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Metabolic Characteristic of the Liver of Dairy Cows during Ketosis Based on Comparative Proteomics

  • Xu, Chuang;Wang, Zhe;Liu, Guowen;Li, Xiaobing;Xie, Guanghong;Xia, Cheng;Zhang, Hong You
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.7
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    • pp.1003-1010
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    • 2008
  • The objective of the present study was to identify differences in the expression levels of liver proteins between healthy and ketotic cows, establish a liver metabolic interrelationship of ketosis and elucidate the metabolic characteristics of the liver during ketosis. Liver samples from 8 healthy multiparous Hostein cows and 8 ketotic cows were pooled by health status and the proteins were separated by two-dimensional-electrophoresis (2D-E). Statistical analysis of gels was performed using PDQuest software 8.0. The differences in the expression levels of liver proteins (p<0.05) between ketotic and healthy cows were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF-TOF) tandem mass spectrometry. Five enzymes/proteins were identified as being differentially expressed in the livers of ketotic cows: expression of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase type-2 (HCDH), acetyl-coenzyme A acetyltransferase 2 (ACAT) and elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) were down-regulated, whereas that of alpha-enolase and creatine kinase were up-regulated. On the basis of this evidence, it could be presumed that the decreased expression of HCDH, which is caused by high concentrations of acetyl-CoA in hepatic cells, in the livers of ketotic cows, implies reduced fatty acid ??oxidation. The resultant high concentrations of acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl CoA would depress the level of ACAT and generate more ??hydroxybutyric acid; high concentrations of acetyl-CoA would also accelerate the Krebs Cycle and produce more ATP, which is stored as phosphocreatine, as a consequence of increased expression of creatine kinase. The low expression level of elongation factor Tu in the livers of ketotic cows indicates decreased levels of protein synthesis due to the limited availability of amino acids, because the most glucogenic amino acids sustain the glyconeogenesis pathway; thus increasing the level of alpha-enolase. Decreased protein synthesis also promotes the conversion of amino acids to oxaloacetate, which drives the Krebs Cycle under conditions of high levels of acetyl-CoA. It is concluded that the livers of ketotic cows possess high concentrations of acetyl-CoA, which through negative feedback inhibited fatty acid oxidation; show decreased fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis and protein synthesis; and increased gluconeogenesis and energy production.

A Study on the Inhibitory Effect of Yeongdamsagantang on Alzheimer in $A{\beta}-oligomer-induced$ Neuro 2A Cell Lines (($A{\beta}-oligomer$로 유도된 Neuro2A 세포주에서 용담사간탕(龍膽瀉肝湯)의 치매 억제 효과)

  • Kim, Hae-Su;Shin, Yoo-Jeong;Park, Jong-Hyuk;Kim, Seung-Mo;Paek, Kyung-Min;Park, Chi-Sang
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.151-164
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    • 2008
  • Objective: To investigate the effects of Yeongdamsagantang (YDGT) on apoptosis of neuronal cells that can result in dementia. Method: The water extract of the YDGT was tested in vitro for its beneficial effects on neuronal survival and neuroprotective functions, particularly in connection with $A{\beta}$ oligomer-related dementias. $A{\beta}$ oligomers derived from proteolytic processing of the ${\beta}-amyloid$ precursor protein (APP), including the $amyloid-{\beta}$ peptide $(A{\beta})$, play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. A neuroblastoma cell line stably expressing an $A{\beta}$ oligomerassociated neuronal degeneration was used to investigate if YDGT inhibits formation of $A{\beta}$ oligomer. To measure the ATP generating level in mitochondrial membrane, luciferin/luciferase luminescence kit (Promega) and luminator was used, and to survey the protein's apparition, confocal microscopy was used. Result: $A{\beta}oligomer$ had a profound attenuation in the increase in CT105 expressing neuro2A cells from YDGT. Experimental evidence indicates that YDGT protected against neuronal damage from cells, but its cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. We demonstrated that YDGT inhibited formation of $amyloid-{\beta}$ $(A{\beta})$ oligomers, which were the behavior, and possibly causative, features of AD. The decreased $A{\beta}$ oligomer in the presence of YDGT was observed in the conditioned medium of this $A{\beta}oligomer-secreting$ cell line under in vitro. In the cells, YDGT significantly attenuated mitochondrion-initiated apoptosis. Conclusion: (i) a direct $A{\beta}$ oligomer toxicity and the apoptosis initiated by the mitochondria; and (ii) multiple cellular and molecular neuroprotective mechanisms, including attenuation of apoptosis and direct inhibition of $A{\beta}$ oligomer aggregation, underlie the neuroprotective effects of YDGT.

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Effects of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids-enriched Diet Supplemented with Different Levels of α-Tocopherol on Lipid Metabolism in Laying Tsaiya Ducks

  • Chen, Tian-Fwu;Hsu, Jenn-Chung
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.1562-1569
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    • 2004
  • The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs)-enriched diet supplemented with different levels of $\alpha$-tocopherol on the activities of hepatic lipogenic-related enzymes and the contents of liver and plasma lipid fractions in laying Tsaiya ducks. A total of 180 30-wk-old laying Tsaiya ducks, at the beginning of peak production, were allotted into 6 treatments with 3 replicates each. Ducks were fed one of the 6 experimental diets, containing 4% tallow (control), and 4% fish oil supplemented with graded levels of $\alpha$-tocopheryl acetate ($\alpha$-tocopherol) at 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg, respectively, for 6 wks. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period. The results indicated that the n-3 PUFAsenriched diet supplemented with different levels of $\alpha$-tocopherol did not affect (p>0.05) egg weight, feed intake, body weight change or liver and abdominal fat weights. Egg production, egg mass and feed efficiency significantly (p<0.05) improved as dietary $\alpha$-tocopherol levels increased. The activities of hepatic lipogenic-related enzymes including acetyl-CoA carboxylase (EC 6. 2. 1. 3; ACC), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1. 1. 1. 49; G-6-PDH), ATP-citrate cleavage enzyme (EC 4. 1. 3. 8; CCE), NADP-malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.40; NADP-MDH) and fatty acid synthetase (FAS) were higher (p<0.05) in birds fed with the tallow diet than in those fed with fish oil diets and increased with increasing dietary $\alpha$-tocopherol levels. None of the dietary treatments significantly affected the contents of triglyceride and total cholesterol in the liver, or total cholesterol, phospholipid and total lipid in the plasma. However, the contents of phospholipid and total lipid in the liver, and triglyceride in the plasma increased as dietary $\alpha$-tocopherol levels increased. Increasing dietary $\alpha$-tocopherol levels decreased the non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) content in the plasma and trended to decrease the cholesterol contents in the egg yolk. The lipid metabolism of laying Tsaiya ducks was influenced not only by the dietary fat but also by the supplementation levels of $\alpha$-tocopherol.

A Effective Ant Colony Algorithm applied to the Graph Coloring Problem (그래프 착색 문제에 적용된 효과적인 Ant Colony Algorithm에 관한 연구)

  • Ahn, Sang-Huck;Lee, Seung-Gwan;Chung, Tae-Choong
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartB
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    • v.11B no.2
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    • pp.221-226
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    • 2004
  • Ant Colony System(ACS) Algorithm is new meta-heuristic for hard combinational optimization problem. It is a population-based approach that uses exploitation of positive feedback as well as greedy search. Recently, various methods and solutions are proposed to solve optimal solution of graph coloring problem that assign to color for adjacency node($v_i, v_j$) that they has not same color. In this paper introducing ANTCOL Algorithm that is method to solve solution by Ant Colony System algorithm that is not method that it is known well as solution of existent graph coloring problem. After introducing ACS algorithm and Assignment Type Problem, show the wav how to apply ACS to solve ATP And compare graph coloring result and execution time when use existent generating functions(ANT_Random, ANT_LF, ANT_SL, ANT_DSATUR, ANT_RLF method) with ANT_XRLF method that use XRLF that apply Randomize to RLF to solve ANTCOL. Also compare graph coloring result and execution time when use method to add re-search to ANT_XRLF(ANT_XRLF_R) with existent generating functions.

Structural and Functional Analysis of Nitrogenase Fe Protein with MgADP bound and Amino Acid Substitutions (MgADP 결합 및 아미노산 치환 Nitrogenase Fe 단백질의 구조 및 기능 분석)

  • Jeong, Mi-Suk;Jang, Se-Bok
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.752-760
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    • 2004
  • The function of the [4Fe-4S] cluster containing iron (Fe-) protein in nitrogenase catalysis is to serve as the nucleotide-dependent electron donor to the MoFe protein which contains the sites for substrate binding and reduction. The ability of the Fe protein to function in this manner is dependent on its ability to adopt the appropriate conformation for productive interaction with the MoFe protein and on its ability to change redox potentials to provide the driving force required for electron transfer. The MgADP-bound (or off) conformational state of the nitrogenase Fe protein structure described reveals mechanisms for long-range communication from the nucleotide-binding sites to control affinity of association with the MoFe protein component. Two pathways, termed switches I and II, appear to be integral to this nucleotide signal transduction mechanism. In addition, the structure of the MgADP bound Fe protein provides the basis for the changes in the biophysical properties of the [4Fe-4S] observed when Fe protein binds nucleotides. The structures of the nitrogenase Fe protein with defined amino acid substitutions in the nucleotide dependent signal transduction pathways of the Switch I and Switch II have been determined by X-ray diffraction methods. These two pathways have been also implicated by site directed mutagenesis studies, structural analysis and analogies to other proteins that utilize similar nucleotide dependent signal transduction pathways. We have examined the validity of the assignment of these pathways in linking the signals generated by MgATP binding and hydrolysis to macromolecular complex formation and intermolecular electron transfer. The results provide a structural basis for the observed biophysical and biochemical properties of the Fe protein variants and interactions within the nitrogenase Fe protein-MoFe protein complex.

The Acute Effect of Trimetazidine on the High Frequency Fatigue in the Isolated Rat Diaphragm Muscle

  • Emre, Mustafa;Karayaylali, Lbrahim;San, Mustafa;Demirkazik, Ayse;Kavak, Servet
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.646-652
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    • 2004
  • The objective of this study was to determine the acute effect of trimetazidine (TMZ) on the pre-fatigue, fatigue and post-fatigue contractile characteristics and tension-frequency relationships of isolated rat diaphragm muscle. Muscle strips were taken from the ventral-costal aspects of the diaphragm muscle of rats killed by decapitation. The muscle strips were suspended in organ baths containing Krebs solution, with a gas mixture of 95% $O_2$ and 5% $CO_2$ at $37^{\circ}C$ and pH 7.35-7.45. After determining the thermoregulation and optimum muscle length the muscles were subjected to direct supramaximal stimulation with 0.05 Hz frequency square pulses for periods of 0.5 msec to obtain control values. After adding $5{\times}10^{-6}{\;}and{\;}5{\times}10^{-5}$ M trimetazidine solution to the respective bath media, the contractile parameters of the muscles were recorded. The contractile parameters were also recorded for both the trimetazidine and tri-metazidine-free media after application of the high frequency fatigue protocols. Later, the tension-frequency relationship was determined by applying stimulating pulses of 10, 20, 50 and 100 Hz to the muscle strips. Whilst the twitch tension obtained from the $5{\times}10^{-6}{\;}and{\;}5{\times}10^{-5}$ M trimetazidine media showed numerical increases compared to that of the controls, these were not statistically significant (p>0.05). The contraction time exhibited a dose dependent increase (p<0.001), whilst the contraction and relaxation rates did not differ significantly. The isometric contraction forces obtained with the different stimulating frequencies showed a significant increase in the tetanic contraction only at 100 Hz (p<0.05). A comparison of the pre- and post-fatigue twitch tensions in the trimetazidine media showed the post- fatigue twitch tensions to be significantly higher than those of the pre-fatigue contraction forces (p<0.05). In the $5{\times}10^{-6}{\;}and{\;}5{\times}10^{-5}$ M trimetazidine media the increases in the post-fatigue contraction force were 22 and 30%, respectively. These results demonstrated that in isolated rat diaphragm muscle, TMZ significantly limited the mechanical performance decrease during fatigue. It is our opinion that trimetazidine contributed to the observed fatigue tolerance by eliminating the factors of fatigue, due to preservation of intracellular calcium homeostasis, provision of the ATP energy levels needed by ATPase dependent pumps and especially by keeping the intracellular pH within cer-tain limits.

Studies on Taste Compounds in Alaska Pollack Sikhae during Fermentation (전통 명태식해 숙성중의 정미성분에 관한 연구)

  • Cha, Yong-Jun;Kim, So-Jung;Kim, Eun-Jeong;Kim, Hun;cho, Woo-Jin;Yoo, Mi-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.9
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    • pp.1515-1521
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    • 2004
  • As one of the research series for the industrialization of sikhae, this study was evaluated the taste compounds present in different temperature conditions, $5^{\circ}C$, $20^{\circ}C$ and alternating temperature (stored at $5^{\circ}C$ after 10 days fermentation at $20^{\circ}C$), respectively. The changes in proximate compositions were negligible but the amounts of total sugar decreased during fermentation. The pH of sikhae products except the product fermented at $5^{\circ}C$, decreased during fermentation and was maintained at the rage of 3.8~4.4 after 10 days. The values of acidity, VBN and amino-N gradually increased with fermentation times and with increasing temperature condition in all products. Three organic acids (lactic, citric and malic acid) were disclosed as key compounds affecting the sourness in Alaska pollack sikhae. The result of taste value revealed that 6 amino acids having sweet and umami taste (aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine and lysine) and bitter taste (valine and methionine) as major amino acids affecting the taste of sikhae products, and increased with fermentation times. Hypoxanthine was the main component in ATP related compounds. Amino-N was comprised more over 50% of the Ex-N in sikhae products, and followed by total creatinine-N, TMAO-N and TMA-N in that order.

Robust Plan Generation and Dynamic Execution for Intelligent Web Service (지능적인 웹서비스를 위한 강건한 계획 생성과 동적 실행 방법)

  • Hwang, Gyeong-Sun;Lee, Seung-Hui;Lee, Geon-Myeong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems Conference
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    • pp.320-323
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    • 2007
  • 웹 서비스와 같은 분산된 환경에서, 특정 서비스를 수행하기 위해서는 원격의 컴퓨터나 사이트상에서 다중 에이전트들의 협업을 통해 이루어진다. 이때 서비스는 여러 에이전트들의 복잡한 행위들에 의해 구성된다. 또한 지능적인 서비스를 위해서는 에이전트들의 상태정보, 목적정보, 그리고 계획정보 등을 이용한다. 특히 계획정보는 에이전트들이 일련의 행위들로 구성된다. 하지만 계획수립을 위한, 기존 연구들 대부분은 정적으로 기술된 서비스 명세와 초기상태 정보를 이용하여 특정 목표를 만족시키는 단일 계획 생성 방법을 연구해왔다. 따라서 계획수립이 실행 도중에 기대하지 않은 네트워크 장애나 방해 등으로 서비스 수행을 실패하는 경우, 그 계획은 무효가 되고 다시 계획을 생성 해야만 한다. 그러나 다시 계획을 생성하기 위해서는 많은 시간을 소비하게 될 뿐만 아니라 태스크 중복이 불가피하므로 매우 비효율적이다. 이 논문에서는 강건한 계획수립과 그 계획을 실행하기 위한 효과적인 방법을 제안한다. 즉, 계획수립의 재생성을 피하기 위한 방법으로 단일 계획수립 대신에 실행 가능한 다중 계획들로 표현된 강건한 계획을 생성하는 것이다. 강건한 계획의 행위들이 실행되는 동안, 각 단계마다 실행 가능한 행위를 선택한 후, 그 행위를 실행한다. 그러나 선택된 행위가 실행결과를 낼 수 없을 경우, 대체 가능한 서브 계획 경로를 선택하여 실행한다. 강건한 계획을 표현하기 위해 페트리 넷 기반의 방법을 제안한다. 강건한 계획 생성 방법에서는 이용 가능한 모든 계획들을 입력으로 사용한다. 그 계획수립 방법은 HTN 계획수립기로 잘 알려진 JSHOP2 계획수립기내에 구현하였다. 계획 실행 방법으로는 주어진 강건한 계획에 대하여 행위들이 직접 실행하수 있도록 한다.며 용량에 의존하는 양상을 보였다. $H_2O_2$에 의해 유발(誘發)된 DNA의 손상은 catalase와 deferoxamine에 의해 억제되었지만 DPPD는 억제시키지 못했다. 배기음(排氣飮)은 $H_2O_2$에 의해 유발(誘發)된 ATP의 소실을 회복시켰다. 이러한 실험결과 $H_2O_2$에 의해 유발(誘發)된 세포(細胞)의 손상(損傷)은 지질(脂質)의 과산화(過酸化)와는 다른 독립적인 기전에 의해 일어남을 나타낸다. 결론 : 이러한 결과들로 볼 때 Caco-2 세포(細胞)에서 배기음(排氣飮)이 항산화작용(亢酸化作用)보다는 다른 기전을 통하여 Caco-2 세포안에서 산화제(酸化劑)에 의해 유발(誘發)된 세포(細胞)의 사망(死亡)와 DNA의 손상(損傷)을 방지할 수 있다는 것을 가리킨다. 따라서 본 연구(硏究)는 배기음(排氣飮)이 반응성산소기(反應性酸素基)에 의해 매개된 인체(人體) 위장관질환(胃腸管疾患)의 치료(治療)에 사용할 수 있을 가능성(可能性)이 있음을 제시하고 있다.에 이를 이용하여 유가배양시 기질을 공급하는 공정변수로 사용하였다 [8]. 생물학적인 폐수처리장치인 활성 슬러지법에서 미생물의 활성을 측정하는 방법은 아직 그다지 개발되어있지 않다. 본 연구에서는 슬러지의 주 구성원이 미생물인 점에 착안하여 침전시 슬러지층과 상등액의 온도차를 측정하여 대사열량의 발생량을 측정하고 슬러지의 활성을 측정할 수 있는 방법을 개발하였다.enin과 Rhaponticin의 작용(作用)에 의(依)한 것이며, 이는 한의학(韓醫學) 방제(方劑) 원리(原理)인 군신좌사(君臣佐使) 이론(理論)에서 군약(君藥)이 주증(主症)에 주(主)로 작용(作用)하는 약물(藥物)이라는 것을 밝혀주는

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A component based framework for service development of ubiquitous healthcare (유비쿼터스 서비스 개발을 위한 컴포넌트 기반의 서비스 개발 프레임워크)

  • Yang, Won-Seop;Lee, Geon-Myeong;Kim, Won-Jae;Yun, Seok-Jung
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems Conference
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    • pp.324-328
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    • 2007
  • 유비궈터스 헬스케어는 단일화된 서비스가 아니라 다양한 기술들이 복합적으로 결합되어 운용되는 서비스이다. 따라서 서비스의 형태가 고정적이지 않고 매우 다양하게 나타난다. 하지만 실제로 차이가 발생하는 부분은 서비스의 구현에 관한 세부적 내용에서 나타나고, 서비스 운용을 위한 기본 구성요소에 있어서는 큰 차이가 없이 유사한 형태를 가진다. 그 결과 유비쿼터스 헬스케어 서비스 개발 과정에서는 실제 서비스의 구현 외의 통신과 데이터베이스의 이용, 메시지 전달과 같은 중복되는 항목에 대한 고려가 매번 이루어져야 한다. 이것은 개발 과정에 있어 불필요한 비용의 증가를 불러온다. 본 논문에서는 이와 같은 불필요한 비용을 감소시키며 서비스의 개발과 운용이 가능한 유비쿼터스 헬스케어 서비스의 제공을 위한 아키텍처와 서비스 개발을 위한 프레임워크를 제안한다. 제안하는 서비스 제공 아키덱처는 크게 이용자 단말, 유비궈터스 헬스케어 서비스 센터, 외부 기관으로 구성된다. 서비스 개발 프레임워크는 서버와 클라이언트 프레임워크로 구분된다. 서비스 개발 프레임워크는 서비스를 제공하는 서버에서 필요한 유비쿼터스 헬스케어 서비스의 공통 구성요소를 가진다. 서비스의 개발을 위해 우선 프로세스에 대한 정의를 수행하고, 정의된 내용에 따라 필요한 코드 템플릿을 결합하여 서비스의 초기 형태를 만들어낸다. 여기에 각 서비스가 필요로 하는 세부 사항을 작성하는 것으로 서비스의 개발을 수행하게 된다. 제안된 서비스 제공 아키텍처와 서비스 개발 프레임워크를 실제 적용해보기 위해 전림선비대증 환자 진료를 위한 시스템을 설계하고 구현하였다.JSHOP2 계획수립기내에 구현하였다. 계획 실행 방법으로는 주어진 강건한 계획에 대하여 행위들이 직접 실행하수 있도록 한다.며 용량에 의존하는 양상을 보였다. $H_2O_2$에 의해 유발(誘發)된 DNA의 손상은 catalase와 deferoxamine에 의해 억제되었지만 DPPD는 억제시키지 못했다. 배기음(排氣飮)은 $H_2O_2$에 의해 유발(誘發)된 ATP의 소실을 회복시켰다. 이러한 실험결과 $H_2O_2$에 의해 유발(誘發)된 세포(細胞)의 손상(損傷)은 지질(脂質)의 과산화(過酸化)와는 다른 독립적인 기전에 의해 일어남을 나타낸다. 결론 : 이러한 결과들로 볼 때 Caco-2 세포(細胞)에서 배기음(排氣飮)이 항산화작용(亢酸化作用)보다는 다른 기전을 통하여 Caco-2 세포안에서 산화제(酸化劑)에 의해 유발(誘發)된 세포(細胞)의 사망(死亡)와 DNA의 손상(損傷)을 방지할 수 있다는 것을 가리킨다. 따라서 본 연구(硏究)는 배기음(排氣飮)이 반응성산소기(反應性酸素基)에 의해 매개된 인체(人體) 위장관질환(胃腸管疾患)의 치료(治療)에 사용할 수 있을 가능성(可能性)이 있음을 제시하고 있다.에 이를 이용하여 유가배양시 기질을 공급하는 공정변수로 사용하였다 [8]. 생물학적인 폐수처리장치인 활성 슬러지법에서 미생물의 활성을 측정하는 방법은 아직 그다지 개발되어있지 않다. 본 연구에서는 슬러지의 주 구성원이 미생물인 점에 착안하여 침전시 슬러지층과 상등액의 온도차를 측정하여 대사열량의 발생량을 측정하고 슬러지의 활성을 측정할 수 있는 방법을

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Effect of Packaging Method on Physico-Chemical Properties of Chilled Plaice Muscle (포장 방법이 냉장 광어육의 물리$\cdot$화학적 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin Wan-Chul;Song Jae-Chul;Choe Suck-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.168-174
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    • 2005
  • Various changes of physico-chemical characteristics of chilled plaice muscle during storage at $4^{\circ}C$ in vacuum and aerobic packaging methods were examined. As a storaging period become longer, Hunter L, a, b value changes slightely. However, no differences were observed between vacuum and aerobic packaging method. The hardness of plaice muscle after death was $2,232\;dyne/cm^2$. The hardness of vacuum packaged plaice muscle storaged for 4 days was similar to that of aerobic packaged plaice muscle storaged fur 14 days. MFI(Myofibrillar Fragmentation Index) of aerobic and vacuum packaged plaice muscle showed maximum value at storage for 4days and 7 days, respectively. Mg-ATPase activities of mypofibril were increased gradually both of all during storage days. But that of MF from aerobic packaging plaice muscle was higher than that of vacuum packaging plaice muscle.