• Title, Summary, Keyword: ATP

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Effect of Allopurinol on Ultrastructural Changes in Ischemia Reperfusion Injury to Skeletal Muscle of Rats After Graded Periods of Complete Ischemia (흰쥐에서 허혈시간에 따라 재관류후 나타나는 근조직의 미세구조 변화에 allopurinol이 미치는 영향)

  • Paik, Doo-Jin;Chun, Jae-Hong
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.51-62
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    • 1995
  • It has been well known that ischemia and reperfusion injury to skeletal muscle following an acute arterial occlusion causes significant morbidity and mortality. The skeletal muscle, which contains high energy phosphate compounds, has ischemic tolerance. During the ischemia, the ATP is catalyzed to hypoxanthine anaerobically and hypoxanthine dehydrogenase is converted to xanthine oxidase. During reperfusion, the hypoxanthine is catalyzed to xanthine by xanthine oxidase under $O_2$, presence and that results in production of cytotoxic oxygen free radicals. These cytotoxic free radicals, $O_2^-,\;H_{2}O_2,\;OH^-$, are toxic and make lesions in skeletal muscle during reperfusion. The authors perform the present study to investigate the effects of allopurinol, the inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, on reperfused ischemic skeletal muscles by observing the ultrastructural changes of the muscle fibers. A total of 48 healthy Sprague-Dawley rats weighing from 200 g to 250 g were used as experimental animals. Under urethane(3.0mg/kg., IP) anesthesia, lower abdominal incision was done and the left common iliac artery were ligated by using vascular clamp for 1, 2 and 6 hours. The left rectus femoris muscles were obtained at 6 hours after the removal of vascular clamp. In the allopurinol pretreated group, 50mg/kg of allopurinol was administered once a day for 2 days and before 2 hours of ischemia. The specimens were sliced into $1mm^3$ and prepared by routine methods for electron microscopic observations. All preparations were stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate, and then observed with Hitachi -600 transmission electron microscope. The results were as follows: 1. In 1 hour ischemia/6 hours reperfused rectus femoris muscles of rats, decreased glycogen particles and electron density of mitochondrial matrix and dilated terminal cisternae are seen. In 2 hours ischemia/6 hours repersed rectus femoris muscles of rats, mitochondria with electron lucent matrix, irregularly dilated triad and spheromembranous bodies are observed. In 6 hours ischemia/6 hours reperfused rectus femoris muscles of rats, irregularly arranged myofibrils, and many spheromembranous bodies, fat droplets and lysosome are seen. 2. In 1 hour ischemia/6 hours reperfused rectus femoris muscles of rats pretreated with allopurinol, decreased glycogen particle and dilated cisternae of sarcoplasmic reticulum and triad are observed. In 2 hours ischemia/6 hours reperfused rectus femoris muscles of rats pretreated with allopurinol decreased electron density of mitochondrial matrix and spheromembranous bodies are seen. In 6 hours ischemia/6 hours reperfused rectus femoris muscles of rats pretreated with allopurinol, mitochondria with electron lucent matrix, spheromembranous bodies and dilated cisternae of sarcoplasmic reticulum and terminal cistern are observed. The results suggest that the allopurinol attenuates the damages of the skeletal muscles of rats during ischemia and reperfusion.

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Sodium Dependent Taurine Transport into the Choroid Plexus, the Blood-Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier

  • Chung, Suk-Jae;Ramanathan, Vikram;Brett, Claire M.;Giacomini, Kathleen M.
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.7-20
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    • 1995
  • Taurine, a ${\beta}-amino$ acid, plays an important role as a neuromodulator and is necessary for the normal development of the brain. Since de novo synthesis of taurine in the brain is minimal and in vivo studies suggest that taurine dose not cross the blood-brain barrier, we examined whether the choroid plexus, the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier, plays a role in taurine transport in the central nervous system. The uptake of $[^3H]-taurine$ into ATP depleted choroid plexus from rabbit was substantially greater in the presence of an inwardly directed $Na^+$ gradient taurine accumulation was negligible. A transient in side-negative potential gradient enhanced the $Na^+-driven$ uptake of taurine into the tissue slices, suggesting that the transport process is electrogenic, $Na^+-driven$ taurine uptake was saturable with an estimated $V_{max}$ of $111\;{\pm}\;20.2\;nmole/g/15\;min$ and a $K_M\;of\;99.8{\pm}29.9\;{\mu}M$. The estimated coupling ratio of $Na^+$ and taurine was $1.80\;{\pm}\;0.122.$ $Na^+-dependent$ taurine uptake was significantly inhibited by ${\beta}-amino$ acids, but not by ${\alpha}-amino$ acids, indicating that the transporter is selective for ${\beta}-amino$ acids. Since it is known that the physiological concentration of taurine in the CSF is lower than that in the plasma, the active transport system we characterized may face the brush border (i.e., CSF facing) side of the choroid plexus and actively transport taurine out of the CSF. Therefore, we examined in vivo elimination of taurine from the CSF in the rat to determine whether elimination kinetics of taurine from the CSF is consistent with the in vitro study. Using a stereotaxic device, cannulaes were placed into the lateral ventricle and the cisterna magna of the rat. Radio-labelled taurine and inulin (a marker of CSF flow) were injected into the lateral ventricle, and the concentrations of the labelled compounds in the CSF were monitored for upto 3 hrs in the cisterna magna. The apparent clearance of taurine from CSF was greater than the estimated CSF flow (p<0.005) indicating that there is a clearance process in addition to the CSF flow. Taurine distribution into the choroid plexus was at least 10 fold higher than that found in other brain areas (e. g., cerebellum, olfactory bulb and cortex). When unlabelled taurine was co-administered with radio-labelled taurine, the apparent clearance of taurine was reduced (p<0.0l), suggesting a saturable disposition of taurine from CSF. Distribution of taurine into the choroid plexus, cerebellum, olfactory bulb and cortex was similarly diminished, indicating that the saturable uptake of taurine into these tissues is responsible for the non-linear disposition. A pharmacokinetic model involving first order elimination and saturable distribution described these data adequately. The Michaelis-Menten rate constant estimated from in vivo elimination study is similar to that obtained in the in vitro uptake experiment. Collectively, our results demonstrate that taurine is transported in the choroid plexus via a $Na^+-dependent,saturable$ and apparently ${\beta}-amino$ acid selective mechanism. This process may be functionally relevant to taurine homeostasis in the brain.

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Enrichment of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Salted Fish, Chromis notatus (유산균 강화 자리젓 제조)

  • Ko, Young-Hwan;Kim, Chang-Yong;Kang, Dong-Sub;Ha, Jin-Hwan;Kim, Soo-Hyun;Kang, Young-Joo;Song, Dae-Jin
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.200-207
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    • 1991
  • Jariieot is a local food prepared by fermentation of salted fish, Chromis notatus. Since its NaC' content is around 20% like other fermented seafoods, reduction NaCl concentration is desirable to minimize the risk of health hazard. Addition of KCl and enrichment of lactic acid fermentation were attempted to solve the problems resulting from low salt concentration. NaCl and KCl were added to a fish, Chromis notatus simultaneously at concentrations of 10 to 4% and 5 to 2%, respectively. Lactic acid bacteria and glucose at final concentration of 2% were also mixed with the above-salt treated fish to prepare jarijeot. The jarijeot was examined periodically for chemical changes during aging and compared with reference jarijeot containing only 20% of NaCl to find out an appropriate method for quality improvement. The content of ATP and its related compounds was not affected by the concentration of NaCl or the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Nearly no difference in contents of free amino nitrogen, trimethylamine oxide, trimethylamine and volatile basic nitrogen was observed between the jarijeot containing 20% of NaCl only and that containing 10% of NaCl, 5% of KCl, 2% of glucose and cells of Pediococcus halophilus. Moreover, sensory evaluation of both kinds of jarijeots revealed almost the same scores. The number of cells of P. halophilus was maintained at concentration of $10^5$cell/ml for 60days' fermentation in the above mentioned jarijeot containing 10% of NaCl. Its pH was dropped down to 4.2. Accordingly it is possible to prepare jarijeot enriched with lactic acid bacteria if KCl and glucose are added at concentration of 5% and 2%, respectively, in addition to NaCl at a final concentration of 10%.

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Functional Defect and Its Possible Mechanism of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy (당뇨성 심근질환에서의 근장그물 기능이상과 그 작용기전)

  • Kim, Hae-Won;Lee, Hee-Ran;Jang-Yang, Yeon-Jin;Park, Hyoung-Sup;Park, So-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.195-202
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    • 1993
  • Oxidative modification of cellular proteins and lipids may play a role in the development of diabetic complications. Diabetic cardiomyopathy has been suggested to be caused by the intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ overload in the myocardium, which is partly due to the defect of calcium transport of the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). In the present study, the possible mechanism of the functional defect of cardiac SR in diabetic rats was studied. Both of the maximal $Ca^{2+}$ uptake and the affinity for $Ca^{2+}$ were decreased in the diabetic rat SR in comparison with the control. To investigate whether the functional defect of the cardiac SR in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat is associated with the oxidative changes of cardiac SR proteins, the carbonyl group content and glycohemoglobin levels were determined. The increase in carbonyl group content of cardiac SR (2.30 nmols/mg protein, DM; 1.78, control) and in glycohemoglobin level $(13{\sim}17%,\;DM;\;3{\sim}5%,\;control)$ were observed in the diabetics. The extent of increase in calcium transport by phospholamban phosphorylation was greater in the diabetic cardiac SR membranes than that in the control. The phosphorylation levels of phospholamban, as determined by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography with $[{\gamma}^{32}P]ATP$, were increased in diabetic cardiac SR. These results suggest that the impaired cardiac SR function in diabetic rat could be a consequence of the less-phosphorylation of phospholamban in the basal state, which is partly due to the depleted norepinephrine stores in the heart. Furthermore, the oxidative damages in cardiac SR membranes might be one of the additional factors leading to the diabetic cardiomyopathy.

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Inhibitory Effects of Potassium Channel Openers on the Oxytocin-induced Contraction of the Rat Uterus in vitro (쥐자궁근의 운동성에 대한 $K^+$채널 개방제의 이완 작용)

  • Kim, Hee-Jeong;Lee, Mun-Han;Ryu, Pan-Dong
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.191-203
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    • 1994
  • $K^+$ channel openers (KCOs) are known to have a wide range of effects by opening the $K^+$ channel in plasma membranes of various smooth muscles, cardiac muscle and pancreatic ${\beta}-cell$. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 5 types of KCOs, cromakalim, RP49356, pinacidil, nicorandil and diazoxide on the contractility of isolated rat uterus. All KCOs tested inhibited the uterine contraction induced by 0.2 nM oxytocin in a dose-dependent manner. Individual KCO and its $pD_2$ values were cromakalim 6.5, RP49356 6.3, pinacidil 5.92, nicorandil 4.43 and diazoxide 4.18. The relaxant effects of KCO were inhibited by glibenclamide (0.3, 1 and $10\;{\mu}M$) with $pA_2$ values of cromakalim 6.91, RP49356 6.59, pinacidil 6.55, nicorandil 5.97 and diazoxide 6.37. In addition, the relaxant effect of cromakalim or pinacidil was antagonised by TEA, a non-selective $K^+$ channel blocker, but not by apamin. Contractions induced by low concentration of KCI (< 40 mM) were inhibited by cromakalim $(100{\mu}M)$ and nicorandil $(300{\mu}M)$, but those evoked by higher concentration (> 40 mM) of KCI were little affected. In ovariectomized rat uterus, cromakalim dose-dependently inhibited oxytocin-induced contraction and glibenclamide $(10{\mu}M)$ inhibited the relaxant effect of cromakalim with $pD_2$ and $K_B$ values of 7.48 and $1.26{\times}10^{-7}M$, respectively. In estrogen-primed rat uterus, these values were 6.51 and $1.57{\times}10^{-7}M$, respectively, indicating that the cromakalim is less effective on the estrogen-treated uterine smooth muscle. Our results suggest that the KCO-sensitive $K^+$ channels participate in the motility of uterine smooth muscle and such channels are, at least in part, under the control of estrogen. In addition, our data Indicate that the type of $K^+$ channels activated by KCO is ATP-sensitive $K^+$ channels which is blocked by glibenclamide.

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Study on the Role of Metal ions for the Activity of the Mitochondrial $F_1-ATPase$ in Lentinus edodes (표고버섯의 Mitochondrial $F_1-ATPase$ 활성도에 미치는 금속이온의 역할에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Sang-Shin;Min, Tae-Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.122-129
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    • 1994
  • The role of metal ions for the activity of the mitochondrial $F_1-ATPase$ was studied. Removal of non-heme iron ion from the mitochondria by dialysis against chelating agents, 10 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid(EDTA) and 10 mM o-phenanthroline(o-Phe), led to 56% and 49% inactivation of the enzyme, respectively. The enzyme dialyzed against EDTA was reactivated 81% by the addition of 0.5 mM $Fe^{3+}$ and 70% by 0.5 mM $Mg^{2+}$. But, $Fe^{2+}$ did not reactivate the enzyme. Coexistence of 0.5 mM $Fe^{2+}$ and 0.5 mM $Mg^{2+}$ resulted in 95% reactivation of the enzyme, while $Fe^{3+}$ with 0.5 mM $Mg^{2+}$ did not reactivate the enzyme like the effect of $Fe^{2+}$ alone. The enzyme dialyzed against o-Phe showed the similar results. These data showed that $Fe^{3+}$ is predominantly required for the activity of the mitochondrial $F_1-ATPase$ in Lentinus edodes and stimulated the activity of it by $Mg^{2+}$. $Fe^{3+}$ and $Mg^{2+}$ increased enzyme's affinity for substrate, decreasing the Km value 1.67 mM to 0.65 mM.

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THE AFFINITY OF CALMODULIN-AFFIGEL FOR INOSITOL TRIPHOSPHATE KINASE FROM BOVINE BRAIN (소의 뇌 Inositol triphosphate kinase와 Calmodulin-Affigel과의 친화도)

  • Lim, Sung-Woo;Kim, Jung-Hye
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.39-50
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    • 1990
  • The one event on signalling mechanism is the cleavage by adenyl cyclase of ATP into second messenger, cyclic AMP. The other transfer system of inositol metabolism. it is widely recognized that hydrolysis of the minor membrane lipid phosphoinositide bisphosphate($PIP_2$) initiated by occupation of certain receptors and catalyzed by phospholipase C, lead to toe generation of the two intracellular messengers, inositol triphosphate($IP_3$) and diacylglycerol(DG). $IP_3$ is converted to inositol tetrakisphosphate($IP_4$) by $IP_3$ kinase. In the present study, it is that purification of calmodulin is used by phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B chromatography. it's molecular weigh, 17.000 in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In order to observe the affinity between calmodulin (CaM)-Affigel 15 and $IP_3$ kinase, and isolated $IP_3$ kinase, was applied in CaM-Affigel with $Ca^{2+}$ equilibirum buffer and EGTA equilibirum buffer. We compared with binding and elution effect of $IP_3$ kinase in several condition of buffer. In affinity of binding. $Ca^{2+}$ equilibrium buffer was in the most proper condition. and elution, CaM/$Ca^{2+}$ buffer(CE1 10.36, CE2 12. 76pM/min/mg of protein) was effected much more than EGTA buffer(E2 1.48, E3 2.43pM/min/mg of protein), but CaM/$Ca^{2+}$ stimulate the activity of $IP_3$ kinase. And then, several detergents such as sodium deoxycholate, tween 20. cholic acid, polyethylene glycol, chaps were applied. The 0.2% chaps buffer(E2 23.19, E3 8.05pM/min/mg of protein) was the most effective in elution of $IP_3$ kinase.

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The Detection and the Antigenic Analysis of the Hepatitis G Virus in Korea (한국인에서 Hepatitis G Virus (HGV) 검출 및 항원분석에 관한 연구)

  • Yoon, Jae-Deuk;Jee, Young-Mee;Lee, Hong-Rae;Kim, Ki-Soon;Kim, Young-Sun;Lee, Yoon-Sung;Chung, Yoon-Suk;Park, Jeong-Koo;Kim, Ji-Eun;Chung, Sang-In;Lee, Won-Sun;Lee, Won-Bae
    • The Journal of Korean Society of Virology
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.175-182
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    • 1998
  • We investigated the rate of hepatitis G virus infection among 50 patients who were not infected with the hepatitis C virus but showed symptoms of hepatitis. Viral RNA was extracted from the patients' sera and cDNA was synthesized and amplified by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) using random hexamer and 5 primers (470-20-1-77F, 470-20-1-211R, 470-20-1-211R-biotin, GV57-4512MF, GV57-4657MR). The amplified PCR products were confirmed by electrochemiluminescence (ECL), liquid hybridization (LH) and Southern blotting (SB). Among the 50 PCR products, by means of ECL, we found 4 samples to be positive and 5 samples to be indeterminate. The GV45-89M probe (5'-CYCGCTGRTITGGGGTGTACfGGAAGGC-3') was end-labelled with gamma-$^{32}P$ ATP and used for liquid hybridization with the PCR products. By using liquid hybridization, we detected specific bands from 4 positive sera and also from one indeterminate serum as determined by ECL. An 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis of the 9 PCR products which were HGV positive or indeterminate as determined by ECL showed a 160bp band from 4 positive and one indeterminate serum. The 5 PCR products proved to be positive when SB was applied with the GV45-89M probe as well as when LH was applied. LH and SB were shown to have higher sensitivity and specificity than ECL. Two cases among 5 positive cases had relatively high SGOT, SGPT, ALP values when compared with other 48 cases. In summary, we confirmed hepatitis G virus infection in 5 cases among 50 Korean patients showing symptoms of viral hepatitis.

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Purification of Inositol Triphosphate Kinase from Bovine Brain (소의 뇌로부터 Inositol Triphosphate Kinase의 정제)

  • Kim, Jung-Hye;Lee, Jae-Tae
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.46-58
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    • 1996
  • Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate($InsP_3$) is a second messenger for mobilizing intracellular $Ca^{2+}$. It can be dephosphorylated by soluble and particulate forms on $InsP_3$ 5-phosphatase, or phosphorylated to produce inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate($InsP_3$) by $InsP_3$ 3-kinase. These enzymes represent possible targets for the regulation of the $InsP_3/InsP_4$ signal. $InsP_3$ 3-kinase which catalyses th ATP-dependent phosphorylation of $InsP_3$ was purified from bovine brain tissue. All operation were carried out at $4^{\circ}C$. Fresh tissure was homogenized and centrifuged. The supernatant was pooled. Proteins were precipitated from 10% polyethylene glycol, and suspended solution was applied to DEAE cellulose column for chromatography. As the result of above procedure, two isozymes of $InsP_3$ 3-kinase, I and II were obtained. Each isozyme was applied to Matriz green gel, Calmodulin-Affigel 15 column and subsequent phenyl-TSK HPLC column. Specific activites(SA) and fold of puriety were observed at each purification step of chromatography. At DEAE cellulose chromatography, SA were I, 0.6 and II, 4.8 nM/min/mg, and folds were I, 17.2 and II, 16.6. At Matrix green gel chromatography, SA were I, 18 and II, 11 nM/min/mg, folds were I, 62.1 and II, 38.0. At calmodulin-Affigel 15 column chromatography, SA were I, 19 and II, 13 nM/min/mg, folds were I, 65.5 and II, 44.8. Finally $InsP_3$ kinase I and II were purified 3,103-fold and 2,310-fold, and SA were I, 900 and II, 670 nM/min/mg, respectively. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis elucidated 3 distinct fractions of Mr of 145,000, 85,000 and 69,500 from isozyme I, and 2 distinct fractions of Mr of 79,000 and 57,000 from isozyme II.

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Available Components of Cooking Drips, Dark Muscle, Head and Raw Vicera from Skipjack (가다랑어 자숙액, 혈합육, 두부 및 내장의 유효성분)

  • CHOI Yeung Joon;KIM In-Soo;LEE Keun-Woo;KIM Geon-Bae;LEE Nahm-Gull;CHO Young-Je
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.701-708
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    • 1996
  • To evaluate the possibility of using a by-products of skipjack canning as a food or feedstuff, the proximate composition, total and free amino acids, total lipid composition, and nucleotide related compounds were analyzed. The crude protein was highest in dark muscle, while lipid was highest in head. The important total amino acids in by-products were founded to be glycine, glutamic acid, alanine and histidine. The important free amino acids from dark muscle and head were taurine, histidine and anserine. The amounts of histidine, anserine and carnosine in dark muscle was higher than those of cooking drips, head, and raw vicera. The major fatty acids in by-products were palmitic, stearic, oleic and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The inosine and hypoxanthine were important nucleotide related compounds in by-products. The results suggests that by-products from skipjack can be used as food sources and feedstuffs especially for marine fish culture.

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