKD) were used in this research. The optical properties and the printabilities of sized Hanji were tested. The obtained results were as follows. Based on concentration, each sizing agent was prepared. These were CMC(0.5, 1, $1.5\%$), corn starch(1, 2, $3\%$), PVA(1, 5, $10\%$), AKD(0.5, 0.1, $0.15\%$) respectively. After sizing, we performed calendering treatment with pressure of 0.5, $1\;kgf/cm^2$. All the sizing agents and calendering treatment improved the properties of Hanji to some extent. Particularly, com starch was good for gloss. In case of printability, $1\%$ AKD with $1\;kgf/cm^2$ was recommendable for typography ink density, $3\%$ com starch with $0.5\;kgf/cm^2$, inkjet ink density, $2\%$ com starch with $0.5\;kgf/cm^2$, inkjet ink girth. PVA and AKD without calendering were counter-effective agents for inkjet ink density. Printable Hanji is required to have not only better surface strength enough to appear non-picking, higher ink density and lower show-through than base paper but also the lowest ink girth in comparison with base paper. When referring to them, efficient sizing agents were regarded as $0.1\%$ AKD with $1\;kgf/cm^2$, calender pressure, for typography printing and $2\%$ com starch with $0.5\;kgf/cm^2$, calender pressure, for inkjet printing.