• Title, Summary, Keyword: ATP

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A review of ATP Onboard System's Test procedure (열차방호장치(ATP) 차상설비 시험절차에 대한 고찰)

  • Chang, Seok-Gahk;Kim, Jin-Hwan
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.1163-1168
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    • 2008
  • Automatic Train Protection(ATP) System is developed by ETCS(European Train Control System) CONSORTIUM for unify Europe railway system. ATP system is composed of Eurobalise and EuroATC. Nowadays, Korea construct ATP system in conventional line and new electrical locomotives also install ATP system. It is important to verify quality which form checklist during Factory Acceptance Test at beyond the seas. In this paper, review the process, test item, norm and checklist for the Balise Transmission Module, Compact Antenna Unit, Vehicle Control Unit and Communication Controller at the Plymouth Bombardier and Vasteras enics factory.

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Research about optimal installation of ATP system in High speed Rolling-stock (고속차량 ATP시스템 개량의 최적화에 관한 연구)

  • Ryu, Byung-Gwan
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.476-482
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    • 2009
  • A signal equipment improvement project for the existing facility ATS to ATP is under construction in Kyung-Bu and Ho-Nam commercial line including 400 rolling stocks. But there was a concern for the interface between KTX OBCS and ATP from the beginning of the project. At present, this is the front burner event. This paper introduces interface checking and predicted failure point between KTX OBCS and ATP improvement system. Through this measure the optimal installation of the ATP will be possible. The study was made under maintenance efficiency including reliability because the KTX signal equipment must qualify the above condition.

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Effects of Compost Amendment on Petroleum Hydrocarbon Removal and ATP Concentration in Bioremediation of Diesel Contaminated Soil (디젤오염토앙의 생물학적 복원에 있어서 유기질비료의 첨가가 석유계 탄화수소의 분해 및 ATP 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Joo-Heon;Jun, Kwan-Soo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.28 no.7
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    • pp.721-730
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    • 2006
  • The effects of compost amendment on the removal of petroleum hydrocarbons and the activities of microorganisms in soil ecosystem have been studied in bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil. The relation between biological activities and removal of petroleun hydrocarbon was determined by ATP(Adenisine Triphosphate), n-alkanes and TPH concentration analysis. After 80 days of bioremediation, the removal of TPH in soil amended with compost increased more than 10% compared with control soil which was tilled in the same condition without compost addition. The biodegradations of n-alkanes having 12 to 20 moles of carbon were distinctive. As the soil was contaminated with more diesel, the ATP has decreased rapidly. When the TPH amounted to 80,000 mg diesel/kg, the ATP decreased to 4 ng/g from initial concentration of 65 ng/g. While the ATP in the compost amended soil increased to 112 ng/g after tilling for 6 days, the ATP in the control increased to merely 36 ng/g after tilling for 14 days. Also while the control soil showed a lag time in ATP increase, the compost amended soil did not show that but showed a rapid ATP increase within a short time. The patterns of changes in ATP concentration were similar to those in daily removals of TPH with time difference of about 7 days.

Ginsenoside $Rg_3$ Increases the ATP-sensitive $K^+$ Channel Activity in the Smooth Muscle of the Rabbit Coronary Artery

  • Chung Induk;Lee Jeong-Sun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.235-238
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    • 1999
  • ATP-sensitive $K^+$ channels $(K_{ATP})$ are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells, skeletal muscle cells, pancreatic ${\beta}$ cells, neurons and epithelial cells. $K_{ATP}$ contributes to regulate membrane potential to control vascular tone, to protect myocardial ischemia, and to regulate insulin secretion in pancreatic ${\beta}$ cells. We previously demonstrated that ginseng saponins and ginsenoside $Rg_3$ activated maxi $Ca^{2+}-activated\;K^+$ channel, and this might cause vasodilation. Because $K_{ATP}$ plays an important roles to regulate the resting membrane potential in vascular smooth muscle cells, we investigated whether ginsenoside $Rg_3$ produces vasodilation by activating $K_{ATP}$ We showed in this study that $K_{ATP}$ is expressed in rabbit coronary artery smooth muscle cells. $K_{ATP}$ was inwardly rectifying and was inhibited by intemal application of ATP. Micromolar minoxidil activated, but glyburide inhibited the activity of $K_{ATP}$ Ginsenoside $Rg_3$ relieved inactivaiton of whole-cell $K_{ATP}$ current without affecting the peak amplitude of $K_{ATP}$ currents presumably due to more opening of the channels.

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Rapid Microbiological Assessment Method by using ATP-Bioluminescence in Ginseng Powder (ATP-Bioluminescence를 이용한 인삼분말의 미생물 신속검사법)

  • 곽이성;김천석;송용범;고셩룡
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.127-129
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    • 2001
  • Bioluminescence technique was applied to ginseng powders. ATP bioluminescence can be used as a rapid method that can be implemented for microbiological monitoring of contaminated ginseng powders. The RLU (relative light units) of ATP was proportion to bacterial CFU (colony forming units) when in high contaminated ginseng powders ($\geq$ about 1.0$\times$10$^4$CFU/g). However, when in low contaminated ginseng powders ($\times$10$^4$CFU/g), the RLU was not proportion to CFU, respectively.

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The comparison of household health care expenditure and income elasticity by ability to pay levels. (지불능력에 따른 가계지출 보건의료비의 차이와 소득탄력도 비교)

  • Shin Seung Ho;Kim Chang Soon;Kim Han Joong
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.75-87
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this paper is to compare the amount of household health expenditures (HHE) and the proportion of health care expenditure to the household expenditure by ability to pay(ATP) levels. This study has focused on the influence of household ATP on HHE, estimating elasticity of health care expenditures for different ATP groups. For the empirical analysis, the Urban Households Survey Data of 2002 have been used. Our principal findings show that HHE are sensitive to changes in household ATP levels and that the group which is most responsive to changes in A TP level is the lower ATP group. These suggest that as households have less ATP, households with lower ATP reduce expenditures on health care in a proportional manner than those with higher ATP.

ATP-Induced Histamine Release Is in Part Related to Phospholipase $A_2$-Mediated Arachidonic Acid Metabolism in Rat Peritoneal Mast Cells

  • Lee, Yun-Hye;Lee, Seung-Jun;Seo, Moo-Hyun;Kim, Chang-Jong;Sim, Sang-Soo
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.552-556
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    • 2001
  • Histamine and arachidonic acid (AA) release was measured using the P2-purinoceptor antaongists, phospholipase $A_2{\;}(PLA_2)$ and cyclooxygenase (COX)/lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors to determine whether or not ATP-induced histamine release is associated with arachidonic acid (AA) release in rat peritoneal mast cells. ATP increased histamine release in a dose dependent manner, whereas adenosine did not. PPADS (a selective P2X-purinoceptor antagonist) and suramin (a nonselective P2X,2Y-purinoceptor antagonist) inhibited ATP-induced histamine release in a dose dependent manner. However, RB-2 (a P2Y-purinoceptor antagonist) did not block ATP-induced histamine release. Manoalide and oleyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (OPC), secretory PLA$_2$ inhibitors, also inhibited ATP-induced histamine release dose-dependently. Both COX inhibitors (ibuprofen and indomethacin) and LOX inhibitors (baicalein and caffeic acid) inhibited ATP-induced histamine in a dose dependent manner. ATP significantly increased [$^3H$]AA release by 54%. PPADS and suramin significantly inhibited ATP-induced [3H]Ph release by 81% and 39%, respectively. ATP-induced histamine release was significantly inhibited by a variety of protein kinase inhibitors, such as bisindolmaleimide, genistein, methyl 2,5-dihydroxycinnamate, W-7 and trifluoperazine. Overall, the results suggest that ATP-induced histamine release is in part related to the PLA2-mediated AA metabolism and P2X-purinoceptors.

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Activation of ATP-sensitive Potassium Channels by the Predominant Metabolite of Isoflurane in Rabbit Ventricular Myocytes

  • Han, Jin;Kim, Na-Ri;Kim, Eui-Yong;Kim, Sung-Ju;Cho, Kang-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.165-175
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    • 2001
  • Background: Recent in vivo experimental evidence suggests that isoflurane-induced cardioprotection may involve $K_{ATP}$ channel activation. However, it was demonstrated that isoflurane inhibited $K_{ATP}$ channel activities in the inside-out patch mode. To explain this discrepancy, the present investigation tested the hypothesis that a metabolite of isoflurane, trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), contributes to isoflurnae-induced cardioprotection via $K_{ATP}$ channel activation during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. Methods: Single ventricular myocytes were isolated from rabbit hearts by an enzymatic dissociation procedure. Patch-clamp techniques were used to record single-channel currents. $K_{ATP}$ channel activities were assessed before and after the application of TFA with the inside-out patch mode. Results: TFA enhanced channel activity in a concentration-dependent fashion. The concentration of TFA for half-maximal activation and the Hill coefficient were 0.03 mM and 1.2, respectively. TFA did not affect the single channel conductance of $K_{ATP}$ channels. Analysis of open and closed time distributions showed that TFA increased burst duration and decreased the interburst interval without changes in open and closed time distributions shorter than 5 ms. TFA diminished ATP sensitivity of $K_{ATP}$ channels in a concentration-response relationship for ATP. Conclusions: TFA, a metabolite of isoflurane, enhanced $K_{ATP}$ channel activity in a concentration-dependent fashion. These results imply that TFA could mediate isoflurane-induced cardioprotection via $K_{ATP}$ channel activation during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion.

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In-vitro Production of Glutathione Using Yeast ATP Regeneration System and Recombinant Synthetic Enzymes from Escherichia coli. (효모의 ATP 재생산계와 대장균 유래의 재조합 생산효소를 이용한 in vitro 글루타치온 생산)

  • 고성영;구윤모
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.213-220
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    • 1998
  • An ATP regeneration system was used for the production of glutathione which was synthesized by a sequential action of ${\gamma}$-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase and glutathione synthetase. The synthetases above were produced in the recombinant E. coli (TG1/pDG7) with the highest specific production yield of 31 mg glutathione/g wet cell. Bakers yeast was considered to have economically a better ATP regeneration system although the glutathione production yield was lower than that of acetate kinase. It was also observed that the ATP regeneration system of bakers yeast was superior to that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC24858. The yield of glutathione production with bakers yeast was 36% with the ATP concentration of 5 mM. To avoid the cysteine limitation during the early phase of glutatione production, an extra cysteine was added at 2 hours after reaction and the production yield increased 1.91 times. The effectiveness of bakers yeast as an ATP regeneration system was proved by several sets of extra feeding experiments. The product inhibition by glutathione above 14 mM was also observed.

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Eugenol Inhibits ATP-induced P2X Currents in Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons

  • Li, Hai Ying;Lee, Byung-Ky;Kim, Joong-Soo;Jung, Sung-Jun;Oh, Seog-Bae
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.315-321
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    • 2008
  • Eugenol is widely used in dentistry to relieve pain. We have recently demonstrated voltage-gated $Na^+$ and $Ca^{2+}$ channels as molecular targets for its analgesic effects, and hypothesized that eugenol acts on $P2X_3$, another pain receptor expressed in trigeminal ganglion (TG), and tested the effects of eugenol by whole-cell patch clamp and $Ca^{2+}$ imaging techniques. In the present study, we investigated whether eugenol would modulate 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-induced currents in rat TG neurons and $P2X_3$-expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. ATP-induced currents in TG neurons exhibited electrophysiological properties similar to those in HEK293 cells, and both ATP- and $\alpha$, $\beta$-meATP-induced currents in TG neurons were effectively blocked by TNP-ATP, suggesting that $P2X_3$ mediates the majority of ATP-induced currents in TG neurons. Eugenol inhibited ATP-induced currents in both capsaicin-sensitive and capsaicin-insensitive TG neurons with similar extent, and most ATP-responsive neurons were IB4-positive. Eugenol inhibited not only $Ca^{2+}$ transients evoked by $\alpha$, $\beta$-meATP, the selective $P2X_3$ agonist, in capsaicin-insensitive TG neurons, but also ATP-induced currents in $P2X_3$-expressing HEK293 cells without co-expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). We suggest, therefore, that eugenol inhibits $P2X_3$ currents in a TRPV1-independent manner, which contributes to its analgesic effect.